Mojave Exterminator Prices

Pest control in Mojave for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Household Pests

Mojave Pest Control For Rodents

Pest Control is an exclusive to audio[1]Doctor Who story, produced as part of BBC Books' New Series Adventures line, and the first entry in the series to be produced. Written by author Peter Anghelides[2] and read by series star David Tennant,[1] it is also the first non-televised Doctor Who adventure to feature the companion Donna Noble[1][3] (the first standard printed books featuring her were released in autumn 2008). Pest Control was released on CD on 8 May 2008[1] and is also available for download.[2]


The story is accompanied by an original soundtrack and sound effects created by Simon Hunt.[2]

The Doctor and Donna land on the distant planet of Rescension and find themselves caught in a war between humans and the centaur-like Aquabi. When a far greater threat emerges, the Doctor must convince the two sides to work together before they are all wiped out.


Local Pest Control Companies

Pesticide

An IPM boll weevil trap in a cotton field (Manning, South Carolina).

Integrated pest management (IPM), also known as integrated pest control (IPC) is a broad-based approach that integrates practices for economic control of pests. IPM aims to suppress pest populations below the economic injury level (EIL). The UN's Food and Agriculture Organisation defines IPM as "the careful consideration of all available pest control techniques and subsequent integration of appropriate measures that discourage the development of pest populations and keep pesticides and other interventions to levels that are economically justified and reduce or minimize risks to human health and the environment. IPM emphasizes the growth of a healthy crop with the least possible disruption to agro-ecosystems and encourages natural pest control mechanisms."[1]Entomologists and ecologists have urged the adoption of IPM pest control since the 1970s.[2] IPM allows for safer pest control.

The introduction and spread of invasive species can also be managed with IPM by reducing risks while maximizing benefits and reducing costs.[3][4][5]

Shortly after World War II, when synthetic insecticides became widely available, entomologists in California developed the concept of "supervised insect control".[6] Around the same time, entomologists in the US Cotton Belt were advocating a similar approach. Under this scheme, insect control was "supervised" by qualified entomologists and insecticide applications were based on conclusions reached from periodic monitoring of pest and natural-enemy populations. This was viewed as an alternative to calendar-based programs. Supervised control was based on knowledge of the ecology and analysis of projected trends in pest and natural-enemy populations.

Supervised control formed much of the conceptual basis for the "integrated control" that University of California entomologists articulated in the 1950s. Integrated control sought to identify the best mix of chemical and biological controls for a given insect pest. Chemical insecticides were to be used in the manner least disruptive to biological control. The term "integrated" was thus synonymous with "compatible." Chemical controls were to be applied only after regular monitoring indicated that a pest population had reached a level (the economic threshold) that required treatment to prevent the population from reaching a level (the economic injury level) at which economic losses would exceed the cost of the control measures.

IPM extended the concept of integrated control to all classes of pests and was expanded to include all tactics. Controls such as pesticides were to be applied as in integrated control, but these now had to be compatible with tactics for all classes of pests. Other tactics, such as host-plant resistance and cultural manipulations, became part of the IPM framework. IPM combined entomologists, plant pathologists, nematologists and weed scientists.

In the United States, IPM was formulated into national policy in February 1972 when President Richard Nixon directed federal agencies to take steps to advance the application of IPM in all relevant sectors. In 1979, President Jimmy Carter established an interagency IPM Coordinating Committee to ensure development and implementation of IPM practices.[7]

Perry Adkisson and Ray F. Smith received the 1997 World Food Prize for encouraging the use of IPM.[8]

IPM is used in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, human habitations, preventive conservation and general pest control, including structural pest management, turf pest management and ornamental pest management.

An American IPM system is designed around six basic components:[9]

An IPM regime can be simple or sophisticated. Historically, the main focus of IPM programmes was on agricultural insect pests.[11] Although originally developed for agricultural pest management, IPM programmes are now developed to encompass diseases, weeds and other pests that interfere with management objectives for sites such as residential and commercial structures, lawn and turf areas, and home and community gardens.

IPM is the selection and use of pest control actions that will ensure favourable economic, ecological and social consequences[12] and is applicable to most agricultural, public health and amenity pest management situations. The IPM process starts with monitoring, which includes inspection and identification, followed by the establishment of economic injury levels. The economic injury levels set the economic threshold level. That is the point when pest damage (and the benefits of treating the pest) exceed the cost of treatment.[13] This can also be an action threshold level for determining an unacceptable level that is not tied to economic injury. Action thresholds are more common in structural pest management and economic injury levels in classic agricultural pest management. An example of an action threshold is one fly in a hospital operating room is not acceptable, but one fly in a pet kennel would be acceptable. Once a threshold has been crossed by the pest population action steps need to be taken to reduce and control the pest. Integrated pest management employ a variety of actions including cultural controls, including physical barriers, biological controls, including adding and conserving natural predators and enemies to the pest, and finally chemical controls or pesticides. Reliance on knowledge, experience, observation and integration of multiple techniques makes IPM appropriate for organic farming (excluding synthetic pesticides). These may or may not include materials listed on the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI)[14] Although the pesticides and particularly insecticides used in organic farming and organic gardening are generally safer than synthetic pesticides, they are not always more safe or environmentally friendly than synthetic pesticides and can cause harm.[15] For conventional farms IPM can reduce human and environmental exposure to hazardous chemicals, and potentially lower overall costs.

Risk assessment usually includes four issues: 1) characterization of biological control agents, 2) health risks, 3) environmental risks and 4) efficacy.[16]

Mistaken identification of a pest may result in ineffective actions. E.g., plant damage due to over-watering could be mistaken for fungal infection, since many fungal and viral infections arise under moist conditions.

Monitoring begins immediately, before the pest's activity becomes significant. Monitoring of agricultural pests includes tracking soil/planting media fertility and water quality. Overall plant health and resistance to pests is greatly influenced by pH, alkalinity, of dissolved mineral and Oxygen Reduction Potential. Many diseases are waterborne, spread directly by irrigation water and indirectly by splashing.

Once the pest is known, knowledge of its lifecycle provides the optimal intervention points.[17] For example, weeds reproducing from last year's seed can be prevented with mulches and pre-emergent herbicide.

Pest-tolerant crops such as soybeans may not warrant interventions unless the pests are numerous or rapidly increasing. Intervention is warranted if the expected cost of damage by the pest is more than the cost of control. Health hazards may require intervention that is not warranted by economic considerations.

Specific sites may also have varying requirements. E.g., white clover may be acceptable on the sides of a tee box on a golf course, but unacceptable in the fairway where it could confuse the field of play.[18]

Possible interventions include mechanical/physical, cultural, biological and chemical. Mechanical/physical controls include picking pests off plants, or using netting or other material to exclude pests such as birds from grapes or rodents from structures. Cultural controls include keeping an area free of conducive conditions by removing waste or diseased plants, flooding, sanding, and the use of disease-resistant crop varieties.[12] Biological controls are numerous. They include: conservation of natural predators or augmentation of natural predators, Sterile insect technique (SIT).[19]

Augmentation, inoculative release and inundative release are different methods of biological control that affect the target pest in different ways. Augmentative control includes the periodic introduction of predators.[20][21][22][23][24] With inundative release, predators are collected, mass-reared and periodically released in large numbers into the pest area.[25][26][27] This is used for an immediate reduction in host populations, generally for annual crops, but is not suitable for long run use.[28] With inoculative release a limited number of beneficial organisms are introduced at the start of the growing season. This strategy offers long term control as the organism's progeny affect pest populations throughout the season and is common in orchards.[28][29] With seasonal inoculative release the beneficials are collected, mass-reared and released seasonally to maintain the beneficial population. This is commonly used in greenhouses.[29] In America and other western countries, inundative releases are predominant, while Asia and the eastern Europe more commonly use inoculation and occasional introductions.[28]

The Sterile insect technique (SIT) is an Area-Wide IPM program that introduces sterile male pests into the pest population to trick females into (unsuccessful) breeding encounters, providing a form of birth control and reducing reproduction rates.[19] The biological controls mentioned above only appropriate in extreme cases, because in the introduction of new species, or supplementation of naturally occurring species can have detrimental ecosystem effects. Biological controls can be used to stop invasive species or pests, but they can become an introduction path for new pests.[30]

Chemical controls include horticultural oils or the application of insecticides and herbicides. A Green Pest Management IPM program uses pesticides derived from plants, such as botanicals, or other naturally occurring materials.

Pesticides can be classified by their modes of action. Rotating among materials with different modes of action minimizes pest resistance.[12]

Evaluation is the process of assessing whether the intervention was effective, whether it produced unacceptable side effects, whether to continue, revise or abandon the program.[31]

The Green Revolution of the 1960s and '70s introduced sturdier plants that could support the heavier grain loads resulting from intensive fertilizer use. Pesticide imports by 11 Southeast Asian countries grew nearly sevenfold in value between 1990 and 2010, according to FAO statistics, with disastrous results. Rice farmers become accustomed to spraying soon after planting, triggered by signs of the leaf folder moth, which appears early in the growing season. It causes only superficial damage and doesn't reduce yields. In 1986, Indonesia banned 57 pesticides and completely stopped subsidizing their use. Progress was reversed in the 2000s, when growing production capacity, particularly in China, reduced prices. Rice production in Asia more than doubled. But it left farmers believing more is better—whether it's seed, fertilizer, or pesticides.[32]

The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, the farmers' main target, has become increasingly resistant. Since 2008, outbreaks have devastated rice harvests throughout Asia, but not in the Mekong Delta. Reduced spraying allowed natural predators to neutralize planthoppers in Vietnam. In 2010 and 2011, massive planthopper outbreaks hit 400,000 hectares of Thai rice fields, causing losses of about $64 million. The Thai government is now pushing the "no spray in the first 40 days" approach.[32]

By contrast early spraying kills frogs, spiders, wasps and dragonflies that prey on the later-arriving and dangerous planthopper and produced resistant strains. Planthoppers now require pesticide doses 500 times greater than originally. Overuse indiscriminately kills beneficial insects and decimates bird and amphibian populations. Pesticides are suspected of harming human health and became a common means for rural Asians to commit suicide.[32]

In 2001, scientists challenged 950 Vietnamese farmers to try IPM. In one plot, each farmer grew rice using their usual amounts of seed and fertilizer, applying pesticide as they chose. In a nearby plot, less seed and fertilizer were used and no pesticides were applied for 40 days after planting. Yields from the experimental plots was as good or better and costs were lower, generating 8% to 10% more net income. The experiment led to the "three reductions, three gains" campaign, claiming that cutting the use of seed, fertilizer and pesticide would boost yield, quality and income. Posters, leaflets, TV commercials and a 2004 radio soap opera that featured a rice farmer who gradually accepted the changes. It didn't hurt that a 2006 planthopper outbreak hit farmers using insecticides harder than those who didn't. Mekong Delta farmers cut insecticide spraying from five times per crop cycle to zero to one.

The Plant Protection Center and the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) have been encouraging farmers to grow flowers, okra and beans on rice paddy banks, instead of stripping vegetation, as was typical. The plants attract bees and a tiny wasp that eats planthopper eggs, while the vegetables diversify farm incomes.[32]

Agriculture companies offer bundles of pesticides with seeds and fertilizer, with incentives for volume purchases. A proposed law in Vietnam requires licensing pesticide dealers and government approval of advertisements to prevent exaggerated claims. Insecticides that target other pests, such as Scirpophaga incertulas (stem borer), the larvae of moth species that feed on rice plants allegedly yield gains of 21% with proper use.[32]

Mojave

Terminix


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Tejon Bat Removal

Pest control in Tejon for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Rat Infestation

Tejon Pest Control For Rodents

The nematodes (/ˈnɛmətdz/) or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda.[2][3] They are a diverse animal phylum inhabiting a broad range of environments. Nematode species can be difficult to distinguish, and although over 25,000 have been described,[4][5] of which more than half are parasitic, the total number of nematode species has been estimated to be about 1 million.[6] Nematodes are classified along with insects and other moulting animals in the clade Ecdysozoa, and, unlike flatworms, have tubular digestive systems with openings at both ends.

Nematodes have successfully adapted to nearly every ecosystem from marine (salt water) to fresh water, to soils, and from the polar regions to the tropics, as well as the highest to the lowest of elevations. They are ubiquitous in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial environments, where they often outnumber other animals in both individual and species counts, and are found in locations as diverse as mountains, deserts and oceanic trenches. They are found in every part of the earth's lithosphere,[7] even at great depths (0.9–3.6 km) below the surface of the Earth in gold mines in South Africa.[8][9][10][11][12] They represent 90% of all animals on the ocean floor.[13] Their numerical dominance, often exceeding a million individuals per square meter and accounting for about 80% of all individual animals on earth, their diversity of life cycles, and their presence at various trophic levels point at an important role in many ecosystems.[14] The many parasitic forms include pathogens in most plants and animals (including humans).[15] Some nematodes can undergo cryptobiosis.

Nathan Cobb, a nematologist, described the ubiquity of nematodes on Earth thus:

In short, if all the matter in the universe except the nematodes were swept away, our world would still be dimly recognizable, and if, as disembodied spirits, we could then investigate it, we should find its mountains, hills, vales, rivers, lakes, and oceans represented by a film of nematodes. The location of towns would be decipherable, since for every massing of human beings there would be a corresponding massing of certain nematodes. Trees would still stand in ghostly rows representing our streets and highways. The location of the various plants and animals would still be decipherable, and, had we sufficient knowledge, in many cases even their species could be determined by an examination of their erstwhile nematode parasites."[16]

See also: List of nematode families Eophasma jurasicum, a fossilized nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Rhabditia Nippostrongylus brasiliensis Unidentified Anisakidae (Ascaridina: Ascaridoidea) Oxyuridae Threadworm Spiruridae Dirofilaria immitis

In 1758, Linnaeus described some nematode genera (e.g., Ascaris), then included in Vermes.

The name of the group Nematoda, informally called "nematodes", came from Nematoidea, originally defined by Karl Rudolphi (1808),[17] from Ancient Greek νῆμα (nêma, nêmatos, 'thread') and -eiδἠς (-eidēs, 'species'). It was treated as family Nematodes by Burmeister (1837).[17]

At its origin, the "Nematoidea" erroneously included Nematodes and Nematomorpha, attributed by von Siebold (1843). Along with Acanthocephala, Trematoda and Cestoidea, it formed the obsolete group Entozoa,[18] created by Rudolphi (1808).[19] They were also classed along with Acanthocephala in the obsolete phylum Nemathelminthes by Gegenbaur (1859).

In 1861, K. M. Diesing treated the group as order Nematoda.[17] In 1877, the taxon Nematoidea, including the family Gordiidae (horsehair worms), was promoted to the rank of phylum by Ray Lankester. In 1919, Nathan Cobb proposed that nematodes should be recognized alone as a phylum.[20] He argued they should be called "nema" in English rather than "nematodes"[a] and defined the taxon Nemates (later emended as Nemata, Latin plural of nema), listing Nematoidea sensu restricto as a synonym. Since Cobb was the first to exclude all but nematodes from the group, some sources consider the valid taxon name to be Nemates or Nemata, rather than Nematoda.[21]

The phylogenetic relationships of the nematodes and their close relatives among the protostomian Metazoa are unresolved. Traditionally, they were held to be a lineage of their own but in the 1990s, they were proposed to form the group Ecdysozoa together with moulting animals, such as arthropods. The identity of the closest living relatives of the Nematoda has always been considered to be well resolved. Morphological characters and molecular phylogenies agree with placement of the roundworms as a sister taxon to the parasitic Nematomorpha; together they make up the Nematoida. Together with the Scalidophora (formerly Cephalorhyncha), the Nematoida form the clade Cycloneuralia, but much disagreement occurs both between and among the available morphological and molecular data. The Cycloneuralia or the Introverta—depending on the validity of the former—are often ranked as a superphylum.[22]

Due to the lack of knowledge regarding many nematodes, their systematics is contentious. An earliest and influential classification was proposed by Chitwood and Chitwood[23]—later revised by Chitwood[24]—who divided the phylum into two—the Aphasmidia and the Phasmidia. These were later renamed Adenophorea (gland bearers) and Secernentea (secretors), respectively.[25] The Secernentea share several characteristics, including the presence of phasmids, a pair of sensory organs located in the lateral posterior region, and this was used as the basis for this division. This scheme was adhered to in many later classifications, though the Adenophorea were not a uniform group.

Initial studies of incomplete DNA sequences[26] suggested the existence of five clades:[27]

As it seems, the Secernentea are indeed a natural group of closest relatives. But the "Adenophorea" appear to be a paraphyletic assemblage of roundworms simply retaining a good number of ancestral traits. The old Enoplia do not seem to be monophyletic either, but to contain two distinct lineages. The old group "Chromadoria" seem to be another paraphyletic assemblage, with the Monhysterida representing a very ancient minor group of nematodes. Among the Secernentea, the Diplogasteria may need to be united with the Rhabditia, while the Tylenchia might be paraphyletic with the Rhabditia.[28]

The understanding of roundworm systematics and phylogeny as of 2002 is summarised below:

Phylum Nematoda

Later work has suggested the presence of 12 clades.[29] The Secernentea—a group that includes virtually all major animal and plant 'nematode' parasites—apparently arose from within the Adenophorea.

A major effort to improve the systematics of this phylum is in progress and being organised by the 959 Nematode Genomes.[30]

A complete checklist of the World's nematode species can be found in the World Species Index:Nematoda.[31]

An analysis of the mitochondrial DNA suggests that the following groupings are valid[32]

The Ascaridomorpha, Rhabditomorpha and Diplogasteromorpha appear to be related.

The suborders Spirurina and Tylenchina and the infraorders Rhabditomorpha, Panagrolaimomorpha and Tylenchomorpha are paraphytic.

The monophyly of the Ascaridomorph is uncertain.

Internal anatomy of a male C. elegans nematode

Nematodes are slender worms: typically approximately 5 to 100 µm thick, and at least 0.1 mm (0.0039 in) but less than 2.5mm long.[33] The smallest nematodes are microscopic, while free-living species can reach as much as 5 cm (2.0 in), and some parasitic species are larger still, reaching over a meter in length.[34]:271 The body is often ornamented with ridges, rings, bristles, or other distinctive structures.[35]

The head of a nematode is relatively distinct. Whereas the rest of the body is bilaterally symmetrical, the head is radially symmetrical, with sensory bristles and, in many cases, solid 'head-shields' radiating outwards around the mouth. The mouth has either three or six lips, which often bear a series of teeth on their inner edges. An adhesive 'caudal gland' is often found at the tip of the tail.[36]

The epidermis is either a syncytium or a single layer of cells, and is covered by a thick collagenous cuticle. The cuticle is often of complex structure, and may have two or three distinct layers. Underneath the epidermis lies a layer of longitudinal muscle cells. The relatively rigid cuticle works with the muscles to create a hydroskeleton as nematodes lack circumferential muscles. Projections run from the inner surface of muscle cells towards the nerve cords; this is a unique arrangement in the animal kingdom, in which nerve cells normally extend fibres into the muscles rather than vice versa.[36]

The oral cavity is lined with cuticle, which is often strengthened with ridges or other structures, and, especially in carnivorous species, may bear a number of teeth. The mouth often includes a sharp stylet, which the animal can thrust into its prey. In some species, the stylet is hollow, and can be used to suck liquids from plants or animals.[36]

The oral cavity opens into a muscular, sucking pharynx, also lined with cuticle. Digestive glands are found in this region of the gut, producing enzymes that start to break down the food. In stylet-bearing species, these may even be injected into the prey.[36]

There is no stomach, with the pharynx connecting directly to a muscleless intestine that forms the main length of the gut. This produces further enzymes, and also absorbs nutrients through its single cell thick lining. The last portion of the intestine is lined by cuticle, forming a rectum, which expels waste through the anus just below and in front of the tip of the tail. Movement of food through the digestive system is the result of body movements of the worm. The intestine has valves or sphincters at either end to help control the movement of food through the body.[36]

Nitrogenous waste is excreted in the form of ammonia through the body wall, and is not associated with any specific organs. However, the structures for excreting salt to maintain osmoregulation are typically more complex.[36]

In many marine nematodes, one or two unicellular 'renette glands' excrete salt through a pore on the underside of the animal, close to the pharynx. In most other nematodes, these specialised cells have been replaced by an organ consisting of two parallel ducts connected by a single transverse duct. This transverse duct opens into a common canal that runs to the excretory pore.[36]

See also: Muscle arms

Four peripheral nerves run the length of the body on the dorsal, ventral, and lateral surfaces. Each nerve lies within a cord of connective tissue lying beneath the cuticle and between the muscle cells. The ventral nerve is the largest, and has a double structure forward of the excretory pore. The dorsal nerve is responsible for motor control, while the lateral nerves are sensory, and the ventral combines both functions.[36]

The nervous system is also the only place in the nematode body that contains cilia, which are all non-motile and with a sensory function.[37][38]

At the anterior end of the animal, the nerves branch from a dense, circular nerve (nerve ring) round surrounding the pharynx, and serving as the brain. Smaller nerves run forward from the ring to supply the sensory organs of the head.[36]

The bodies of nematodes are covered in numerous sensory bristles and papillae that together provide a sense of touch. Behind the sensory bristles on the head lie two small pits, or 'amphids'. These are well supplied with nerve cells, and are probably chemoreception organs. A few aquatic nematodes possess what appear to be pigmented eye-spots, but is unclear whether or not these are actually sensory in nature.[36]

Extremity of a male nematode showing the spicule, used for copulation. Bar = 100 µm [39]

Most nematode species are dioecious, with separate male and female individuals, though some, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, are androdioecious, consisting of hermaphrodites and rare males. Both sexes possess one or two tubular gonads. In males, the sperm are produced at the end of the gonad and migrate along its length as they mature. The testis opens into a relatively wide seminal vesicle and then during intercourse into a glandular and muscular ejaculatory duct associated with the vas deferens and cloaca. In females, the ovaries each open into an oviduct (in hermaphrodites, the eggs enter a spermatheca first) and then a glandular uterus. The uteri both open into a common vulva/ vagina, usually located in the middle of the morphologically ventral surface.[36]

Reproduction is usually sexual, though hermaphrodites are capable of self-fertilization. Males are usually smaller than females/ hermaphrodites (often much smaller) and often have a characteristically bent or fan-shaped tail. During copulation, one or more chitinized spicules move out of the cloaca and are inserted into the genital pore of the female. Amoeboid sperm crawl along the spicule into the female worm. Nematode sperm is thought to be the only eukaryotic cell without the globular protein G-actin.

Eggs may be embryonated or unembryonated when passed by the female, meaning their fertilized eggs may not yet be developed. A few species are known to be ovoviviparous. The eggs are protected by an outer shell, secreted by the uterus. In free-living roundworms, the eggs hatch into larvae, which appear essentially identical to the adults, except for an underdeveloped reproductive system; in parasitic roundworms, the life cycle is often much more complicated.[36]

Nematodes as a whole possess a wide range of modes of reproduction.[40] Some nematodes, such as Heterorhabditis spp., undergo a process called endotokia matricida: intrauterine birth causing maternal death.[41] Some nematodes are hermaphroditic, and keep their self-fertilized eggs inside the uterus until they hatch. The juvenile nematodes will then ingest the parent nematode. This process is significantly promoted in environments with a low food supply.[41]

The nematode model species Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae exhibit androdioecy, which is very rare among animals. The single genus Meloidogyne (root-knot nematodes) exhibit a range of reproductive modes, including sexual reproduction, facultative sexuality (in which most, but not all, generations reproduce asexually), and both meiotic and mitotic parthenogenesis.

The genus Mesorhabditis exhibits an unusual form of parthenogenesis, in which sperm-producing males copulate with females, but the sperm do not fuse with the ovum. Contact with the sperm is essential for the ovum to begin dividing, but because there is no fusion of the cells, the male contributes no genetic material to the offspring, which are essentially clones of the female.[36]

In free-living species, development usually consists of four molts of the cuticle during growth. Different species feed on materials as varied as algae, fungi, small animals, fecal matter, dead organisms, and living tissues. Free-living marine nematodes are important and abundant members of the meiobenthos. They play an important role in the decomposition process, aid in recycling of nutrients in marine environments, and are sensitive to changes in the environment caused by pollution. One roundworm of note, Caenorhabditis elegans, lives in the soil and has found much use as a model organism. C. elegans has had its entire genome sequenced, as well as the developmental fate of every cell determined, and every neuron mapped.

Eggs (mostly nematodes) from stools of wild primates

Nematodes commonly parasitic on humans include ascarids (Ascaris), filarias, hookworms, pinworms (Enterobius), and whipworms (Trichuris trichiura). The species Trichinella spiralis, commonly known as the 'trichina worm', occurs in rats, pigs, and humans, and is responsible for the disease trichinosis. Baylisascaris usually infests wild animals, but can be deadly to humans, as well. Dirofilaria immitis are known for causing heartworm disease by inhabiting the hearts, arteries, and lungs of dogs and some cats. Haemonchus contortus is one of the most abundant infectious agents in sheep around the world, causing great economic damage to sheep. In contrast, entomopathogenic nematodes parasitize insects and are mostly considered beneficial by humans, but some attack beneficial insects.

One form of nematode is entirely dependent upon fig wasps, which are the sole source of fig fertilization. They prey upon the wasps, riding them from the ripe fig of the wasp's birth to the fig flower of its death, where they kill the wasp, and their offspring await the birth of the next generation of wasps as the fig ripens.

A newly discovered parasitic tetradonematid nematode, Myrmeconema neotropicum, apparently induces fruit mimicry in the tropical ant Cephalotes atratus. Infected ants develop bright red gasters (abdomens), tend to be more sluggish, and walk with their gasters in a conspicuous elevated position. It is likely that these changes cause frugivorous birds to confuse the infected ants for berries, and eat them. Parasite eggs passed in the bird's feces are subsequently collected by foraging Cephalotes atratus and are fed to their larvae, thus completing the life cycle of M. neotropicum.[42]

Colorized electron micrograph of soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera sp.) and egg

Similarly, multiple varieties of nematodes have been found in the abdominal cavities of the primitively social sweat bee, Lasioglossum zephyrum. Inside the female body, the nematode hinders ovarian development and renders the bee less active and thus less effective in pollen collection.[43]

Plant-parasitic nematodes include several groups causing severe crop losses. The most common genera are Aphelenchoides (foliar nematodes), Ditylenchus, Globodera (potato cyst nematodes), Heterodera (soybean cyst nematodes), Longidorus, Meloidogyne (root-knot nematodes), Nacobbus, Pratylenchus (lesion nematodes), Trichodorus and Xiphinema (dagger nematodes). Several phytoparasitic nematode species cause histological damages to roots, including the formation of visible galls (e.g. by root-knot nematodes), which are useful characters for their diagnostic in the field. Some nematode species transmit plant viruses through their feeding activity on roots. One of them is Xiphinema index, vector of grapevine fanleaf virus, an important disease of grapes, another one is Xiphinema diversicaudatum, vector of arabis mosaic virus.

Other nematodes attack bark and forest trees. The most important representative of this group is Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the pine wood nematode, present in Asia and America and recently discovered in Europe.

Play media Anthelmintic effect of papain on Heligmosomoides bakeri

Depending on the species, a nematode may be beneficial or detrimental to plant health. From agricultural and horticulture perspectives, the two categories of nematodes are the predatory ones, which will kill garden pests like cutworms and corn earworm moths, and the pest nematodes, like the root-knot nematode, which attack plants, and those that act as vectors spreading plant viruses between crop plants.[44] Predatory nematodes can be bred by soaking a specific recipe of leaves and other detritus in water, in a dark, cool place, and can even be purchased as an organic form of pest control.

Rotations of plants with nematode-resistant species or varieties is one means of managing parasitic nematode infestations. For example, marigolds, grown over one or more seasons (the effect is cumulative), can be used to control nematodes.[45] Another is treatment with natural antagonists such as the fungus Gliocladium roseum. Chitosan, a natural biocontrol, elicits plant defense responses to destroy parasitic cyst nematodes on roots of soybean, corn, sugar beet, potato, and tomato crops without harming beneficial nematodes in the soil.[46]Soil steaming is an efficient method to kill nematodes before planting a crop, but indiscriminately eliminates both harmful and beneficial soil fauna.

The Golden Nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) is a particularly harmful variety of nematode pest that has resulted in quarantines and crop failures worldwide. CSIRO has found[47] a 13- to 14-fold reduction of nematode population densities in plots having Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) green manure or seed meal in the soil.

Disability-adjusted life year for intestinal nematode infections per 100,000 inhabitants in 2002.   no data   less than 25   25–50   50–75   75–100   100–120   120–140   140–160   160–180   180–200   200–220   220–240   more than 240

A number of intestinal nematodes cause diseases affecting human beings, including ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm disease. Filarial nematodes cause filariasis.

90 percent of nematodes reside in the top 15 cm of soil. Nematodes do not decompose organic matter, but, instead, are parasitic and free-living organisms that feed on living material. Nematodes can effectively regulate bacterial population and community composition - they may eat up to 5,000 bacteria per minute. Also, Nematodes can play an important role in the nitrogen cycle by way of nitrogen mineralization.[33]

One group of carnivorous fungi, the nematophagous fungi, are predators of soil nematodes. They set enticements for the nematodes in the form of lassos or adhesive structures.[48][49][50]

Nematode worms (C. elegans), the focus of an ongoing research project continued on shuttle mission STS-107, survived the Space Shuttle Columbia re-entry breakup. It is believed to be the first known life-form to survive a virtually unprotected atmospheric descent to Earth's surface.[51][52]

  1. ^ "Nematode Fossils". Nematode Fossils [Nematoda]. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2013.
  2. ^ Classification of Animal Parasites
  3. ^ Garcia, Lynne (October 29, 1999). "Classification of Human Parasites, Vectors, and Similar Organisms" (PDF). Los Angeles, California: Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UCLA Medical Center. Retrieved July 21, 2017. 
  4. ^ Hodda, M (2011). "Phylum Nematoda Cobb, 1932. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness". Zootaxa. 3148: 63–95. 
  5. ^ Zhang, Z (2013). "Animal biodiversity: An update of classification and diversity in 2013. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal Biodiversity: An Outline of Higher-level Classification and Survey of Taxonomic Richness (Addenda 2013)". Zootaxa. 3703 (1): 5–11. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3703.1.3. 
  6. ^ Lambshead PJD (1993). "Recent developments in marine benthic biodiversity research". Oceanis. 19 (6): 5–24. 
  7. ^ Borgonie G, García-Moyano A, Litthauer D, Bert W, Bester A, van Heerden E, Möller C, Erasmus M, Onstott TC (June 2011). "Nematoda from the terrestrial deep subsurface of South Africa". Nature. 474 (7349): 79–82. PMID 21637257. doi:10.1038/nature09974. 
  8. ^ Lemonick MD (2011-06-08). "Could 'worms from Hell' mean there's life in space?". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 2011-06-08. 
  9. ^ Bhanoo SN (2011-06-01). "Nematode found in mine is first subsurface multicellular organism". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2011-06-13. 
  10. ^ "Gold mine". Nature. 474 (7349): 6. June 2011. doi:10.1038/474006b. 
  11. ^ Drake N (2011-06-01). "Subterranean worms from hell: Nature News". Nature News. doi:10.1038/news.2011.342. Retrieved 2011-06-13. 
  12. ^ Borgonie G, García-Moyano A, Litthauer D, Bert W, Bester A, van Heerden E, Möller C, Erasmus M, Onstott TC (2011-06-02). "Nematoda from the terrestrial deep subsurface of South Africa". Nature. 474 (7349): 79–82. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 21637257. doi:10.1038/nature09974. 
  13. ^ Danovaro R, Gambi C, Dell'Anno A, Corinaldesi C, Fraschetti S, Vanreusel A, Vincx M, Gooday AJ (January 2008). "Exponential decline of deep-sea ecosystem functioning linked to benthic biodiversity loss". Curr. Biol. 18 (1): 1–8. PMID 18164201. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.11.056. Lay summary – EurekAlert!. 
  14. ^ Platt HM (1994). "foreword". In Lorenzen S, Lorenzen SA. The phylogenetic systematics of freeliving nematodes. London: The Ray Society. ISBN 0-903874-22-9. 
  15. ^ Hsueh YP, Leighton DHW, Sternberg PW. (2014). Nematode Communication. In: Witzany G (ed). Biocommunication of Animals. Springer, 383-407. ISBN 978-94-007-7413-1.
  16. ^ Cobb, Nathan (1914). "Nematodes and their relationships". Yearbook United States Department of Agriculture. United States Department of Agriculture. pp. 457–90.  Quote on p. 472.
  17. ^ a b c Chitwood BG (1957). "The English word "Nema" Revised". Systematic Zoology in Nematology Newsletter. 4 (45): 1619. doi:10.2307/sysbio/6.4.184. 
  18. ^ Siddiqi MR (2000). Tylenchida: parasites of plants and insects. Wallingford, Oxon, UK: CABI Pub. ISBN 0-85199-202-1. 
  19. ^ Schmidt-Rhaesa, A. (2014). Gastrotricha, Cycloneuralia and Gnathifera: General History and Phylogeny. In: Schmidt-Rhaesa, A. (ed.). Handbook of Zoology (founded by W. Kükenthal); Gastrotricha, Cycloneuralia and Gnathifera; Vol 1, Nematomorpha, Priapulida, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera. de Gruyter: Berlin-Boston.
  20. ^ Cobb, N. A. (1919). The orders and classes of nemas. Contrib. Sci. Nematol. 8: 213–216, [1].
  21. ^ "ITIS report: Nematoda". Itis.gov. Retrieved 2012-06-12. 
  22. ^ "Bilateria". Tree of Life Web Project (ToL). January 1, 2002. Retrieved 2008-11-02. 
  23. ^ Chitwood BG, Chitwood MB (1933). "The characters of a protonematode". J Parasitol. 20: 130. 
  24. ^ Chitwood BG (1937). "A revised classification of the Nematoda". Papers on helminthology, 30 year jubileum K.J. Skrjabin. Moscow: All-Union Lenin Academy of Agricultural Sciences. pp. 67–79. 
  25. ^ Chitwood BG (1958). "The designation of official names for higher taxa of invertebrates". Bull Zool Nomencl. 15: 860–95. doi:10.5962/bhl.part.19410. 
  26. ^ Coghlan, Avril (7 September 2005). "Nematode Genome Evolution, WormBook, ed." (PDF). doi:10.1895/wormbook.1.15.1. Retrieved 13 January 2016. 
  27. ^ Blaxter ML, De Ley P, Garey JR, Liu LX, Scheldeman P, Vierstraete A, Vanfleteren JR, Mackey LY, Dorris M, Frisse LM, Vida JT, Thomas WK (March 1998). "A molecular evolutionary framework for the phylum Nematoda". Nature. 392 (6671): 71–5. PMID 9510248. doi:10.1038/32160. 
  28. ^ "Nematoda". Tree of Life Web Project (ToL). 2002-01-01. Retrieved 2008-11-02. 
  29. ^ Holterman M, van der Wurff A, van den Elsen S, van Megen H, Bongers T, Holovachov O, Bakker J, Helder J (2006). "Phylum-wide analysis of SSU rDNA reveals deep phylogenetic relationships among nematodes and accelerated evolution toward crown Clades". Mol Biol Evol. 23 (9): 1792–1800. PMID 16790472. doi:10.1093/molbev/msl044. 
  30. ^ "959 Nematode Genomes – NematodeGenomes". Nematodes.org. 2011-11-11. Retrieved 2012-06-12. 
  31. ^ World Species Index:Nematoda. 2012. 
  32. ^ Liu, GH; Shao, R; Li, JY; Zhou, DH; Li, H; Zhu, XQ (2013). "The complete mitochondrial genomes of three parasitic nematodes of birds: a unique gene order and insights into nematode phylogeny". BMC Genomics. 14 (1): 414. PMC 3693896 . PMID 23800363. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-414. 
  33. ^ a b Nyle C. Brady & Ray R. Weil (2009). Elements of the Nature and Properties of Soils (3rd Edition). Prentice Hall. ISBN 9780135014332. 
  34. ^ Ruppert EE, Fox RS, Barnes RD (2004). Invertebrate Zoology: A Functional Evolutionary Approach (7th ed.). Belmont, California: Brooks/Cole. ISBN 978-0-03-025982-1. 
  35. ^ Weischer B, Brown DJ (2000). An Introduction to Nematodes: General Nematology. Sofia, Bulgaria: Pensoft. pp. 75–76. ISBN 978-954-642-087-9. 
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Barnes RG (1980). Invertebrate zoology. Philadelphia: Sanders College. ISBN 0-03-056747-5. 
  37. ^ The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans
  38. ^ Kavlie, RG; Kernan, MJ; Eberl, DF (May 2010). "Hearing in Drosophila requires TilB, a conserved protein associated with ciliary motility". Genetics. 185: 177–88. PMC 2870953 . PMID 20215474. doi:10.1534/genetics.110.114009. 
  39. ^ Lalošević, V.; Lalošević, D.; Capo, I.; Simin, V.; Galfi, A.; Traversa, D. (2013). "High infection rate of zoonotic Eucoleus aerophilus infection in foxes from Serbia.". Parasite. 20: 3. PMC 3718516 . PMID 23340229. doi:10.1051/parasite/2012003. 
  40. ^ Bell G (1982). The masterpiece of nature: the evolution and genetics of sexuality. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04583-1. 
  41. ^ a b Johnigk SA, Ehlers RU (1999). "Endotokia matricida in hermaphrodites of Heterorhabditis spp. and the effect of the food supply". Nematology. 1 (7–8): 717–726. ISSN 1388-5545. doi:10.1163/156854199508748. 
  42. ^ Yanoviak SP, Kaspari M, Dudley R, Poinar G (April 2008). "Parasite-induced fruit mimicry in a tropical canopy ant". Am. Nat. 171 (4): 536–44. PMID 18279076. doi:10.1086/528968. 
  43. ^ Batra, Suzanne W. T. (1965-10-01). "Organisms Associated with Lasioglossum zephyrum (Hymenoptera: Halictidae)". Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 38 (4): 367–389. JSTOR 25083474. 
  44. ^ Purcell M, Johnson MW, Lebeck LM, Hara AH (1992). "Biological Control of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with Steinernema carpocapsae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) in Corn Used as a Trap Crop". Environmental Entomology. 21 (6): 1441–1447. doi:10.1093/ee/21.6.1441. 
  45. ^ Riotte L (1975). Secrets of companion planting for successful gardening. p. 7. 
  46. ^ US application 2008072494, Stoner RJ, Linden JC, "Micronutrient elicitor for treating nematodes in field crops", published 2008-03-27 
  47. ^ Loothfar R, Tony S (2005-03-22). "Suppression of root knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) after incorporation of Indian mustard cv. Nemfix as green manure and seed meal in vineyards". Australasian Plant Pathology. CSIRO Publishing. 34 (1): 77-83. doi:10.1071/AP04081. Retrieved 2010-06-14. 
  48. ^ Pramer C (1964). "Nematode-trapping fungi". Science. 144 (3617): 382–388. PMID 14169325. doi:10.1126/science.144.3617.382. 
  49. ^ Hauser JT (December 1985). "Nematode-trapping fungi" (PDF). Carnivorous Plant Newsletter. 14 (1): 8–11. 
  50. ^ Ahrén D, Ursing BM, Tunlid A (1998). "Phylogeny of nematode-trapping fungi based on 18S rDNA sequences". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 158 (2): 179–184. PMID 9465391. doi:10.1016/s0378-1097(97)00519-3. 
  51. ^ "Columbia Survivors". 
  52. ^ Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.; McLamb, William; Reed, David; Blumberg, Baruch S.; Conley, Catharine A. (27 December 2005). "Caenorhabditis elegans Survives Atmospheric Breakup of STS - 107, Space Shuttle Columbia". Astrobiology. 5 (6): 690–705. Bibcode:2005AsBio...5..690S. PMID 16379525. doi:10.1089/ast.2005.5.690. Retrieved 12 January 2016. 
Killing Cockroaches

Billy the Exterminator

The application of pest control ranges from do-it-yourself arrangements to
scientific and very precise deployment of chemicals and predatory insects by
highly skilled practitioners. Despite the fact that pest control is a world-wide
industry it is still dominated by family or 1-person businesses. Those that need
to control pests range from householders to
large scale agri-conglomerates who need to maximise their yield. In between
these two are restaurants, bars, food production facilities, farmers - in fact,
anybody that routinely deals with food. Pest control can make us more
comfortable - but can also save lives.

The word pest is subjective as one man's pest may be another man's
helper. For instance, pest A may be a threat to crop A, and pest B a threat to
crop B. However, if pest B is a natural predator to pest A, then the farmer who
wishes to protect crop A may cultivate and release pest B amongst his crops.
There is a theory that without man's intervention in the food chain through
agriculture, hunting and long distance travel there would be no pests. The
theory continues that man's intervention (for instance, in cultivating and
releasing pest B, or in carrying creatures long distances) has upset the balance
of the food chain, producing instability in insect and other animal numbers and
distorting their evolution. This instability has led to over-population of a
given
species with the result that they have become pests. Having said this, if we assume that the very first fly swat was the first
instance of pest control - and we know that large animals swat flies - it could be
argued that pest control dates back way before humans came on the scene.

At this point pest control was carried out by farmers and some householders
as an everyday activity. By the early nineteenth century however, this changed
as studies and writings started to appear that treated pest control as a
separate discipline. Increasing use of intensive and large scale farming brought
matching increases in the intensity and scale of pest scares such as the
disastrous potato famine in Ireland in 1840. Pest control management was scaled
up to meet these demands, to the point that dedicated pest controllers began to
emerge throughout the 20th century.

In 1921 the first crop-spraying aeroplane was employed and in 1962 flying insect control was revolutionized when Insect-o-cutor started selling fly killer
machines using ultra violet lamps.

Pest control is still carried out by farmers and householders to this day.
There are also pest control specialists (sometimes called pesties); many
are one-person businesses and others work for large companies. In most countries
the pest control industry has been dogged by a few bad practitioners who have
tarnished the reputation for the highly professional and responsible majority.

One thing is for certain, from way before the Sumerians of 2500BC to us in modern times, there have always been - and probably always will be - pests (including some human ones!). Thank goodness, therefore, that we have pest controllers.

Tejon

Termite


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Buttonwillow Rat Poison

Pest control in Buttonwillow for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Killing Cockroaches

Buttonwillow Pest Control For Rodents

The nematodes (/ˈnɛmətdz/) or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda.[2][3] They are a diverse animal phylum inhabiting a broad range of environments. Nematode species can be difficult to distinguish, and although over 25,000 have been described,[4][5] of which more than half are parasitic, the total number of nematode species has been estimated to be about 1 million.[6] Nematodes are classified along with insects and other moulting animals in the clade Ecdysozoa, and, unlike flatworms, have tubular digestive systems with openings at both ends.

Nematodes have successfully adapted to nearly every ecosystem from marine (salt water) to fresh water, to soils, and from the polar regions to the tropics, as well as the highest to the lowest of elevations. They are ubiquitous in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial environments, where they often outnumber other animals in both individual and species counts, and are found in locations as diverse as mountains, deserts and oceanic trenches. They are found in every part of the earth's lithosphere,[7] even at great depths (0.9–3.6 km) below the surface of the Earth in gold mines in South Africa.[8][9][10][11][12] They represent 90% of all animals on the ocean floor.[13] Their numerical dominance, often exceeding a million individuals per square meter and accounting for about 80% of all individual animals on earth, their diversity of life cycles, and their presence at various trophic levels point at an important role in many ecosystems.[14] The many parasitic forms include pathogens in most plants and animals (including humans).[15] Some nematodes can undergo cryptobiosis.

Nathan Cobb, a nematologist, described the ubiquity of nematodes on Earth thus:

In short, if all the matter in the universe except the nematodes were swept away, our world would still be dimly recognizable, and if, as disembodied spirits, we could then investigate it, we should find its mountains, hills, vales, rivers, lakes, and oceans represented by a film of nematodes. The location of towns would be decipherable, since for every massing of human beings there would be a corresponding massing of certain nematodes. Trees would still stand in ghostly rows representing our streets and highways. The location of the various plants and animals would still be decipherable, and, had we sufficient knowledge, in many cases even their species could be determined by an examination of their erstwhile nematode parasites."[16]

See also: List of nematode families Eophasma jurasicum, a fossilized nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Rhabditia Nippostrongylus brasiliensis Unidentified Anisakidae (Ascaridina: Ascaridoidea) Oxyuridae Threadworm Spiruridae Dirofilaria immitis

In 1758, Linnaeus described some nematode genera (e.g., Ascaris), then included in Vermes.

The name of the group Nematoda, informally called "nematodes", came from Nematoidea, originally defined by Karl Rudolphi (1808),[17] from Ancient Greek νῆμα (nêma, nêmatos, 'thread') and -eiδἠς (-eidēs, 'species'). It was treated as family Nematodes by Burmeister (1837).[17]

At its origin, the "Nematoidea" erroneously included Nematodes and Nematomorpha, attributed by von Siebold (1843). Along with Acanthocephala, Trematoda and Cestoidea, it formed the obsolete group Entozoa,[18] created by Rudolphi (1808).[19] They were also classed along with Acanthocephala in the obsolete phylum Nemathelminthes by Gegenbaur (1859).

In 1861, K. M. Diesing treated the group as order Nematoda.[17] In 1877, the taxon Nematoidea, including the family Gordiidae (horsehair worms), was promoted to the rank of phylum by Ray Lankester. In 1919, Nathan Cobb proposed that nematodes should be recognized alone as a phylum.[20] He argued they should be called "nema" in English rather than "nematodes"[a] and defined the taxon Nemates (later emended as Nemata, Latin plural of nema), listing Nematoidea sensu restricto as a synonym. Since Cobb was the first to exclude all but nematodes from the group, some sources consider the valid taxon name to be Nemates or Nemata, rather than Nematoda.[21]

The phylogenetic relationships of the nematodes and their close relatives among the protostomian Metazoa are unresolved. Traditionally, they were held to be a lineage of their own but in the 1990s, they were proposed to form the group Ecdysozoa together with moulting animals, such as arthropods. The identity of the closest living relatives of the Nematoda has always been considered to be well resolved. Morphological characters and molecular phylogenies agree with placement of the roundworms as a sister taxon to the parasitic Nematomorpha; together they make up the Nematoida. Together with the Scalidophora (formerly Cephalorhyncha), the Nematoida form the clade Cycloneuralia, but much disagreement occurs both between and among the available morphological and molecular data. The Cycloneuralia or the Introverta—depending on the validity of the former—are often ranked as a superphylum.[22]

Due to the lack of knowledge regarding many nematodes, their systematics is contentious. An earliest and influential classification was proposed by Chitwood and Chitwood[23]—later revised by Chitwood[24]—who divided the phylum into two—the Aphasmidia and the Phasmidia. These were later renamed Adenophorea (gland bearers) and Secernentea (secretors), respectively.[25] The Secernentea share several characteristics, including the presence of phasmids, a pair of sensory organs located in the lateral posterior region, and this was used as the basis for this division. This scheme was adhered to in many later classifications, though the Adenophorea were not a uniform group.

Initial studies of incomplete DNA sequences[26] suggested the existence of five clades:[27]

As it seems, the Secernentea are indeed a natural group of closest relatives. But the "Adenophorea" appear to be a paraphyletic assemblage of roundworms simply retaining a good number of ancestral traits. The old Enoplia do not seem to be monophyletic either, but to contain two distinct lineages. The old group "Chromadoria" seem to be another paraphyletic assemblage, with the Monhysterida representing a very ancient minor group of nematodes. Among the Secernentea, the Diplogasteria may need to be united with the Rhabditia, while the Tylenchia might be paraphyletic with the Rhabditia.[28]

The understanding of roundworm systematics and phylogeny as of 2002 is summarised below:

Phylum Nematoda

Later work has suggested the presence of 12 clades.[29] The Secernentea—a group that includes virtually all major animal and plant 'nematode' parasites—apparently arose from within the Adenophorea.

A major effort to improve the systematics of this phylum is in progress and being organised by the 959 Nematode Genomes.[30]

A complete checklist of the World's nematode species can be found in the World Species Index:Nematoda.[31]

An analysis of the mitochondrial DNA suggests that the following groupings are valid[32]

The Ascaridomorpha, Rhabditomorpha and Diplogasteromorpha appear to be related.

The suborders Spirurina and Tylenchina and the infraorders Rhabditomorpha, Panagrolaimomorpha and Tylenchomorpha are paraphytic.

The monophyly of the Ascaridomorph is uncertain.

Internal anatomy of a male C. elegans nematode

Nematodes are slender worms: typically approximately 5 to 100 µm thick, and at least 0.1 mm (0.0039 in) but less than 2.5mm long.[33] The smallest nematodes are microscopic, while free-living species can reach as much as 5 cm (2.0 in), and some parasitic species are larger still, reaching over a meter in length.[34]:271 The body is often ornamented with ridges, rings, bristles, or other distinctive structures.[35]

The head of a nematode is relatively distinct. Whereas the rest of the body is bilaterally symmetrical, the head is radially symmetrical, with sensory bristles and, in many cases, solid 'head-shields' radiating outwards around the mouth. The mouth has either three or six lips, which often bear a series of teeth on their inner edges. An adhesive 'caudal gland' is often found at the tip of the tail.[36]

The epidermis is either a syncytium or a single layer of cells, and is covered by a thick collagenous cuticle. The cuticle is often of complex structure, and may have two or three distinct layers. Underneath the epidermis lies a layer of longitudinal muscle cells. The relatively rigid cuticle works with the muscles to create a hydroskeleton as nematodes lack circumferential muscles. Projections run from the inner surface of muscle cells towards the nerve cords; this is a unique arrangement in the animal kingdom, in which nerve cells normally extend fibres into the muscles rather than vice versa.[36]

The oral cavity is lined with cuticle, which is often strengthened with ridges or other structures, and, especially in carnivorous species, may bear a number of teeth. The mouth often includes a sharp stylet, which the animal can thrust into its prey. In some species, the stylet is hollow, and can be used to suck liquids from plants or animals.[36]

The oral cavity opens into a muscular, sucking pharynx, also lined with cuticle. Digestive glands are found in this region of the gut, producing enzymes that start to break down the food. In stylet-bearing species, these may even be injected into the prey.[36]

There is no stomach, with the pharynx connecting directly to a muscleless intestine that forms the main length of the gut. This produces further enzymes, and also absorbs nutrients through its single cell thick lining. The last portion of the intestine is lined by cuticle, forming a rectum, which expels waste through the anus just below and in front of the tip of the tail. Movement of food through the digestive system is the result of body movements of the worm. The intestine has valves or sphincters at either end to help control the movement of food through the body.[36]

Nitrogenous waste is excreted in the form of ammonia through the body wall, and is not associated with any specific organs. However, the structures for excreting salt to maintain osmoregulation are typically more complex.[36]

In many marine nematodes, one or two unicellular 'renette glands' excrete salt through a pore on the underside of the animal, close to the pharynx. In most other nematodes, these specialised cells have been replaced by an organ consisting of two parallel ducts connected by a single transverse duct. This transverse duct opens into a common canal that runs to the excretory pore.[36]

See also: Muscle arms

Four peripheral nerves run the length of the body on the dorsal, ventral, and lateral surfaces. Each nerve lies within a cord of connective tissue lying beneath the cuticle and between the muscle cells. The ventral nerve is the largest, and has a double structure forward of the excretory pore. The dorsal nerve is responsible for motor control, while the lateral nerves are sensory, and the ventral combines both functions.[36]

The nervous system is also the only place in the nematode body that contains cilia, which are all non-motile and with a sensory function.[37][38]

At the anterior end of the animal, the nerves branch from a dense, circular nerve (nerve ring) round surrounding the pharynx, and serving as the brain. Smaller nerves run forward from the ring to supply the sensory organs of the head.[36]

The bodies of nematodes are covered in numerous sensory bristles and papillae that together provide a sense of touch. Behind the sensory bristles on the head lie two small pits, or 'amphids'. These are well supplied with nerve cells, and are probably chemoreception organs. A few aquatic nematodes possess what appear to be pigmented eye-spots, but is unclear whether or not these are actually sensory in nature.[36]

Extremity of a male nematode showing the spicule, used for copulation. Bar = 100 µm [39]

Most nematode species are dioecious, with separate male and female individuals, though some, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, are androdioecious, consisting of hermaphrodites and rare males. Both sexes possess one or two tubular gonads. In males, the sperm are produced at the end of the gonad and migrate along its length as they mature. The testis opens into a relatively wide seminal vesicle and then during intercourse into a glandular and muscular ejaculatory duct associated with the vas deferens and cloaca. In females, the ovaries each open into an oviduct (in hermaphrodites, the eggs enter a spermatheca first) and then a glandular uterus. The uteri both open into a common vulva/ vagina, usually located in the middle of the morphologically ventral surface.[36]

Reproduction is usually sexual, though hermaphrodites are capable of self-fertilization. Males are usually smaller than females/ hermaphrodites (often much smaller) and often have a characteristically bent or fan-shaped tail. During copulation, one or more chitinized spicules move out of the cloaca and are inserted into the genital pore of the female. Amoeboid sperm crawl along the spicule into the female worm. Nematode sperm is thought to be the only eukaryotic cell without the globular protein G-actin.

Eggs may be embryonated or unembryonated when passed by the female, meaning their fertilized eggs may not yet be developed. A few species are known to be ovoviviparous. The eggs are protected by an outer shell, secreted by the uterus. In free-living roundworms, the eggs hatch into larvae, which appear essentially identical to the adults, except for an underdeveloped reproductive system; in parasitic roundworms, the life cycle is often much more complicated.[36]

Nematodes as a whole possess a wide range of modes of reproduction.[40] Some nematodes, such as Heterorhabditis spp., undergo a process called endotokia matricida: intrauterine birth causing maternal death.[41] Some nematodes are hermaphroditic, and keep their self-fertilized eggs inside the uterus until they hatch. The juvenile nematodes will then ingest the parent nematode. This process is significantly promoted in environments with a low food supply.[41]

The nematode model species Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae exhibit androdioecy, which is very rare among animals. The single genus Meloidogyne (root-knot nematodes) exhibit a range of reproductive modes, including sexual reproduction, facultative sexuality (in which most, but not all, generations reproduce asexually), and both meiotic and mitotic parthenogenesis.

The genus Mesorhabditis exhibits an unusual form of parthenogenesis, in which sperm-producing males copulate with females, but the sperm do not fuse with the ovum. Contact with the sperm is essential for the ovum to begin dividing, but because there is no fusion of the cells, the male contributes no genetic material to the offspring, which are essentially clones of the female.[36]

In free-living species, development usually consists of four molts of the cuticle during growth. Different species feed on materials as varied as algae, fungi, small animals, fecal matter, dead organisms, and living tissues. Free-living marine nematodes are important and abundant members of the meiobenthos. They play an important role in the decomposition process, aid in recycling of nutrients in marine environments, and are sensitive to changes in the environment caused by pollution. One roundworm of note, Caenorhabditis elegans, lives in the soil and has found much use as a model organism. C. elegans has had its entire genome sequenced, as well as the developmental fate of every cell determined, and every neuron mapped.

Eggs (mostly nematodes) from stools of wild primates

Nematodes commonly parasitic on humans include ascarids (Ascaris), filarias, hookworms, pinworms (Enterobius), and whipworms (Trichuris trichiura). The species Trichinella spiralis, commonly known as the 'trichina worm', occurs in rats, pigs, and humans, and is responsible for the disease trichinosis. Baylisascaris usually infests wild animals, but can be deadly to humans, as well. Dirofilaria immitis are known for causing heartworm disease by inhabiting the hearts, arteries, and lungs of dogs and some cats. Haemonchus contortus is one of the most abundant infectious agents in sheep around the world, causing great economic damage to sheep. In contrast, entomopathogenic nematodes parasitize insects and are mostly considered beneficial by humans, but some attack beneficial insects.

One form of nematode is entirely dependent upon fig wasps, which are the sole source of fig fertilization. They prey upon the wasps, riding them from the ripe fig of the wasp's birth to the fig flower of its death, where they kill the wasp, and their offspring await the birth of the next generation of wasps as the fig ripens.

A newly discovered parasitic tetradonematid nematode, Myrmeconema neotropicum, apparently induces fruit mimicry in the tropical ant Cephalotes atratus. Infected ants develop bright red gasters (abdomens), tend to be more sluggish, and walk with their gasters in a conspicuous elevated position. It is likely that these changes cause frugivorous birds to confuse the infected ants for berries, and eat them. Parasite eggs passed in the bird's feces are subsequently collected by foraging Cephalotes atratus and are fed to their larvae, thus completing the life cycle of M. neotropicum.[42]

Colorized electron micrograph of soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera sp.) and egg

Similarly, multiple varieties of nematodes have been found in the abdominal cavities of the primitively social sweat bee, Lasioglossum zephyrum. Inside the female body, the nematode hinders ovarian development and renders the bee less active and thus less effective in pollen collection.[43]

Plant-parasitic nematodes include several groups causing severe crop losses. The most common genera are Aphelenchoides (foliar nematodes), Ditylenchus, Globodera (potato cyst nematodes), Heterodera (soybean cyst nematodes), Longidorus, Meloidogyne (root-knot nematodes), Nacobbus, Pratylenchus (lesion nematodes), Trichodorus and Xiphinema (dagger nematodes). Several phytoparasitic nematode species cause histological damages to roots, including the formation of visible galls (e.g. by root-knot nematodes), which are useful characters for their diagnostic in the field. Some nematode species transmit plant viruses through their feeding activity on roots. One of them is Xiphinema index, vector of grapevine fanleaf virus, an important disease of grapes, another one is Xiphinema diversicaudatum, vector of arabis mosaic virus.

Other nematodes attack bark and forest trees. The most important representative of this group is Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the pine wood nematode, present in Asia and America and recently discovered in Europe.

Play media Anthelmintic effect of papain on Heligmosomoides bakeri

Depending on the species, a nematode may be beneficial or detrimental to plant health. From agricultural and horticulture perspectives, the two categories of nematodes are the predatory ones, which will kill garden pests like cutworms and corn earworm moths, and the pest nematodes, like the root-knot nematode, which attack plants, and those that act as vectors spreading plant viruses between crop plants.[44] Predatory nematodes can be bred by soaking a specific recipe of leaves and other detritus in water, in a dark, cool place, and can even be purchased as an organic form of pest control.

Rotations of plants with nematode-resistant species or varieties is one means of managing parasitic nematode infestations. For example, marigolds, grown over one or more seasons (the effect is cumulative), can be used to control nematodes.[45] Another is treatment with natural antagonists such as the fungus Gliocladium roseum. Chitosan, a natural biocontrol, elicits plant defense responses to destroy parasitic cyst nematodes on roots of soybean, corn, sugar beet, potato, and tomato crops without harming beneficial nematodes in the soil.[46]Soil steaming is an efficient method to kill nematodes before planting a crop, but indiscriminately eliminates both harmful and beneficial soil fauna.

The Golden Nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) is a particularly harmful variety of nematode pest that has resulted in quarantines and crop failures worldwide. CSIRO has found[47] a 13- to 14-fold reduction of nematode population densities in plots having Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) green manure or seed meal in the soil.

Disability-adjusted life year for intestinal nematode infections per 100,000 inhabitants in 2002.   no data   less than 25   25–50   50–75   75–100   100–120   120–140   140–160   160–180   180–200   200–220   220–240   more than 240

A number of intestinal nematodes cause diseases affecting human beings, including ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm disease. Filarial nematodes cause filariasis.

90 percent of nematodes reside in the top 15 cm of soil. Nematodes do not decompose organic matter, but, instead, are parasitic and free-living organisms that feed on living material. Nematodes can effectively regulate bacterial population and community composition - they may eat up to 5,000 bacteria per minute. Also, Nematodes can play an important role in the nitrogen cycle by way of nitrogen mineralization.[33]

One group of carnivorous fungi, the nematophagous fungi, are predators of soil nematodes. They set enticements for the nematodes in the form of lassos or adhesive structures.[48][49][50]

Nematode worms (C. elegans), the focus of an ongoing research project continued on shuttle mission STS-107, survived the Space Shuttle Columbia re-entry breakup. It is believed to be the first known life-form to survive a virtually unprotected atmospheric descent to Earth's surface.[51][52]

  1. ^ "Nematode Fossils". Nematode Fossils [Nematoda]. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2013.
  2. ^ Classification of Animal Parasites
  3. ^ Garcia, Lynne (October 29, 1999). "Classification of Human Parasites, Vectors, and Similar Organisms" (PDF). Los Angeles, California: Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UCLA Medical Center. Retrieved July 21, 2017. 
  4. ^ Hodda, M (2011). "Phylum Nematoda Cobb, 1932. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal biodiversity: An outline of higher-level classification and survey of taxonomic richness". Zootaxa. 3148: 63–95. 
  5. ^ Zhang, Z (2013). "Animal biodiversity: An update of classification and diversity in 2013. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal Biodiversity: An Outline of Higher-level Classification and Survey of Taxonomic Richness (Addenda 2013)". Zootaxa. 3703 (1): 5–11. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3703.1.3. 
  6. ^ Lambshead PJD (1993). "Recent developments in marine benthic biodiversity research". Oceanis. 19 (6): 5–24. 
  7. ^ Borgonie G, García-Moyano A, Litthauer D, Bert W, Bester A, van Heerden E, Möller C, Erasmus M, Onstott TC (June 2011). "Nematoda from the terrestrial deep subsurface of South Africa". Nature. 474 (7349): 79–82. PMID 21637257. doi:10.1038/nature09974. 
  8. ^ Lemonick MD (2011-06-08). "Could 'worms from Hell' mean there's life in space?". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 2011-06-08. 
  9. ^ Bhanoo SN (2011-06-01). "Nematode found in mine is first subsurface multicellular organism". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2011-06-13. 
  10. ^ "Gold mine". Nature. 474 (7349): 6. June 2011. doi:10.1038/474006b. 
  11. ^ Drake N (2011-06-01). "Subterranean worms from hell: Nature News". Nature News. doi:10.1038/news.2011.342. Retrieved 2011-06-13. 
  12. ^ Borgonie G, García-Moyano A, Litthauer D, Bert W, Bester A, van Heerden E, Möller C, Erasmus M, Onstott TC (2011-06-02). "Nematoda from the terrestrial deep subsurface of South Africa". Nature. 474 (7349): 79–82. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 21637257. doi:10.1038/nature09974. 
  13. ^ Danovaro R, Gambi C, Dell'Anno A, Corinaldesi C, Fraschetti S, Vanreusel A, Vincx M, Gooday AJ (January 2008). "Exponential decline of deep-sea ecosystem functioning linked to benthic biodiversity loss". Curr. Biol. 18 (1): 1–8. PMID 18164201. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.11.056. Lay summary – EurekAlert!. 
  14. ^ Platt HM (1994). "foreword". In Lorenzen S, Lorenzen SA. The phylogenetic systematics of freeliving nematodes. London: The Ray Society. ISBN 0-903874-22-9. 
  15. ^ Hsueh YP, Leighton DHW, Sternberg PW. (2014). Nematode Communication. In: Witzany G (ed). Biocommunication of Animals. Springer, 383-407. ISBN 978-94-007-7413-1.
  16. ^ Cobb, Nathan (1914). "Nematodes and their relationships". Yearbook United States Department of Agriculture. United States Department of Agriculture. pp. 457–90.  Quote on p. 472.
  17. ^ a b c Chitwood BG (1957). "The English word "Nema" Revised". Systematic Zoology in Nematology Newsletter. 4 (45): 1619. doi:10.2307/sysbio/6.4.184. 
  18. ^ Siddiqi MR (2000). Tylenchida: parasites of plants and insects. Wallingford, Oxon, UK: CABI Pub. ISBN 0-85199-202-1. 
  19. ^ Schmidt-Rhaesa, A. (2014). Gastrotricha, Cycloneuralia and Gnathifera: General History and Phylogeny. In: Schmidt-Rhaesa, A. (ed.). Handbook of Zoology (founded by W. Kükenthal); Gastrotricha, Cycloneuralia and Gnathifera; Vol 1, Nematomorpha, Priapulida, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera. de Gruyter: Berlin-Boston.
  20. ^ Cobb, N. A. (1919). The orders and classes of nemas. Contrib. Sci. Nematol. 8: 213–216, [1].
  21. ^ "ITIS report: Nematoda". Itis.gov. Retrieved 2012-06-12. 
  22. ^ "Bilateria". Tree of Life Web Project (ToL). January 1, 2002. Retrieved 2008-11-02. 
  23. ^ Chitwood BG, Chitwood MB (1933). "The characters of a protonematode". J Parasitol. 20: 130. 
  24. ^ Chitwood BG (1937). "A revised classification of the Nematoda". Papers on helminthology, 30 year jubileum K.J. Skrjabin. Moscow: All-Union Lenin Academy of Agricultural Sciences. pp. 67–79. 
  25. ^ Chitwood BG (1958). "The designation of official names for higher taxa of invertebrates". Bull Zool Nomencl. 15: 860–95. doi:10.5962/bhl.part.19410. 
  26. ^ Coghlan, Avril (7 September 2005). "Nematode Genome Evolution, WormBook, ed." (PDF). doi:10.1895/wormbook.1.15.1. Retrieved 13 January 2016. 
  27. ^ Blaxter ML, De Ley P, Garey JR, Liu LX, Scheldeman P, Vierstraete A, Vanfleteren JR, Mackey LY, Dorris M, Frisse LM, Vida JT, Thomas WK (March 1998). "A molecular evolutionary framework for the phylum Nematoda". Nature. 392 (6671): 71–5. PMID 9510248. doi:10.1038/32160. 
  28. ^ "Nematoda". Tree of Life Web Project (ToL). 2002-01-01. Retrieved 2008-11-02. 
  29. ^ Holterman M, van der Wurff A, van den Elsen S, van Megen H, Bongers T, Holovachov O, Bakker J, Helder J (2006). "Phylum-wide analysis of SSU rDNA reveals deep phylogenetic relationships among nematodes and accelerated evolution toward crown Clades". Mol Biol Evol. 23 (9): 1792–1800. PMID 16790472. doi:10.1093/molbev/msl044. 
  30. ^ "959 Nematode Genomes – NematodeGenomes". Nematodes.org. 2011-11-11. Retrieved 2012-06-12. 
  31. ^ World Species Index:Nematoda. 2012. 
  32. ^ Liu, GH; Shao, R; Li, JY; Zhou, DH; Li, H; Zhu, XQ (2013). "The complete mitochondrial genomes of three parasitic nematodes of birds: a unique gene order and insights into nematode phylogeny". BMC Genomics. 14 (1): 414. PMC 3693896 . PMID 23800363. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-14-414. 
  33. ^ a b Nyle C. Brady & Ray R. Weil (2009). Elements of the Nature and Properties of Soils (3rd Edition). Prentice Hall. ISBN 9780135014332. 
  34. ^ Ruppert EE, Fox RS, Barnes RD (2004). Invertebrate Zoology: A Functional Evolutionary Approach (7th ed.). Belmont, California: Brooks/Cole. ISBN 978-0-03-025982-1. 
  35. ^ Weischer B, Brown DJ (2000). An Introduction to Nematodes: General Nematology. Sofia, Bulgaria: Pensoft. pp. 75–76. ISBN 978-954-642-087-9. 
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Barnes RG (1980). Invertebrate zoology. Philadelphia: Sanders College. ISBN 0-03-056747-5. 
  37. ^ The sensory cilia of Caenorhabditis elegans
  38. ^ Kavlie, RG; Kernan, MJ; Eberl, DF (May 2010). "Hearing in Drosophila requires TilB, a conserved protein associated with ciliary motility". Genetics. 185: 177–88. PMC 2870953 . PMID 20215474. doi:10.1534/genetics.110.114009. 
  39. ^ Lalošević, V.; Lalošević, D.; Capo, I.; Simin, V.; Galfi, A.; Traversa, D. (2013). "High infection rate of zoonotic Eucoleus aerophilus infection in foxes from Serbia.". Parasite. 20: 3. PMC 3718516 . PMID 23340229. doi:10.1051/parasite/2012003. 
  40. ^ Bell G (1982). The masterpiece of nature: the evolution and genetics of sexuality. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-04583-1. 
  41. ^ a b Johnigk SA, Ehlers RU (1999). "Endotokia matricida in hermaphrodites of Heterorhabditis spp. and the effect of the food supply". Nematology. 1 (7–8): 717–726. ISSN 1388-5545. doi:10.1163/156854199508748. 
  42. ^ Yanoviak SP, Kaspari M, Dudley R, Poinar G (April 2008). "Parasite-induced fruit mimicry in a tropical canopy ant". Am. Nat. 171 (4): 536–44. PMID 18279076. doi:10.1086/528968. 
  43. ^ Batra, Suzanne W. T. (1965-10-01). "Organisms Associated with Lasioglossum zephyrum (Hymenoptera: Halictidae)". Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 38 (4): 367–389. JSTOR 25083474. 
  44. ^ Purcell M, Johnson MW, Lebeck LM, Hara AH (1992). "Biological Control of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with Steinernema carpocapsae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) in Corn Used as a Trap Crop". Environmental Entomology. 21 (6): 1441–1447. doi:10.1093/ee/21.6.1441. 
  45. ^ Riotte L (1975). Secrets of companion planting for successful gardening. p. 7. 
  46. ^ US application 2008072494, Stoner RJ, Linden JC, "Micronutrient elicitor for treating nematodes in field crops", published 2008-03-27 
  47. ^ Loothfar R, Tony S (2005-03-22). "Suppression of root knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) after incorporation of Indian mustard cv. Nemfix as green manure and seed meal in vineyards". Australasian Plant Pathology. CSIRO Publishing. 34 (1): 77-83. doi:10.1071/AP04081. Retrieved 2010-06-14. 
  48. ^ Pramer C (1964). "Nematode-trapping fungi". Science. 144 (3617): 382–388. PMID 14169325. doi:10.1126/science.144.3617.382. 
  49. ^ Hauser JT (December 1985). "Nematode-trapping fungi" (PDF). Carnivorous Plant Newsletter. 14 (1): 8–11. 
  50. ^ Ahrén D, Ursing BM, Tunlid A (1998). "Phylogeny of nematode-trapping fungi based on 18S rDNA sequences". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 158 (2): 179–184. PMID 9465391. doi:10.1016/s0378-1097(97)00519-3. 
  51. ^ "Columbia Survivors". 
  52. ^ Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.; McLamb, William; Reed, David; Blumberg, Baruch S.; Conley, Catharine A. (27 December 2005). "Caenorhabditis elegans Survives Atmospheric Breakup of STS - 107, Space Shuttle Columbia". Astrobiology. 5 (6): 690–705. Bibcode:2005AsBio...5..690S. PMID 16379525. doi:10.1089/ast.2005.5.690. Retrieved 12 January 2016. 
Pest Inspection

German cockroach

The application of pest control ranges from do-it-yourself arrangements to
scientific and very precise deployment of chemicals and predatory insects by
highly skilled practitioners. Despite the fact that pest control is a world-wide
industry it is still dominated by family or 1-person businesses. Those that need
to control pests range from householders to
large scale agri-conglomerates who need to maximise their yield. In between
these two are restaurants, bars, food production facilities, farmers - in fact,
anybody that routinely deals with food. Pest control can make us more
comfortable - but can also save lives.

The word pest is subjective as one man's pest may be another man's
helper. For instance, pest A may be a threat to crop A, and pest B a threat to
crop B. However, if pest B is a natural predator to pest A, then the farmer who
wishes to protect crop A may cultivate and release pest B amongst his crops.
There is a theory that without man's intervention in the food chain through
agriculture, hunting and long distance travel there would be no pests. The
theory continues that man's intervention (for instance, in cultivating and
releasing pest B, or in carrying creatures long distances) has upset the balance
of the food chain, producing instability in insect and other animal numbers and
distorting their evolution. This instability has led to over-population of a
given
species with the result that they have become pests. Having said this, if we assume that the very first fly swat was the first
instance of pest control - and we know that large animals swat flies - it could be
argued that pest control dates back way before humans came on the scene.

At this point pest control was carried out by farmers and some householders
as an everyday activity. By the early nineteenth century however, this changed
as studies and writings started to appear that treated pest control as a
separate discipline. Increasing use of intensive and large scale farming brought
matching increases in the intensity and scale of pest scares such as the
disastrous potato famine in Ireland in 1840. Pest control management was scaled
up to meet these demands, to the point that dedicated pest controllers began to
emerge throughout the 20th century.

In 1921 the first crop-spraying aeroplane was employed and in 1962 flying insect control was revolutionized when Insect-o-cutor started selling fly killer
machines using ultra violet lamps.

Pest control is still carried out by farmers and householders to this day.
There are also pest control specialists (sometimes called pesties); many
are one-person businesses and others work for large companies. In most countries
the pest control industry has been dogged by a few bad practitioners who have
tarnished the reputation for the highly professional and responsible majority.

One thing is for certain, from way before the Sumerians of 2500BC to us in modern times, there have always been - and probably always will be - pests (including some human ones!). Thank goodness, therefore, that we have pest controllers.

Buttonwillow

6 Reasons to Have Monthly Pest Control Service


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Maricopa Rodent Removal

Pest control in Maricopa for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Mouse Problems

Maricopa Pest Control For Rodents

Syrphus hoverfly larva (below) feeding on aphids (above), is a natural biological control agent. A parasitoid wasp (Cotesia congregata) adult with pupal cocoons on its host, a tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta (green background). One example of a hymenopteran biological control agent.

Biological control is a method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms.[1] It relies on predation, parasitism, herbivory, or other natural mechanisms, but typically also involves an active human management role. It can be an important component of integrated pest management (IPM) programs.

There are three basic types of biological pest control strategies: importation (sometimes called classical biological control), in which a natural enemy of a pest is introduced in the hope of achieving control; augmentation, in which locally-occurring natural enemies are bred and released to improve control; and conservation, in which measures are taken to increase natural enemies, such as by planting nectar-producing crop plants in the borders of rice fields.

Natural enemies of insect pests, also known as biological control agents, include predators, parasitoids, pathogens, and competitors. Biological control agents of plant diseases are most often referred to as antagonists. Biological control agents of weeds include seed predators, herbivores and plant pathogens.

Biological control can have side-effects on biodiversity through attacks on non-target species by any of the same mechanisms, especially when a species is introduced without thorough understanding of the possible consequences.

The term "biological control" was first used by Harry Scott Smith at the 1919 meeting of the Pacific Slope Branch of the American Association of Economic Entomologists, in Riverside, California.[2] It was brought into more widespread use by the entomologist Paul H. DeBach (1914–1993) who worked on citrus crop pests throughout his life.[3][4] However, the practice has previously been used for centuries. The first report of the use of an insect species to control an insect pest comes from "Nan Fang Cao Mu Zhuang" (南方草木狀 Plants of the Southern Regions) (ca. 304 AD), attributed to Western Jin dynasty botanist Ji Han (嵇含, 263–307), in which it is mentioned that "Jiaozhi people sell ants and their nests attached to twigs looking like thin cotton envelopes, the reddish-yellow ant being larger than normal. Without such ants, southern citrus fruits will be severely insect-damaged".[5] The ants used are known as huang gan (huang = yellow, gan = citrus) ants (Oecophylla smaragdina). The practice was later reported by Ling Biao Lu Yi (late Tang Dynasty or Early Five Dynasties), in Ji Le Pian by Zhuang Jisu (Southern Song Dynasty), in the Book of Tree Planting by Yu Zhen Mu (Ming Dynasty), in the book Guangdong Xing Yu (17th century), Lingnan by Wu Zhen Fang (Qing Dynasty), in Nanyue Miscellanies by Li Diao Yuan, and others.[5]

Biological control techniques as we know them today started to emerge in the 1870s. During this decade, in the USA, the Missouri State Entomologist C. V. Riley and the Illinois State Entomologist W. LeBaron began within-state redistribution of parasitoids to control crop pests. The first international shipment of an insect as biological control agent was made by Charles V. Riley in 1873, shipping to France the predatory mites Tyroglyphus phylloxera to help fight the grapevine phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae) that was destroying grapevines in France. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) initiated research in classical biological control following the establishment of the Division of Entomology in 1881, with C. V. Riley as Chief. The first importation of a parasitoidal wasp into the United States was that of the braconid Cotesia glomerata in 1883–1884, imported from Europe to control the invasive cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae. In 1888–1889 the vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis, a lady beetle, was introduced from Australia to California to control the cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi. This had become a major problem for the newly developed citrus industry in California, but by the end of 1889 the cottony cushion scale population had already declined. This great success led to further introductions of beneficial insects into the USA.[6][7]

In 1905 the USDA initiated its first large-scale biological control program, sending entomologists to Europe and Japan to look for natural enemies of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar dispar, and brown-tail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhoea, invasive pests of trees and shrubs. As a result, nine parasitoids (solitary wasps) of gypsy moth, seven of brown-tail moth, and two predators of both moths became established in the USA. Although the gypsy moth was not fully controlled by these natural enemies, the frequency, duration, and severity of its outbreaks were reduced and the program was regarded as successful. This program also led to the development of many concepts, principles, and procedures for the implementation of biological control programs.[6][7][8]

Cactoblastis cactorum larvae feeding on Opuntia prickly pear cacti

Prickly pear cacti were introduced into Queensland, Australia as ornamental plants, starting in 1788. They quickly spread to cover over 25 million hectares of Australia by 1920, increasing by 1 million hectares per year. Digging, burning and crushing all proved ineffective. By 1914, two control agents were introduced to help control the spread of the plant, the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum, and the scale insect Dactylopius. By 1917, most areas of prickly pear had been destroyed.[9]

The first reported case of a classical biological control attempt in Canada involves the parasitoidal wasp Trichogramma minutum. Individuals were caught in New York State and released in Ontario gardens in 1882 by William Saunders, trained chemist and first Director of the Dominion Experimental Farms, for controlling the invasive currantworm Nematus ribesii. Between 1884 and 1908, the first Dominion Entomologist, James Fletcher, continued introductions of other parasitoids and pathogens for the control of pests in Canada.[10]

There are three basic biological pest control strategies: importation (classical biological control), augmentation and conservation.[11]

Rodolia cardinalis, the vedalia beetle, was imported to Australia in the 19th century, successfully controlling cottony cushion scale.

Importation or classical biological control involves the introduction of a pest's natural enemies to a new locale where they do not occur naturally. Early instances were often unofficial and not based on research, and some introduced species became serious pests themselves.[12]

To be most effective at controlling a pest, a biological control agent requires a colonizing ability which allows it to keep pace with changes to the habitat in space and time. Control is greatest if the agent has temporal persistence, so that it can maintain its population even in the temporary absence of the target species, and if it is an opportunistic forager, enabling it to rapidly exploit a pest population.[13]

Joseph Needham noted a Chinese text dating from 304 AD, Records of the Plants and Trees of the Southern Regions, by Hsi Han, which describes mandarin oranges protected by large reddish-yellow citrus ants which attack and kill insect pests of the orange trees. The citrus ant (Oecophylla smaragdina)[14] was rediscovered in the 20th century, and since 1958 has been used in China to protect orange groves.[15]

One of the earliest successes in the west was in controlling Icerya purchasi (cottony cushion scale) in Australia, using a predatory insect Rodolia cardinalis (the vedalia beetle). This success was repeated in California using the beetle and a parasitoidal fly, Cryptochaetum iceryae.[16]

Damage from Hypera postica, the alfalfa weevil, a serious introduced pest of forage, was substantially reduced by the introduction of natural enemies. 20 years after their introduction the population of weevils in the alfalfa area treated for alfalfa weevil in the Northeastern United States remained 75 percent down.[17]

The invasive species Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed) was controlled in Florida (U.S.) by introducing alligator weed flea beetle.

Alligator weed was introduced to the United States from South America. It takes root in shallow water, interfering with navigation, irrigation, and flood control. The alligator weed flea beetle and two other biological controls were released in Florida, greatly reducing the amount of land covered by the plant.[18] Another aquatic weed, the giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta) is a serious pest, covering waterways, reducing water flow and harming native species. Control with the salvinia weevil (Cyrtobagous salviniae) is effective in warm climates,[19] and in Zimbabwe, a 99% control of the weed was obtained over a two-year period.[20]

Small commercially reared parasitoidal wasps,[11]Trichogramma ostriniae, provide limited and erratic control of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), a serious pest. Careful formulations of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis are more effective.[21]

The population of Levuana iridescens, the Levuana moth, a serious coconut pest in Fiji, was brought under control by a classical biological control program in the 1920s.[22]

Hippodamia convergens, the convergent lady beetle, is commonly sold for biological control of aphids.

Augmentation involves the supplemental release of natural enemies that occur in a particular area, boosting the naturally occurring populations there. In inoculative release, small numbers of the control agents are released at intervals to allow them to reproduce, in the hope of setting up longer-term control, and thus keeping the pest down to a low level, constituting prevention rather than cure. In inundative release, in contrast, large numbers are released in the hope of rapidly reducing a damaging pest population, correcting a problem that has already arisen. Augmentation can be effective, but is not guaranteed to work, and depends on the precise details of the interactions between each pest and control agent.[23]

An example of inoculative release occurs in the horticultural production of several crops in greenhouses. Periodic releases of the parasitoidal wasp, Encarsia formosa, are used to control greenhouse whitefly,[24] while the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis is used for control of the two-spotted spider mite.[25]

The egg parasite Trichogramma is frequently released inundatively to control harmful moths. Similarly, Bacillus thuringiensis and other microbial insecticides are used in large enough quantities for a rapid effect.[23] Recommended release rates for Trichogramma in vegetable or field crops range from 5,000 to 200,000 per acre (1 to 50 per square metre) per week according to the level of pest infestation.[26] Similarly, nematodes that kill insects (that are entomopathogenic) are released at rates of millions and even billions per acre for control of certain soil-dwelling insect pests.[27]

The conservation of existing natural enemies in an environment is the third method of biological pest control.[28] Natural enemies are already adapted to the habitat and to the target pest, and their conservation can be simple and cost-effective, as when nectar-producing crop plants are grown in the borders of rice fields. These provide nectar to support parasitoids and predators of planthopper pests and have been demonstrated to be so effective (reducing pest densities by 10- or even 100-fold) that farmers sprayed 70% less insecticides and enjoyed yields boosted by 5%.[29] Predators of aphids were similarly found to be present in tussock grasses by field boundary hedges in England, but they spread too slowly to reach the centres of fields. Control was improved by planting a metre-wide strip of tussock grasses in field centres, enabling aphid predators to overwinter there.[28]

An inverted flowerpot filled with straw to attract earwigs

Cropping systems can be modified to favor natural enemies, a practice sometimes referred to as habitat manipulation. Providing a suitable habitat, such as a shelterbelt, hedgerow, or beetle bank where beneficial insects such as parasitoidal wasps can live and reproduce, can help ensure the survival of populations of natural enemies. Things as simple as leaving a layer of fallen leaves or mulch in place provides a suitable food source for worms and provides a shelter for insects, in turn being a food source for such beneficial mammals as hedgehogs and shrews. Compost piles and stacks of wood can provide shelter for invertebrates and small mammals. Long grass and ponds support amphibians. Not removing dead annuals and non-hardy plants in the autumn allows insects to make use of their hollow stems during winter.[30] In California, prune trees are sometimes planted in grape vineyards to provide an improved overwintering habitat or refuge for a key grape pest parasitoid.[31] The providing of artificial shelters in the form of wooden caskets, boxes or flowerpots is also sometimes undertaken, particularly in gardens, to make a cropped area more attractive to natural enemies. For example, earwigs are natural predators which can be encouraged in gardens by hanging upside-down flowerpots filled with straw or wood wool. Green lacewings can be encouraged by using plastic bottles with an open bottom and a roll of cardboard inside. Birdhouses enable insectivorous birds to nest; the most useful birds can be attracted by choosing an opening just large enough for the desired species.[30]

In cotton production, the replacement of broad-spectrum insecticides with selective control measures such as Bt cotton can create a more favorable environment for natural enemies of cotton pests due to reduced insecticide exposure risk. Such predators or parasitoids can control pests not affected by the Bt protein. Reduced prey quality and abundance associated increased control from Bt cotton can also indirectly decrease natural enemy populations in some cases, but the percentage of pests eaten or parasitized in Bt and non-Bt cotton are often similar.[32]

Lacewings are available from biocontrol dealers.

Predators are mainly free-living species that directly consume a large number of prey during their whole lifetime. Given that many major crop pests are insects, many of the predators used in biological control are insectivorous species. Lady beetles, and in particular their larvae which are active between May and July in the northern hemisphere, are voracious predators of aphids, and also consume mites, scale insects and small caterpillars. The spotted lady beetle (Coleomegilla maculata) is also able to feed on the eggs and larvae of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata).[33]

The larvae of many hoverfly species principally feed upon aphids, one larva devouring up to 400 in its lifetime. Their effectiveness in commercial crops has not been studied.[34]

Predatory Polistes wasp searching for bollworms or other caterpillars on a cotton plant

Several species of entomopathogenic nematode are important predators of insect and other invertebrate pests.[35]Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is a microscopic nematode that kills slugs. Its complex life cycle includes a free-living, infective stage in the soil where it becomes associated with a pathogenic bacteria such as Moraxella osloensis. The nematode enters the slug through the posterior mantle region, thereafter feeding and reproducing inside, but it is the bacteria that kill the slug. The nematode is available commercially in Europe and is applied by watering onto moist soil.[36]

Species used to control spider mites include the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis,[37]Neoseilus californicus,[38] and Amblyseius cucumeris, the predatory midge Feltiella acarisuga,[38] and a ladybird Stethorus punctillum.[38] The bug Orius insidiosus has been successfully used against the two-spotted spider mite and the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis).[39]

Parasitoids lay their eggs on or in the body of an insect host, which is then used as a food for developing larvae. The host is ultimately killed. Most insect parasitoids are wasps or flies, and many have a very narrow host range. The most important groups are the ichneumonid wasps, which mainly use caterpillars as hosts; braconid wasps, which attack caterpillars and a wide range of other insects including aphids; chalcid wasps, which parasitize eggs and larvae of many insect species; and tachinid flies, which parasitize a wide range of insects including caterpillars, beetle adults and larvae, and true bugs.[40]

Encarsia formosa, widely used in greenhouse horticulture, was one of the first biological control agents developed. Life cycles of greenhouse whitefly and its parasitoid wasp Encarsia formosa

Encarsia formosa is a small predatory chalcid wasp which is a parasitoid of whitefly, a sap-feeding insect which can cause wilting and black sooty moulds in glasshouse vegetable and ornamental crops. It is most effective when dealing with low level infestations, giving protection over a long period of time. The wasp lays its eggs in young whitefly 'scales', turning them black as the parasite larvae pupate.[24]Gonatocerus ashmeadi (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) has been introduced to control the glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in French Polynesia and has successfully controlled ~95% of the pest density.[41]

Parasitoids are among the most widely used biological control agents. Commercially, there are two types of rearing systems: short-term daily output with high production of parasitoids per day, and long-term, low daily output systems.[42] In most instances, production will need to be matched with the appropriate release dates when susceptible host species at a suitable phase of development will be available.[43] Larger production facilities produce on a yearlong basis, whereas some facilities produce only seasonally. Rearing facilities are usually a significant distance from where the agents are to be used in the field, and transporting the parasitoids from the point of production to the point of use can pose problems.[44] Shipping conditions can be too hot, and even vibrations from planes or trucks can adversely affect parasitoids.[42]

Further information: biopesticide

Pathogenic micro-organisms include bacteria, fungi, and viruses. They kill or debilitate their host and are relatively host-specific. Various microbial insect diseases occur naturally, but may also be used as biological pesticides.[45] When naturally occurring, these outbreaks are density-dependent in that they generally only occur as insect populations become denser.[46]

Bacteria used for biological control infect insects via their digestive tracts, so they offer only limited options for controlling insects with sucking mouth parts such as aphids and scale insects.[47]Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely applied species of bacteria used for biological control, with at least four sub-species used against Lepidopteran (moth, butterfly), Coleopteran (beetle) and Dipteran (true fly) insect pests. The bacterium is available to organic farmers in sachets of dried spores which are mixed with water and sprayed onto vulnerable plants such as brassicas and fruit trees.[48][49]Genes from B. thuringiensis have also been incorporated into transgenic crops, making the plants express some of the bacterium's toxins, which are proteins. These confer resistance to insect pests and thus reduce the necessity for pesticide use.[50] If pests develop resistance to the toxins in these crops, B. thuringiensis will become useless in organic farming also.[51][49] The bacterium Paenibacillus popilliae which causes milky spore disease has been found useful in the control of Japanese beetle, killing the larvae. It is very specific to its host species and is harmless to vertebrates and other invertebrates.[52]

Green peach aphid, a pest in its own right and a vector of plant viruses, killed by the fungus Pandora neoaphidis (Zygomycota: Entomophthorales) Scale bar = 0.3 mm.

Entomopathogenic fungi, which cause disease in insects, include at least 14 species that attack aphids.[53]Beauveria bassiana is mass-produced and used to manage a wide variety of insect pests including whiteflies, thrips, aphids and weevils.[54]Lecanicillium spp. are deployed against white flies, thrips and aphids. Metarhizium spp. are used against pests including beetles, locusts and other grasshoppers, Hemiptera, and spider mites. Paecilomyces fumosoroseus is effective against white flies, thrips and aphids; Purpureocillium lilacinus is used against root-knot nematodes, and 89 Trichoderma species against certain plant pathogens. Trichoderma viride has been used against Dutch elm disease, and has shown some effect in suppressing silver leaf, a disease of stone fruits caused by the pathogenic fungus Chondrostereum purpureum.[55]

The fungi Cordyceps and Metacordyceps are deployed against a wide spectrum of arthropods.[56]Entomophaga is effective against pests such as the green peach aphid.[57]

Several members of Chytridiomycota and Blastocladiomycota have been explored as agents of biological control.[58][59] From Chytridiomycota, Synchytrium solstitiale is being considered as a control agent of the yellow star thistle (Centaurea solstitialis) in the United States.[60]

Baculoviruses are specific to individual insect host species and have been shown to be useful in biological pest control. For example, the Lymantria dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus has been used to spray large areas of forest in North America where larvae of the gypsy moth are causing serious defoliation. The moth larvae are killed by the virus they have eaten and die, the disintegrating cadavers leaving virus particles on the foliage to infect other larvae.[61]

A mammalian virus, the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus was introduced to Australia to attempt to control the European rabbit populations there.[62] It escaped from quarantine and spread across the country, killing large numbers of rabbits. Very young animals survived, passing immunity to their offspring in due course and eventually producing a virus-resistant population.[63] Introduction into New Zealand in the 1990s was similarly successful at first, but a decade later, immunity had developed and populations had returned to pre-RHD levels.[64]

Lagenidium giganteum is a water-borne mould that parasitizes the larval stage of mosquitoes. When applied to water, the motile spores avoid unsuitable host species and search out suitable mosquito larval hosts. This alga has the advantages of a dormant phase, resistant to desiccation, with slow-release characteristics over several years. Unfortunately, it is susceptible to many chemicals used in mosquito abatement programmes.[65]

The legume vine Mucuna pruriens is used in the countries of Benin and Vietnam as a biological control for problematic Imperata cylindrica grass: the vine is extremely vigorous and suppresses neighbouring plants by out-competing them for space and light. Mucuna pruriens is said not to be invasive outside its cultivated area.[66]Desmodium uncinatum can be used in push-pull farming to stop the parasitic plant, witchweed (Striga).[67]

The Australian bush fly, Musca vetustissima, is a major nuisance pest in Australia, but native decomposers found in Australia are not adapted to feeding on cow dung, which is where bush flies breed. Therefore, the Australian Dung Beetle Project (1965–1985), led by George Bornemissza of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, released forty-nine species of dung beetle, to reduce the amount of dung and therefore also the potential breeding sites of the fly.[68]

In cases of massive and severe infection of invasive pests, techniques of pest control are often used in combination. An example is the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, an invasive beetle from China, which has destroyed tens of millions of ash trees in its introduced range in North America. As part of the campaign against it, from 2003 American scientists and the Chinese Academy of Forestry searched for its natural enemies in the wild, leading to the discovery of several parasitoid wasps, namely Tetrastichus planipennisi, a gregarious larval endoparasitoid, Oobius agrili, a solitary, parthenogenic egg parasitoid, and Spathius agrili, a gregarious larval ectoparasitoid. These have been introduced and released into the United States of America as a possible biological control of the emerald ash borer. Initial results for Tetrastichus planipennisi have shown promise, and it is now being released along with Beauveria bassiana, a fungal pathogen with known insecticidal properties.[69][70][71]

Many of the most important pests are exotic, invasive species that severely impact agriculture, horticulture, forestry and urban environments. They tend to arrive without their co-evolved parasites, pathogens and predators, and by escaping from these, populations may soar. Importing the natural enemies of these pests may seem a logical move but this may have unintended consequences; regulations may be ineffective and there may be unanticipated effects on biodiversity, and the adoption of the techniques may prove challenging because of a lack of knowledge among farmers and growers.[72]

Biological control can affect biodiversity[13] through predation, parasitism, pathogenicity, competition, or other attacks on non-target species.[73] An introduced control does not always target only the intended pest species; it can also target native species.[74] In Hawaii during the 1940s parasitic wasps were introduced to control a lepidopteran pest and the wasps are still found there today. This may have a negative impact on the native ecosystem, however, host range and impacts need to be studied before declaring their impact on the environment.[75]

Cane toad (introduced into Australia 1935) spread from 1940 to 1980: it was ineffective as a control agent. Its distribution has continued to widen since 1980.

Vertebrate animals tend to be generalist feeders, and seldom make good biological control agents; many of the classic cases of "biocontrol gone awry" involve vertebrates. For example, the cane toad (Rhinella marina) was intentionally introduced to Australia to control the greyback cane beetle (Dermolepida albohirtum),[76] and other pests of sugar cane. 102 toads were obtained from Hawaii and bred in captivity to increase their numbers until they were released into the sugar cane fields of the tropic north in 1935. It was later discovered that the toads could not jump very high and so were unable to eat the cane beetles which stayed up on the upper stalks of the cane plants. However the toad thrived by feeding on other insects and it soon spread very rapidly; it took over native amphibian habitat and brought foreign disease to native toads and frogs, dramatically reducing their populations. Also when it is threatened or handled, the cane toad releases poison from parotoid glands on its shoulders; native Australian species such as goannas, tiger snakes, dingos and northern quolls that attempted to eat the toad were harmed or killed. However, there has been some recent evidence that native predators are adapting, both physiologically and through changing their behaviour, so in the long run, their populations may recover.[77]

Rhinocyllus conicus, a seed-feeding weevil, was introduced to North America to control exotic musk thistle (Carduus nutans) and Canadian thistle (Cirsium arvense). However the weevil also attacks native thistles, harming such species as the endemic Platte thistle (Cirsium neomexicanum) by selecting larger plants (which reduced the gene pool), reducing seed production and ultimately threatening the species' survival.[78]

The small Asian mongoose (Herpestus javanicus) was introduced to Hawaii in order to control the rat population. However the mongoose was diurnal, and the rats emerged at night; so it preyed on the endemic birds of Hawaii, especially their eggs, more often than it ate the rats, and now both rats and mongooses threaten the birds. This introduction was undertaken without understanding the consequences of such an action. No regulations existed at the time, and more careful evaluation should prevent such releases now.[79]

The sturdy and prolific eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) is a native of the southeastern United States and was introduced around the world in the 1930s and 40s to feed on mosquito larvae and thus combat malaria. However, it has thrived at the expense of local species, causing a decline of endemic fish and frogs through competition for food resources, as well as through eating their eggs and larvae.[80] In Australia, the mosquitofish is the subject of discussion as to how best to control it; in 1989 it was said that "biological population control is well beyond present capabilities", and this remains the position.[81]

A potential obstacle to the adoption of biological pest control measures is growers sticking to the familiar use of pesticides. However, pesticides have a variety of undesired effects, including the development of resistance among pests, and the destruction of natural enemies; these may in turn enable outbreaks of pests of other species than the ones originally targeted, and on crops at a distance from those treated with pesticides.[82] One method of increasing grower adoption of biocontrol methods involves letting them learn by doing, for example showing them simple field experiments, enabling them to observe the live predation of pests, or demonstrations of parasitised pests. In the Philippines, early season sprays against leaf folder caterpillars were common practice, but growers were asked to follow a 'rule of thumb' of not spraying against leaf folders for the first 30 days after transplanting; participation in this resulted in a reduction of insecticide use by 1/3 and a change in grower perception of insecticide use.[83]

General Effects on native biodiversity Effects on invasive species Economic effects Killing Cockroaches

Naturally Green No More Bugs! Pest Control Kit

>>HOST: >>HOST: THANK >>HOST: THANK YOU >>HOST: THANK YOU SO >>HOST: THANK YOU SO >>H >>HOST: THANK YOU SO >>HMUCH >>HOST: THANK YOU SO >>HMUCH FOR >>HOST: THANK YOU SO >>HMUCH FOR WATCHING >>HOST: THANK YOU SO >>HMUCH FOR WATCHING 10 MUCH FOR WATCHING 10 MUCH FOR WATCHING 10FAVES, MUCH FOR WATCHING 10FAVES, MY MUCH FOR WATCHING 10FAVES, MY NAME MUCH FOR WATCHING 10FAVES, MY NAME IS MUCH FOR WATCHING 10FAVES, MY NAME IS HELEN FAVES, MY NAME IS HELEN FAVES, MY NAME IS HELENKEANEY FAVES, MY NAME IS HELENKEANEY AND FAVES, MY NAME IS HELENKEANEY AND TODAY FAVES, MY NAME IS HELENKEANEY AND TODAY I'M FAVES, MY NAME IS HELENKEANEY AND TODAY I'M THE KEANEY AND TODAY I'M THE KEANEY AND TODAY I'M THEHOST KEANEY AND TODAY I'M THEHOST OF KEANEY AND TODAY I'M THEHOST OF 10 KEANEY AND TODAY I'M THEHOST OF 10 FAVES KEANEY AND TODAY I'M THEHOST OF 10 FAVES AND KEANEY AND TODAY I'M THEHOST OF 10 FAVES AND I'M HOST OF 10 FAVES AND I'M HOST OF 10 FAVES AND I'MGLAD HOST OF 10 FAVES AND I'MGLAD THAT HOST OF 10 FAVES AND I'MGLAD THAT YOU'RE HOST OF 10 FAVES AND I'MGLAD THAT YOU'RE HANGING GLAD THAT YOU'RE HANGING GLAD THAT YOU'RE HANGINGOUT GLAD THAT YOU'RE HANGINGOUT AND GLAD THAT YOU'RE HANGINGOUT AND JOINING GLAD THAT YOU'RE HANGINGOUT AND JOINING US.

GLAD THAT YOU'RE HANGINGOUT AND JOINING US.

OUR OUT AND JOINING US.

OUR OUT AND JOINING US.

OURNEXT OUT AND JOINING US.

OURNEXT PRODUCT OUT AND JOINING US.

OURNEXT PRODUCT IS OUT AND JOINING US.

OURNEXT PRODUCT IS NEXT OUT AND JOINING US.

OURNEXT PRODUCT IS NEXT PRO NEXT PRODUCT IS NEXT PRO NEXT PRODUCT IS NEXT PROSOMETHING NEXT PRODUCT IS NEXT PROSOMETHING THAT NEXT PRODUCT IS NEXT PROSOMETHING THAT I NEXT PRODUCT IS NEXT PROSOMETHING THAT I HAVE NEXT PRODUCT IS NEXT PROSOMETHING THAT I HAVE IN SOMETHING THAT I HAVE IN SOMETHING THAT I HAVE INMY SOMETHING THAT I HAVE INMY HOME SOMETHING THAT I HAVE INMY HOME THAT SOMETHING THAT I HAVE INMY HOME THAT I SOMETHING THAT I HAVE INMY HOME THAT I PROBABLY MY HOME THAT I PROBABLY MY HOME THAT I PROBABLYUSE MY HOME THAT I PROBABLYUSE ALMOST MY HOME THAT I PROBABLYUSE ALMOST EVERY MY HOME THAT I PROBABLYUSE ALMOST EVERY DAY.

MY HOME THAT I PROBABLYUSE ALMOST EVERY DAY.

I USE ALMOST EVERY DAY.

I USE ALMOST EVERY DAY.

IDO USE ALMOST EVERY DAY.

IDO NOT USE ALMOST EVERY DAY.

IDO NOT LIKE USE ALMOST EVERY DAY.

IDO NOT LIKE GETTING USE ALMOST EVERY DAY.

IDO NOT LIKE GETTING THE DO NOT LIKE GETTING THE DO NOT LIKE GETTING THEMOSQUITO DO NOT LIKE GETTING THEMOSQUITO BITES.

DO NOT LIKE GETTING THEMOSQUITO BITES.

I DO NOT LIKE GETTING THEMOSQUITO BITES.

I AM DO NOT LIKE GETTING THEMOSQUITO BITES.

I AM MO MOSQUITO BITES.

I AM MO MOSQUITO BITES.

I AM MOONE MOSQUITO BITES.

I AM MOONE OF MOSQUITO BITES.

I AM MOONE OF THE MOSQUITO BITES.

I AM MOONE OF THE PEOPLE MOSQUITO BITES.

I AM MOONE OF THE PEOPLE IT ONE OF THE PEOPLE IT ONE OF THE PEOPLE ITSEEMS ONE OF THE PEOPLE ITSEEMS LIKE ONE OF THE PEOPLE ITSEEMS LIKE IF ONE OF THE PEOPLE ITSEEMS LIKE IF I'M ONE OF THE PEOPLE ITSEEMS LIKE IF I'M EVERY SEEMS LIKE IF I'M EVERY SEEMS LIKE IF I'M EVERY-- SEEMS LIKE IF I'M EVERY-- IF SEEMS LIKE IF I'M EVERY-- IF I'M SEEMS LIKE IF I'M EVERY-- IF I'M OUTSIDE, SEEMS LIKE IF I'M EVERY-- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I SEEMS LIKE IF I'M EVERY-- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I -- -- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I -- -- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I --WILL -- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I --WILL GET -- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I --WILL GET TWICE -- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I --WILL GET TWICE AS -- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I --WILL GET TWICE AS MANY -- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I --WILL GET TWICE AS MANY W WILL GET TWICE AS MANY W WILL GET TWICE AS MANY WAS WILL GET TWICE AS MANY WAS EVERYBODY WILL GET TWICE AS MANY WAS EVERYBODY ELSE.

WILL GET TWICE AS MANY WAS EVERYBODY ELSE.

I AS EVERYBODY ELSE.

I AS EVERYBODY ELSE.

ILOVE AS EVERYBODY ELSE.

ILOVE THAT AS EVERYBODY ELSE.

ILOVE THAT TREADED AS EVERYBODY ELSE.

ILOVE THAT TREADED SOLE LOVE THAT TREADED SOLE LOVE THAT TREADED SOLEGREEN LOVE THAT TREADED SOLEGREEN NO LOVE THAT TREADED SOLEGREEN NO MORE LOVE THAT TREADED SOLEGREEN NO MORE BUGS LOVE THAT TREADED SOLEGREEN NO MORE BUGS -- LOVE THAT TREADED SOLEGREEN NO MORE BUGS -- GR GREEN NO MORE BUGS -- GR GREEN NO MORE BUGS -- GRTHE GREEN NO MORE BUGS -- GRTHE NATURALLY GREEN NO MORE BUGS -- GRTHE NATURALLY GREEN GREEN NO MORE BUGS -- GRTHE NATURALLY GREEN NO THE NATURALLY GREEN NO THE NATURALLY GREEN NOMORE THE NATURALLY GREEN NOMORE BUGS! THE NATURALLY GREEN NOMORE BUGS! THAT'S THE NATURALLY GREEN NOMORE BUGS! THAT'S WHAT MORE BUGS! THAT'S WHAT MORE BUGS! THAT'S WHATIT'S MORE BUGS! THAT'S WHATIT'S CALLED MORE BUGS! THAT'S WHATIT'S CALLED BUT MORE BUGS! THAT'S WHATIT'S CALLED BUT ON MORE BUGS! THAT'S WHATIT'S CALLED BUT ON YOUR IT'S CALLED BUT ON YOUR IT'S CALLED BUT ON YOURSKIN, IT'S CALLED BUT ON YOURSKIN, BY IT'S CALLED BUT ON YOURSKIN, BY THE IT'S CALLED BUT ON YOURSKIN, BY THE WAY IT'S CALLED BUT ON YOURSKIN, BY THE WAY IT IT'S CALLED BUT ON YOURSKIN, BY THE WAY IT IS SKIN, BY THE WAY IT IS SKIN, BY THE WAY IT ISFROM SKIN, BY THE WAY IT ISFROM THE SKIN, BY THE WAY IT ISFROM THE HIGHEST SKIN, BY THE WAY IT ISFROM THE HIGHEST QUALITY FROM THE HIGHEST QUALITY FROM THE HIGHEST QUALITYCEDAR.

FROM THE HIGHEST QUALITYCEDAR.

IT FROM THE HIGHEST QUALITYCEDAR.

IT IS FROM THE HIGHEST QUALITYCEDAR.

IT IS MADE FROM THE HIGHEST QUALITYCEDAR.

IT IS MADE IN CEDAR.

IT IS MADE IN CEDAR.

IT IS MADE INUSA, CEDAR.

IT IS MADE INUSA, IS CEDAR.

IT IS MADE INUSA, IS A CEDAR.

IT IS MADE INUSA, IS A COMPANY CEDAR.

IT IS MADE INUSA, IS A COMPANY OWNED USA, IS A COMPANY OWNED USA, IS A COMPANY OWNEDBY USA, IS A COMPANY OWNEDBY A USA, IS A COMPANY OWNEDBY A WOMAN.

USA, IS A COMPANY OWNEDBY A WOMAN.

A BY A WOMAN.

A BY A WOMAN.

AWOMAN-OWNED BY A WOMAN.

AWOMAN-OWNED COMPANY, WOMAN-OWNED COMPANY, WOMAN-OWNED COMPANY,CEDAR, WOMAN-OWNED COMPANY,CEDAR, ALL WOMAN-OWNED COMPANY,CEDAR, ALL NATURAL, WOMAN-OWNED COMPANY,CEDAR, ALL NATURAL, USDA CEDAR, ALL NATURAL, USDA CEDAR, ALL NATURAL, USDACERTIFIED, CEDAR, ALL NATURAL, USDACERTIFIED, AND CEDAR, ALL NATURAL, USDACERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

CERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

CERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

YOU CERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

YOU GO CERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

YOU GO OUT CERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

YOU GO OUT TO CERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

YOU GO OUT TO THE CERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

YOU GO OUT TO THE YOU CERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

YOU GO OUT TO THE YOU GO YOU GO OUT TO THE YOU GO YOU GO OUT TO THE YOU GOGROCERY YOU GO OUT TO THE YOU GOGROCERY STORE, YOU GO OUT TO THE YOU GOGROCERY STORE, YOU YOU GO OUT TO THE YOU GOGROCERY STORE, YOU SPEND GROCERY STORE, YOU SPEND GROCERY STORE, YOU SPENDA GROCERY STORE, YOU SPENDA FORTUNE GROCERY STORE, YOU SPENDA FORTUNE BUYING GROCERY STORE, YOU SPENDA FORTUNE BUYING ORGANIC GROCERY STORE, YOU SPENDA FORTUNE BUYING ORGANICC A FORTUNE BUYING ORGANICC A FORTUNE BUYING ORGANICC, A FORTUNE BUYING ORGANICC, DOING A FORTUNE BUYING ORGANICC, DOING THIS A FORTUNE BUYING ORGANICC, DOING THIS AND A FORTUNE BUYING ORGANICC, DOING THIS AND THAT, , DOING THIS AND THAT, , DOING THIS AND THAT,THEN , DOING THIS AND THAT,THEN YOU , DOING THIS AND THAT,THEN YOU SPRAY , DOING THIS AND THAT,THEN YOU SPRAY CHEMICALS THEN YOU SPRAY CHEMICALS THEN YOU SPRAY CHEMICALSALL THEN YOU SPRAY CHEMICALSALL AROUND THEN YOU SPRAY CHEMICALSALL AROUND YOUR THEN YOU SPRAY CHEMICALSALL AROUND YOUR HOUSE THEN YOU SPRAY CHEMICALSALL AROUND YOUR HOUSE AL ALL AROUND YOUR HOUSE AL ALL AROUND YOUR HOUSE ALYOU ALL AROUND YOUR HOUSE ALYOU WILL ALL AROUND YOUR HOUSE ALYOU WILL LOVE ALL AROUND YOUR HOUSE ALYOU WILL LOVE NO ALL AROUND YOUR HOUSE ALYOU WILL LOVE NO MORE YOU WILL LOVE NO MORE YOU WILL LOVE NO MOREBUGS.

YOU WILL LOVE NO MOREBUGS.

CHAIRS, YOU WILL LOVE NO MOREBUGS.

CHAIRS, SOFAS YOU WILL LOVE NO MOREBUGS.

CHAIRS, SOFAS THE BUGS.

CHAIRS, SOFAS THE BUGS.

CHAIRS, SOFAS THEFLOORS, BUGS.

CHAIRS, SOFAS THEFLOORS, CARPETS, BUGS.

CHAIRS, SOFAS THEFLOORS, CARPETS, YOUR FLOORS, CARPETS, YOUR FLOORS, CARPETS, YOURLONG, FLOORS, CARPETS, YOURLONG, YOUR FLOORS, CARPETS, YOURLONG, YOUR PLANS, FLOORS, CARPETS, YOURLONG, YOUR PLANS, YOUR LONG, YOUR PLANS, YOUR LONG, YOUR PLANS, YOURHOUSE LONG, YOUR PLANS, YOURHOUSE PLANTS! LONG, YOUR PLANS, YOURHOUSE PLANTS! OUTDOOR HOUSE PLANTS! OUTDOOR HOUSE PLANTS! OUTDOORPLANS, HOUSE PLANTS! OUTDOORPLANS, AROUND HOUSE PLANTS! OUTDOORPLANS, AROUND THE HOUSE PLANTS! OUTDOORPLANS, AROUND THE BED, PLANS, AROUND THE BED, PLANS, AROUND THE BED,MATTRESS, PLANS, AROUND THE BED,MATTRESS, BOX PLANS, AROUND THE BED,MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, PLANS, AROUND THE BED,MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, OR MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, OR MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, ORYOURSELF, MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, ORYOURSELF, BY MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, ORYOURSELF, BY THE MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, ORYOURSELF, BY THE WAY MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, ORYOURSELF, BY THE WAY AND YOURSELF, BY THE WAY AND YOURSELF, BY THE WAY ANDYOU YOURSELF, BY THE WAY ANDYOU CAN YOURSELF, BY THE WAY ANDYOU CAN PUT YOURSELF, BY THE WAY ANDYOU CAN PUT IT YOURSELF, BY THE WAY ANDYOU CAN PUT IT ON YOURSELF, BY THE WAY ANDYOU CAN PUT IT ON YOUR YOU CAN PUT IT ON YOUR YOU CAN PUT IT ON YOURPETS.

YOU CAN PUT IT ON YOURPETS.

IT YOU CAN PUT IT ON YOURPETS.

IT IS YOU CAN PUT IT ON YOURPETS.

IT IS SAFE YOU CAN PUT IT ON YOURPETS.

IT IS SAFE OR PETS.

IT IS SAFE OR PETS.

IT IS SAFE ORKIDS! PETS.

IT IS SAFE ORKIDS! HERE'S PETS.

IT IS SAFE ORKIDS! HERE'S WHAT PETS.

IT IS SAFE ORKIDS! HERE'S WHAT IT KIDS! HERE'S WHAT IT KIDS! HERE'S WHAT ITRECALLS KIDS! HERE'S WHAT ITRECALLS TAKES KIDS! HERE'S WHAT ITRECALLS TAKES -- RECALLS TAKES -- RECALLS TAKES --[READING] [READING] [READING]THAT [READING]THAT IS [READING]THAT IS REALLY [READING]THAT IS REALLY GREAT [READING]THAT IS REALLY GREAT TO THAT IS REALLY GREAT TO THAT IS REALLY GREAT TOSPRAY THAT IS REALLY GREAT TOSPRAY ON THAT IS REALLY GREAT TOSPRAY ON YOUR THAT IS REALLY GREAT TOSPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS THAT IS REALLY GREAT TOSPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS S SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS S SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS SIS SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS SIS VIEW SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS SIS VIEW OF SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS SIS VIEW OF MATTRESS SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS SIS VIEW OF MATTRESS IS IS VIEW OF MATTRESS IS IS VIEW OF MATTRESS ISOVER IS VIEW OF MATTRESS ISOVER TWO IS VIEW OF MATTRESS ISOVER TWO YEARS IS VIEW OF MATTRESS ISOVER TWO YEARS OLD, IS VIEW OF MATTRESS ISOVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR, OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR, OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT IS OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT IS IN OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT IS IN ITS OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT OR IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT OR IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT ORNINE IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT ORNINE HERE, IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT ORNINE HERE, YOU IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT ORNINE HERE, YOU NINE IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT ORNINE HERE, YOU NINE HERE NINE HERE, YOU NINE HERE NINE HERE, YOU NINE HEREDEFINITELY NINE HERE, YOU NINE HEREDEFINITELY NEED NINE HERE, YOU NINE HEREDEFINITELY NEED TO NINE HERE, YOU NINE HEREDEFINITELY NEED TO BE DEFINITELY NEED TO BE DEFINITELY NEED TO BESPRAYING DEFINITELY NEED TO BESPRAYING IT.

DEFINITELY NEED TO BESPRAYING IT.

NOW, SPRAYING IT.

NOW, SPRAYING IT.

NOW,MOSQUITOES SPRAYING IT.

NOW,MOSQUITOES ARE SPRAYING IT.

NOW,MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

SPRAYING IT.

NOW,MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

-- MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

-- MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD YOU MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD YOU DON'T MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD YOU DON'T WANT MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BA BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BA BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BAGET BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BAGET A BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BAGET A MOSQUITO BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BAGET A MOSQUITO BITE.

BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BAGET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GE GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GE GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT LET GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT LET ME GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT LET ME TELL GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT LET ME TELL YOU GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT LET ME TELL YOU ARE BUT LET ME TELL YOU ARE BUT LET ME TELL YOU ARETHOSE BUT LET ME TELL YOU ARETHOSE HORRIBLE, BUT LET ME TELL YOU ARETHOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE BUT LET ME TELL YOU ARETHOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE HO THOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE HO THOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE HOCHEMICALS THOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE HOCHEMICALS LIKE THOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE HOCHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEET CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEET CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEETIS CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEETIS A CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEETIS A MAJOR CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEETIS A MAJOR INGREDIENT CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEETIS A MAJOR INGREDIENT IN IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT IN IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT INBUG IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT INBUG SPRAY.

IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT INBUG SPRAY.

THIS IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT INBUG SPRAY.

THIS IS IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT INBUG SPRAY.

THIS IS A BUG SPRAY.

THIS IS A BUG SPRAY.

THIS IS ANATURAL BUG SPRAY.

THIS IS ANATURAL CEDAR BUG SPRAY.

THIS IS ANATURAL CEDAR OIL.

BUG SPRAY.

THIS IS ANATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHAT NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHAT NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHATYOU'RE NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHATYOU'RE GETTING NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHATYOU'RE GETTING IS NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHATYOU'RE GETTING IS THE NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHATYOU'RE GETTING IS THE 32 YOU'RE GETTING IS THE 32 YOU'RE GETTING IS THE 32FLUID YOU'RE GETTING IS THE 32FLUID OUNCE YOU'RE GETTING IS THE 32FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE, FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE, FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD AUTO FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD AUTO FREE FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD AUTO FREE TO FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO A THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO A THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO ADILUTION THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO ADILUTION OF THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO ADILUTION OF IT THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO ADILUTION OF IT AND THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO ADILUTION OF IT AND THE DILUTION OF IT AND THE DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO GO DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO GO ON DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO GO ON THE DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO B BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO B BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO BIT BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO BIT IS BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO BIT IS A BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO BIT IS A TRAVEL BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO BIT IS A TRAVEL SIZED IT IS A TRAVEL SIZED IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, WHAT IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO I IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO IS BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO IS BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI DILUTE BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI DILUTE IT BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI DILUTE IT TO BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI DILUTE IT TO PUT BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI DILUTE IT TO PUT IT I DILUTE IT TO PUT IT I DILUTE IT TO PUT ITON I DILUTE IT TO PUT ITON MYSELF, I DILUTE IT TO PUT ITON MYSELF, AND I DILUTE IT TO PUT ITON MYSELF, AND THEN I DILUTE IT TO PUT ITON MYSELF, AND THEN I ON MYSELF, AND THEN I ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY IT ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY IT ON ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY IT ON AND ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY IT ON AND I ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBED SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBED SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBEDIN SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBEDIN IT SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBEDIN IT SMELLS SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBEDIN IT SMELLS LIKE SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBEDIN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAR IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAR IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I DO IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I DO NOT IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I DO NOT KNOW IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I DO NOT KNOW IF IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOU OIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOU OIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOUHAD OIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOUHAD OR OIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOUHAD OR YOUR OIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOUHAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHER HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHER HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHERHAD HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHERHAD A HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHERHAD A CEDAR HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHERHAD A CEDAR CLOSET HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHERHAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEY HAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEY HAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEYWOULD HAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEYWOULD BUT HAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEYWOULD BUT THERE HAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEYWOULD BUT THERE WILL WOULD BUT THERE WILL WOULD BUT THERE WILLSWEATER'S WOULD BUT THERE WILLSWEATER'S SO WOULD BUT THERE WILLSWEATER'S SO THE WOULD BUT THERE WILLSWEATER'S SO THE MOUSE SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSE SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSEWOULD SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSEWOULD NOT SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSEWOULD NOT EAT SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSEWOULD NOT EAT THEM.

SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSEWOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUT WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUT WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUTCEDAR WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUTCEDAR IS WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUTCEDAR IS A WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUTCEDAR IS A NATURAL WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUTCEDAR IS A NATURAL BUG CEDAR IS A NATURAL BUG CEDAR IS A NATURAL BUGREPELLENT CEDAR IS A NATURAL BUGREPELLENT --WOOL CEDAR IS A NATURAL BUGREPELLENT --WOOL THE CEDAR IS A NATURAL BUGREPELLENT --WOOL THE REP REPELLENT --WOOL THE REP REPELLENT --WOOL THE REPGOOD REPELLENT --WOOL THE REPGOOD FOLKS REPELLENT --WOOL THE REPGOOD FOLKS AT REPELLENT --WOOL THE REPGOOD FOLKS AT NO REPELLENT --WOOL THE REPGOOD FOLKS AT NO MORE GOOD FOLKS AT NO MORE GOOD FOLKS AT NO MOREBUGS! GOOD FOLKS AT NO MOREBUGS! HIGH-GRADE, BUGS! HIGH-GRADE, BUGS! HIGH-GRADE,HIGHEST-QUALITY BUGS! HIGH-GRADE,HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR BUGS! HIGH-GRADE,HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OI BUGS! HIGH-GRADE,HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OIL HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OIL HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OILTHAT HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OILTHAT IS HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OILTHAT IS NATURALLY THAT IS NATURALLY THAT IS NATURALLYGETTING THAT IS NATURALLYGETTING RID THAT IS NATURALLYGETTING RID OF THAT IS NATURALLYGETTING RID OF THESE GETTING RID OF THESE GETTING RID OF THESEBUGS, GETTING RID OF THESEBUGS, DETERRING GETTING RID OF THESEBUGS, DETERRING THEM! GETTING RID OF THESEBUGS, DETERRING THEM! O, BUGS, DETERRING THEM! O, BUGS, DETERRING THEM! O,SPRAY BUGS, DETERRING THEM! O,SPRAY IT BUGS, DETERRING THEM! O,SPRAY IT ON BUGS, DETERRING THEM! O,SPRAY IT ON YOUR SPRAY IT ON YOUR SPRAY IT ON YOURBASEBOARDS, SPRAY IT ON YOURBASEBOARDS, SPRAY SPRAY IT ON YOURBASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWN BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWN BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWNTHE BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWNTHE ENTRY BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWNTHE ENTRY POINT BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWNTHE ENTRY POINT OF BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWNTHE ENTRY POINT OF YOUR THE ENTRY POINT OF YOUR THE ENTRY POINT OF YOURHOME THE ENTRY POINT OF YOURHOME LIKE THE ENTRY POINT OF YOURHOME LIKE A THE ENTRY POINT OF YOURHOME LIKE A SLIDING THE ENTRY POINT OF YOURHOME LIKE A SLIDING LAST HOME LIKE A SLIDING LAST HOME LIKE A SLIDING LASTYOUR! HOME LIKE A SLIDING LASTYOUR! ANYWHERE HOME LIKE A SLIDING LASTYOUR! ANYWHERE YOU HOME LIKE A SLIDING LASTYOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEE YOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEE YOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEEBUGS.

YOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEEBUGS.

TWO YOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEEBUGS.

TWO SPONGES, YOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEEBUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BY BUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BY BUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BYTHE BUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BYTHE WAY, BUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BYTHE WAY, ARE BUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BYTHE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THESE THE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THESE SPONGES THE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THESE SPONGES YOU THE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THESE SPONGES YOU POP THESE SPONGES YOU POP THESE SPONGES YOU POPTHEM THESE SPONGES YOU POPTHEM IN THESE SPONGES YOU POPTHEM IN WATER THESE SPONGES YOU POPTHEM IN WATER AND THESE SPONGES YOU POPTHEM IN WATER AND THEY THEM IN WATER AND THEY THEM IN WATER AND THEYBECOME THEM IN WATER AND THEYBECOME A THEM IN WATER AND THEYBECOME A GROWN-UP THEM IN WATER AND THEYBECOME A GROWN-UP SIZED BECOME A GROWN-UP SIZED BECOME A GROWN-UP SIZEDSPONGES.

BECOME A GROWN-UP SIZEDSPONGES.

AGAIN BECOME A GROWN-UP SIZEDSPONGES.

AGAIN YOU BECOME A GROWN-UP SIZEDSPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POP SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POP SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POPTHEM SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POPTHEM IN SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POPTHEM IN THE SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POPTHEM IN THE MODERN SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POPTHEM IN THE MODERN NAB, THEM IN THE MODERN NAB, THEM IN THE MODERN NAB,GROWN-UP THEM IN THE MODERN NAB,GROWN-UP SIZED THEM IN THE MODERN NAB,GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGES GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGES GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGESAND GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGESAND YOU GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGESAND YOU SPRAY GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGESAND YOU SPRAY SOME AND YOU SPRAY SOME AND YOU SPRAY SOMEPRODUCT AND YOU SPRAY SOMEPRODUCT ON AND YOU SPRAY SOMEPRODUCT ON IT AND YOU SPRAY SOMEPRODUCT ON IT AND AND YOU SPRAY SOMEPRODUCT ON IT AND YOU PRODUCT ON IT AND YOU PRODUCT ON IT AND YOUWIPE PRODUCT ON IT AND YOUWIPE DOWN PRODUCT ON IT AND YOUWIPE DOWN YOUR PRODUCT ON IT AND YOUWIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERS WIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERS WIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERSWHERE WIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERSWHERE YOU WIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERSWHERE YOU KEEP WIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERSWHERE YOU KEEP YOUR WHERE YOU KEEP YOUR WHERE YOU KEEP YOURSILVERWARE, WHERE YOU KEEP YOURSILVERWARE, YOUR WHERE YOU KEEP YOURSILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE, SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE, SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE,YOUR SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE,YOUR CUPS, SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE,YOUR CUPS, THE SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE,YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE,YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE Y YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE Y YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY BUGS YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY BUGS LIKE YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO G YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GO IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GO IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GOTHAT IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GOTHAT -- IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GOTHAT -- PLATES IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GOTHAT -- PLATES IF IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GOTHAT -- PLATES IF YOU THAT -- PLATES IF YOU THAT -- PLATES IF YOUGO THAT -- PLATES IF YOUGO TO THAT -- PLATES IF YOUGO TO THE THAT -- PLATES IF YOUGO TO THE GROCERY THAT -- PLATES IF YOUGO TO THE GROCERY STORE GO TO THE GROCERY STORE GO TO THE GROCERY STORETHE GO TO THE GROCERY STORETHE PLASTIC GO TO THE GROCERY STORETHE PLASTIC BAGS GO TO THE GROCERY STORETHE PLASTIC BAGS IN GO TO THE GROCERY STORETHE PLASTIC BAGS IN THE THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THE THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THEGROCERY THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THEGROCERY STORE THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THEGROCERY STORE TO THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THEGROCERY STORE TO MARK THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THEGROCERY STORE TO MARK GR GROCERY STORE TO MARK GR GROCERY STORE TO MARK GRAND GROCERY STORE TO MARK GRAND THOSE GROCERY STORE TO MARK GRAND THOSE PLASTIC GROCERY STORE TO MARK GRAND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS(.

) AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS(.

) ARE AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS(.

) ARE LIKE AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS(.

) ARE LIKE LARVA AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS(.

) ARE LIKE LARVA AND (.

) ARE LIKE LARVA AND (.

) ARE LIKE LARVA ANDEGGS (.

) ARE LIKE LARVA ANDEGGS FROM (.

) ARE LIKE LARVA ANDEGGS FROM BUGS.

(.

) ARE LIKE LARVA ANDEGGS FROM BUGS.

YOU EGGS FROM BUGS.

YOU EGGS FROM BUGS.

YOUBRING EGGS FROM BUGS.

YOUBRING THOSE EGGS FROM BUGS.

YOUBRING THOSE BAGS EGGS FROM BUGS.

YOUBRING THOSE BAGS HOME, BRING THOSE BAGS HOME, BRING THOSE BAGS HOME,STICK BRING THOSE BAGS HOME,STICK THEM BRING THOSE BAGS HOME,STICK THEM IN BRING THOSE BAGS HOME,STICK THEM IN THE BRING THOSE BAGS HOME,STICK THEM IN THE STICK STICK THEM IN THE STICK STICK THEM IN THE STICKCABINET STICK THEM IN THE STICKCABINET AND STICK THEM IN THE STICKCABINET AND THAT STICK THEM IN THE STICKCABINET AND THAT IS STICK THEM IN THE STICKCABINET AND THAT IS ONE CABINET AND THAT IS ONE CABINET AND THAT IS ONEOF CABINET AND THAT IS ONEOF THE CABINET AND THAT IS ONEOF THE PLACES CABINET AND THAT IS ONEOF THE PLACES (.

) OF THE PLACES (.

) OF THE PLACES (.

)THEY'RE OF THE PLACES (.

)THEY'RE NOT OF THE PLACES (.

)THEY'RE NOT JUST OF THE PLACES (.

)THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'RE THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'RE THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'REMARCHING THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'REMARCHING IN THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'REMARCHING IN FROM THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'REMARCHING IN FROM THE MARCHING IN FROM THE MARCHING IN FROM THEOUTSIDE MARCHING IN FROM THEOUTSIDE SOMETIMES MARCHING IN FROM THEOUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOU OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOU OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOUBRING OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOUBRING THEM OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOUBRING THEM IN.

OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOUBRING THEM IN.

SPRAY OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOUBRING THEM IN.

SPRAY IT BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY IT BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY ITAROUND.

BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY ITAROUND.

LME BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY ITAROUND.

LME TELL BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY ITAROUND.

LME TELL YOU BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY ITAROUND.

LME TELL YOU A AROUND.

LME TELL YOU A AROUND.

LME TELL YOU ALITTLE AROUND.

LME TELL YOU ALITTLE BIT AROUND.

LME TELL YOU ALITTLE BIT OF AROUND.

LME TELL YOU ALITTLE BIT OF HOW AROUND.

LME TELL YOU ALITTLE BIT OF HOW BUGS LITTLE BIT OF HOW BUGS LITTLE BIT OF HOW BUGSBREEZY LITTLE BIT OF HOW BUGSBREEZY DO LITTLE BIT OF HOW BUGSBREEZY DO NOT LITTLE BIT OF HOW BUGSBREEZY DO NOT BREATHE BREEZY DO NOT BREATHE BREEZY DO NOT BREATHETHEIR BREEZY DO NOT BREATHETHEIR NOSE BREEZY DO NOT BREATHETHEIR NOSE OR BREEZY DO NOT BREATHETHEIR NOSE OR THEIR BREEZY DO NOT BREATHETHEIR NOSE OR THEIR THEI THEIR NOSE OR THEIR THEI THEIR NOSE OR THEIR THEIMOUTH THEIR NOSE OR THEIR THEIMOUTH THEY THEIR NOSE OR THEIR THEIMOUTH THEY HAVE THEIR NOSE OR THEIR THEIMOUTH THEY HAVE AN MOUTH THEY HAVE AN MOUTH THEY HAVE ANEXOSKELETON MOUTH THEY HAVE ANEXOSKELETON AND MOUTH THEY HAVE ANEXOSKELETON AND WHAT MOUTH THEY HAVE ANEXOSKELETON AND WHAT THE EXOSKELETON AND WHAT THE EXOSKELETON AND WHAT THECEDAR EXOSKELETON AND WHAT THECEDAR DOES EXOSKELETON AND WHAT THECEDAR DOES IS EXOSKELETON AND WHAT THECEDAR DOES IS IT CEDAR DOES IS IT CEDAR DOES IS ITBASICALLY CEDAR DOES IS ITBASICALLY (.

) CEDAR DOES IS ITBASICALLY (.

) WHEN CEDAR DOES IS ITBASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOU BASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOU BASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOUSPRAY BASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOUSPRAY TO BASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOUSPRAY TO KEEP BASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOUSPRAY TO KEEP THEM BASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOUSPRAY TO KEEP THEM FROM SPRAY TO KEEP THEM FROM SPRAY TO KEEP THEM FROMBEING SPRAY TO KEEP THEM FROMBEING ABLE SPRAY TO KEEP THEM FROMBEING ABLE TO SPRAY TO KEEP THEM FROMBEING ABLE TO BREATHE BEING ABLE TO BREATHE BEING ABLE TO BREATHEWHEN BEING ABLE TO BREATHEWHEN THEY BEING ABLE TO BREATHEWHEN THEY COME BEING ABLE TO BREATHEWHEN THEY COME NEAR BEING ABLE TO BREATHEWHEN THEY COME NEAR IT, WHEN THEY COME NEAR IT, WHEN THEY COME NEAR IT,THEREON WHEN THEY COME NEAR IT,THEREON IN WHEN THEY COME NEAR IT,THEREON IN THE WHEN THEY COME NEAR IT,THEREON IN THE OPPOSITE THEREON IN THE OPPOSITE THEREON IN THE OPPOSITEDIRECTION THEREON IN THE OPPOSITEDIRECTION IS THEREON IN THE OPPOSITEDIRECTION IS LIKE THEREON IN THE OPPOSITEDIRECTION IS LIKE THE DIRECTION IS LIKE THE DIRECTION IS LIKE THELAST DIRECTION IS LIKE THELAST THING DIRECTION IS LIKE THELAST THING IN DIRECTION IS LIKE THELAST THING IN THE DIRECTION IS LIKE THELAST THING IN THE WORLD LAST THING IN THE WORLD LAST THING IN THE WORLDARE LAST THING IN THE WORLDARE EXAMPLE LAST THING IN THE WORLDARE EXAMPLE OF LAST THING IN THE WORLDARE EXAMPLE OF A ARE EXAMPLE OF A ARE EXAMPLE OF AMOSQUITOES ARE EXAMPLE OF AMOSQUITOES BUZZING ARE EXAMPLE OF AMOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQU MOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQU MOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQUAROUND MOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQUAROUND YOU MOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQUAROUND YOU AS MOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQUAROUND YOU AS THEY MOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQUAROUND YOU AS THEY GET AROUND YOU AS THEY GET AROUND YOU AS THEY GETCLOSE AROUND YOU AS THEY GETCLOSE AND AROUND YOU AS THEY GETCLOSE AND SMELL AROUND YOU AS THEY GETCLOSE AND SMELL THE CLOSE AND SMELL THE CLOSE AND SMELL THECEDAR, CLOSE AND SMELL THECEDAR, WHICH CLOSE AND SMELL THECEDAR, WHICH SMELLS CLOSE AND SMELL THECEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERY CEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERY CEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERYNICE CEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERYNICE (.

) CEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERYNICE (.

) IT CEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERYNICE (.

) IT IS CEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERYNICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY, NICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY, NICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY,BUT NICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY,BUT THEY NICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY,BUT THEY ARE NICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY,BUT THEY ARE JUST NICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY,BUT THEY ARE JUST GOING BUT THEY ARE JUST GOING BUT THEY ARE JUST GOINGTO BUT THEY ARE JUST GOINGTO GO BUT THEY ARE JUST GOINGTO GO AWAY BUT THEY ARE JUST GOINGTO GO AWAY IF BUT THEY ARE JUST GOINGTO GO AWAY IF YOU BUT THEY ARE JUST GOINGTO GO AWAY IF YOU ARE BUT THEY ARE JUST GOINGTO GO AWAY IF YOU ARE AT TO GO AWAY IF YOU ARE AT TO GO AWAY IF YOU ARE ATTHE TO GO AWAY IF YOU ARE ATTHE OUTDOOR TO GO AWAY IF YOU ARE ATTHE OUTDOOR CONCERT, TO GO AWAY IF YOU ARE ATTHE OUTDOOR CONCERT, THE THE OUTDOOR CONCERT, THE THE OUTDOOR CONCERT, THETHAT THE OUTDOOR CONCERT, THETHAT THE THE OUTDOOR CONCERT, THETHAT THE PARK THE OUTDOOR CONCERT, THETHAT THE PARK THIS THE OUTDOOR CONCERT, THETHAT THE PARK THIS SUMME THE OUTDOOR CONCERT, THETHAT THE PARK THIS SUMMER THAT THE PARK THIS SUMMER THAT THE PARK THIS SUMMERIF THAT THE PARK THIS SUMMERIF YOU THAT THE PARK THIS SUMMERIF YOU ARE THAT THE PARK THIS SUMMERIF YOU ARE GOING THAT THE PARK THIS SUMMERIF YOU ARE GOING TO THAT THE PARK THIS SUMMERIF YOU ARE GOING TO THE IF YOU ARE GOING TO THE IF YOU ARE GOING TO THEBEACH IF YOU ARE GOING TO THEBEACH AND IF YOU ARE GOING TO THEBEACH AND YOU IF YOU ARE GOING TO THEBEACH AND YOU HAVE IF YOU ARE GOING TO THEBEACH AND YOU HAVE THOSE BEACH AND YOU HAVE THOSE BEACH AND YOU HAVE THOSEBIG BEACH AND YOU HAVE THOSEBIG FLIES, BEACH AND YOU HAVE THOSEBIG FLIES, GREAT BEACH AND YOU HAVE THOSEBIG FLIES, GREAT THINGS BIG FLIES, GREAT THINGS BIG FLIES, GREAT THINGSTHAT BIG FLIES, GREAT THINGSTHAT BITE BIG FLIES, GREAT THINGSTHAT BITE YOU, BIG FLIES, GREAT THINGSTHAT BITE YOU, THIS THAT BITE YOU, THIS THAT BITE YOU, THISREALLY THAT BITE YOU, THISREALLY IS THAT BITE YOU, THISREALLY IS A THAT BITE YOU, THISREALLY IS A MUST THAT BITE YOU, THISREALLY IS A MUST HAVE REALLY IS A MUST HAVE REALLY IS A MUST HAVEEVERYBODY.

REALLY IS A MUST HAVEEVERYBODY.

IT REALLY IS A MUST HAVEEVERYBODY.

IT DOES REALLY IS A MUST HAVEEVERYBODY.

IT DOES NOT EVERYBODY.

IT DOES NOT EVERYBODY.

IT DOES NOTMATTER EVERYBODY.

IT DOES NOTMATTER WHO EVERYBODY.

IT DOES NOTMATTER WHO YOU.

Maricopa

Different Types of Pest Control Methods


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Taft Bed Bugs Killer

Pest control in Taft for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Cockroach Infestation

Taft Pest Control For Rodents

Educational material only, to be used as a font of information.

Do not use it as a reference for any other country, except the UK.

Each country has its own legislation about pest animals and the authorized ways to manage them may vary.

The pest control methods used by this channel follow all the regulations of the country they were made.

This channel DO NOT encourage: Animal abuse in any way; Illegal methods of pest control in any country; The use of airguns by non-authorized people or people without proper training.

Viewers discretion is advised.

WHY RATS/MICE ARE CONSIDERED PESTS IN THE UK? Rats and mice, carry more than 35 diseases that may affect humans, usually in saliva, urine, excrement, and fur.

They may cause structural damage, fires, holes in water and gas pipes.

They contaminate food sources and eat eggs and small birds.

BLACK DEATH, that killed about 75 million people in Europe in the Middle Age.

Transmitted by contaminated fleas of rodents like rats and Grey Squirrel.

WHY PIGEONS/DOVES ARE CONSIDERED PESTS IN THE UK?(Feral, Woodpigeon and Collared Doves) Because of health and safety hazard, damage to the production and property.

Infectious, respiratory and parasitic diseases, which can cause death.

And other 70 different types of diseases through the saliva, excrements, and feathers.

Besides that, they are the host of parasites of disease vectors, like mosquitoes, mites, fleas, and ticks.

Around airport areas, pigeons may cause accidents, colliding against airplanes.

They cause property damage, making nests and pooping in urban areas.

Feathers can cause malfunctioning by blocking pipes or clogging air conditioning units.

Their poop and dropping are acid and erode concrete and metal structures, likes bridges, buildings, and monuments, besides transmitting disease.

The costs associated with preventing damages, cleaning areas and maintaining structures and monuments are millions per year.

Besides eating a considerable part of the production – each pigeon can eat about 30% of its own weight per day, The pigeons contaminate part of the grain production and the cattle food with their poop.

Grain, cattle and milk farms, can lose up to £100,000 (US$120,000) per year, due to the infestation of pigeons, doves, and others.

This amount is multiplicated by each intestate farm.

WHY ARE GREY SQUIRREL CONSIDERED PESTS IN THE UK? Grey Squirrels, also called “Rat Trees” are an invader species in this country, since the end of 1870’s.

Extremely active and territorialist, these animals are omnivorous and even cannibals.

They can destroy the nest of native and protected birds, eating their eggs and chicks.

The environmental loss is immeasurable.

Grey Squirrels are highly competitive for food sources.

This fact contributes to the imbalance between this species and the Red Squirrel, which is native to the UK.

Besides, Grey Squirrel carry a highly contagious disease which is mortal to the Red Squirrel.

The “POX” as the disease is called, do not affect the Greys, However, it causes cancers, ulcers, tremors, lethargy, and finally death in the Reds.

Grey Squirrels also contribute to killing native species of trees and other plants.

Sometimes, the trees are centenarian.

This is caused by the habit of bark stripping trees, which might cause the death of the tree, due to fungal infections and lack of nutrients.

WHY ARE RABBITS CONSIDERED PESTS IN THE UK? Despite the “cute” look, Rabbits are an endemic pest in rural areas in the UK.

Their current population is above 60 million in this country.

Annually, the loss overcomes £100 million (US$120 million).

In terms of annual yield, a loss of 1% per rabbit per hectare of wheat is the average.

Besides de damage to roads, structures, and soil contamination.

Rabbits are such a problem in the UK that they are the only type of pest, which the citizen (landowner) has a legal duty to remove the animals from the area, subject to a fine.

WHY ARE CORVIDS CONSIDERED PESTS IN THE UK? These birds are aggressive and territorialist.

They may attack people and other animals, depending on the proximity of their colony or nests.

In rural areas, these birds are very harmful, if in huge numbers.

They may ruin plantations and contaminate cattle food and cause diseases.

In lower numbers, they still can affect local ecosystem, killing small wild birds, destroying their nests, eating eggs and chicks.

WHY ARE GULLS CONSIDERED PESTS IN THE UK? The population of Lesser Black-Backed Gulls has increased exponentially in the last 50 years, mainly in urban areas in the UK.

Besides, about 40% of the population of those birds in Europe, live in the UK, so that is why they should be controlled.

With the huge offer of food and places to breed, those birds make a nest on the roofs, terrace, and other protected places of houses, buildings, and monuments.

The nests create a scenario of infestation of vectors of diseases, besides causing damage to properties.

They are also aggressive and may attack and hurt humans and other animals.

WHY USING AIRGUNS TO DOING PEST CONTROL? Used by a skillful and trained shooter, become one of the safest and effective ways to do pest control.

The systematic reduction of pests’ population, helps to balance the environment and to protect native and threatened species.

Although the graphic character (blood, spasms, etc.

), the animal is not suffering anymore, once that the kill is instantaneous.

The management of pest species is made in a professional and responsible way, always aiming to vitals, like head, cervical column, lungs, and heart – the called “Clean Kill”.

The responsible shooter will not shoot if it is sure that the kill will be clean and quick.

Besides, if necessary, a second shot may take place, to make sure the animal is dead.

Other methods of pest control are palliative, and do not result in effective control of the population, and are also highly expensive.

Although many people may think, the GOOD AIRGUN SHOOTER, loves and respects animals, and only do pest control in a responsible and proper manner, looking the environment balance.

10 shots25 meters / 27 yardsØ (diameter) = 0.

20 in REFERENCES Links on the description.

LIKE.

SUBSCRIBE.

SHARE.

BECOME A PATREON.

Mouse Infestation

How Rodents Can Make Your Home An Unhealthy Place

Syrphus hoverfly larva (below) feeding on aphids (above), is a natural biological control agent. A parasitoid wasp (Cotesia congregata) adult with pupal cocoons on its host, a tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta (green background). One example of a hymenopteran biological control agent.

Biological control is a method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms.[1] It relies on predation, parasitism, herbivory, or other natural mechanisms, but typically also involves an active human management role. It can be an important component of integrated pest management (IPM) programs.

There are three basic types of biological pest control strategies: importation (sometimes called classical biological control), in which a natural enemy of a pest is introduced in the hope of achieving control; augmentation, in which locally-occurring natural enemies are bred and released to improve control; and conservation, in which measures are taken to increase natural enemies, such as by planting nectar-producing crop plants in the borders of rice fields.

Natural enemies of insect pests, also known as biological control agents, include predators, parasitoids, pathogens, and competitors. Biological control agents of plant diseases are most often referred to as antagonists. Biological control agents of weeds include seed predators, herbivores and plant pathogens.

Biological control can have side-effects on biodiversity through attacks on non-target species by any of the same mechanisms, especially when a species is introduced without thorough understanding of the possible consequences.

The term "biological control" was first used by Harry Scott Smith at the 1919 meeting of the Pacific Slope Branch of the American Association of Economic Entomologists, in Riverside, California.[2] It was brought into more widespread use by the entomologist Paul H. DeBach (1914–1993) who worked on citrus crop pests throughout his life.[3][4] However, the practice has previously been used for centuries. The first report of the use of an insect species to control an insect pest comes from "Nan Fang Cao Mu Zhuang" (南方草木狀 Plants of the Southern Regions) (ca. 304 AD), attributed to Western Jin dynasty botanist Ji Han (嵇含, 263–307), in which it is mentioned that "Jiaozhi people sell ants and their nests attached to twigs looking like thin cotton envelopes, the reddish-yellow ant being larger than normal. Without such ants, southern citrus fruits will be severely insect-damaged".[5] The ants used are known as huang gan (huang = yellow, gan = citrus) ants (Oecophylla smaragdina). The practice was later reported by Ling Biao Lu Yi (late Tang Dynasty or Early Five Dynasties), in Ji Le Pian by Zhuang Jisu (Southern Song Dynasty), in the Book of Tree Planting by Yu Zhen Mu (Ming Dynasty), in the book Guangdong Xing Yu (17th century), Lingnan by Wu Zhen Fang (Qing Dynasty), in Nanyue Miscellanies by Li Diao Yuan, and others.[5]

Biological control techniques as we know them today started to emerge in the 1870s. During this decade, in the USA, the Missouri State Entomologist C. V. Riley and the Illinois State Entomologist W. LeBaron began within-state redistribution of parasitoids to control crop pests. The first international shipment of an insect as biological control agent was made by Charles V. Riley in 1873, shipping to France the predatory mites Tyroglyphus phylloxera to help fight the grapevine phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae) that was destroying grapevines in France. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) initiated research in classical biological control following the establishment of the Division of Entomology in 1881, with C. V. Riley as Chief. The first importation of a parasitoidal wasp into the United States was that of the braconid Cotesia glomerata in 1883–1884, imported from Europe to control the invasive cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae. In 1888–1889 the vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis, a lady beetle, was introduced from Australia to California to control the cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi. This had become a major problem for the newly developed citrus industry in California, but by the end of 1889 the cottony cushion scale population had already declined. This great success led to further introductions of beneficial insects into the USA.[6][7]

In 1905 the USDA initiated its first large-scale biological control program, sending entomologists to Europe and Japan to look for natural enemies of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar dispar, and brown-tail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhoea, invasive pests of trees and shrubs. As a result, nine parasitoids (solitary wasps) of gypsy moth, seven of brown-tail moth, and two predators of both moths became established in the USA. Although the gypsy moth was not fully controlled by these natural enemies, the frequency, duration, and severity of its outbreaks were reduced and the program was regarded as successful. This program also led to the development of many concepts, principles, and procedures for the implementation of biological control programs.[6][7][8]

Cactoblastis cactorum larvae feeding on Opuntia prickly pear cacti

Prickly pear cacti were introduced into Queensland, Australia as ornamental plants, starting in 1788. They quickly spread to cover over 25 million hectares of Australia by 1920, increasing by 1 million hectares per year. Digging, burning and crushing all proved ineffective. By 1914, two control agents were introduced to help control the spread of the plant, the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum, and the scale insect Dactylopius. By 1917, most areas of prickly pear had been destroyed.[9]

The first reported case of a classical biological control attempt in Canada involves the parasitoidal wasp Trichogramma minutum. Individuals were caught in New York State and released in Ontario gardens in 1882 by William Saunders, trained chemist and first Director of the Dominion Experimental Farms, for controlling the invasive currantworm Nematus ribesii. Between 1884 and 1908, the first Dominion Entomologist, James Fletcher, continued introductions of other parasitoids and pathogens for the control of pests in Canada.[10]

There are three basic biological pest control strategies: importation (classical biological control), augmentation and conservation.[11]

Rodolia cardinalis, the vedalia beetle, was imported to Australia in the 19th century, successfully controlling cottony cushion scale.

Importation or classical biological control involves the introduction of a pest's natural enemies to a new locale where they do not occur naturally. Early instances were often unofficial and not based on research, and some introduced species became serious pests themselves.[12]

To be most effective at controlling a pest, a biological control agent requires a colonizing ability which allows it to keep pace with changes to the habitat in space and time. Control is greatest if the agent has temporal persistence, so that it can maintain its population even in the temporary absence of the target species, and if it is an opportunistic forager, enabling it to rapidly exploit a pest population.[13]

Joseph Needham noted a Chinese text dating from 304 AD, Records of the Plants and Trees of the Southern Regions, by Hsi Han, which describes mandarin oranges protected by large reddish-yellow citrus ants which attack and kill insect pests of the orange trees. The citrus ant (Oecophylla smaragdina)[14] was rediscovered in the 20th century, and since 1958 has been used in China to protect orange groves.[15]

One of the earliest successes in the west was in controlling Icerya purchasi (cottony cushion scale) in Australia, using a predatory insect Rodolia cardinalis (the vedalia beetle). This success was repeated in California using the beetle and a parasitoidal fly, Cryptochaetum iceryae.[16]

Damage from Hypera postica, the alfalfa weevil, a serious introduced pest of forage, was substantially reduced by the introduction of natural enemies. 20 years after their introduction the population of weevils in the alfalfa area treated for alfalfa weevil in the Northeastern United States remained 75 percent down.[17]

The invasive species Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed) was controlled in Florida (U.S.) by introducing alligator weed flea beetle.

Alligator weed was introduced to the United States from South America. It takes root in shallow water, interfering with navigation, irrigation, and flood control. The alligator weed flea beetle and two other biological controls were released in Florida, greatly reducing the amount of land covered by the plant.[18] Another aquatic weed, the giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta) is a serious pest, covering waterways, reducing water flow and harming native species. Control with the salvinia weevil (Cyrtobagous salviniae) is effective in warm climates,[19] and in Zimbabwe, a 99% control of the weed was obtained over a two-year period.[20]

Small commercially reared parasitoidal wasps,[11]Trichogramma ostriniae, provide limited and erratic control of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), a serious pest. Careful formulations of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis are more effective.[21]

The population of Levuana iridescens, the Levuana moth, a serious coconut pest in Fiji, was brought under control by a classical biological control program in the 1920s.[22]

Hippodamia convergens, the convergent lady beetle, is commonly sold for biological control of aphids.

Augmentation involves the supplemental release of natural enemies that occur in a particular area, boosting the naturally occurring populations there. In inoculative release, small numbers of the control agents are released at intervals to allow them to reproduce, in the hope of setting up longer-term control, and thus keeping the pest down to a low level, constituting prevention rather than cure. In inundative release, in contrast, large numbers are released in the hope of rapidly reducing a damaging pest population, correcting a problem that has already arisen. Augmentation can be effective, but is not guaranteed to work, and depends on the precise details of the interactions between each pest and control agent.[23]

An example of inoculative release occurs in the horticultural production of several crops in greenhouses. Periodic releases of the parasitoidal wasp, Encarsia formosa, are used to control greenhouse whitefly,[24] while the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis is used for control of the two-spotted spider mite.[25]

The egg parasite Trichogramma is frequently released inundatively to control harmful moths. Similarly, Bacillus thuringiensis and other microbial insecticides are used in large enough quantities for a rapid effect.[23] Recommended release rates for Trichogramma in vegetable or field crops range from 5,000 to 200,000 per acre (1 to 50 per square metre) per week according to the level of pest infestation.[26] Similarly, nematodes that kill insects (that are entomopathogenic) are released at rates of millions and even billions per acre for control of certain soil-dwelling insect pests.[27]

The conservation of existing natural enemies in an environment is the third method of biological pest control.[28] Natural enemies are already adapted to the habitat and to the target pest, and their conservation can be simple and cost-effective, as when nectar-producing crop plants are grown in the borders of rice fields. These provide nectar to support parasitoids and predators of planthopper pests and have been demonstrated to be so effective (reducing pest densities by 10- or even 100-fold) that farmers sprayed 70% less insecticides and enjoyed yields boosted by 5%.[29] Predators of aphids were similarly found to be present in tussock grasses by field boundary hedges in England, but they spread too slowly to reach the centres of fields. Control was improved by planting a metre-wide strip of tussock grasses in field centres, enabling aphid predators to overwinter there.[28]

An inverted flowerpot filled with straw to attract earwigs

Cropping systems can be modified to favor natural enemies, a practice sometimes referred to as habitat manipulation. Providing a suitable habitat, such as a shelterbelt, hedgerow, or beetle bank where beneficial insects such as parasitoidal wasps can live and reproduce, can help ensure the survival of populations of natural enemies. Things as simple as leaving a layer of fallen leaves or mulch in place provides a suitable food source for worms and provides a shelter for insects, in turn being a food source for such beneficial mammals as hedgehogs and shrews. Compost piles and stacks of wood can provide shelter for invertebrates and small mammals. Long grass and ponds support amphibians. Not removing dead annuals and non-hardy plants in the autumn allows insects to make use of their hollow stems during winter.[30] In California, prune trees are sometimes planted in grape vineyards to provide an improved overwintering habitat or refuge for a key grape pest parasitoid.[31] The providing of artificial shelters in the form of wooden caskets, boxes or flowerpots is also sometimes undertaken, particularly in gardens, to make a cropped area more attractive to natural enemies. For example, earwigs are natural predators which can be encouraged in gardens by hanging upside-down flowerpots filled with straw or wood wool. Green lacewings can be encouraged by using plastic bottles with an open bottom and a roll of cardboard inside. Birdhouses enable insectivorous birds to nest; the most useful birds can be attracted by choosing an opening just large enough for the desired species.[30]

In cotton production, the replacement of broad-spectrum insecticides with selective control measures such as Bt cotton can create a more favorable environment for natural enemies of cotton pests due to reduced insecticide exposure risk. Such predators or parasitoids can control pests not affected by the Bt protein. Reduced prey quality and abundance associated increased control from Bt cotton can also indirectly decrease natural enemy populations in some cases, but the percentage of pests eaten or parasitized in Bt and non-Bt cotton are often similar.[32]

Lacewings are available from biocontrol dealers.

Predators are mainly free-living species that directly consume a large number of prey during their whole lifetime. Given that many major crop pests are insects, many of the predators used in biological control are insectivorous species. Lady beetles, and in particular their larvae which are active between May and July in the northern hemisphere, are voracious predators of aphids, and also consume mites, scale insects and small caterpillars. The spotted lady beetle (Coleomegilla maculata) is also able to feed on the eggs and larvae of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata).[33]

The larvae of many hoverfly species principally feed upon aphids, one larva devouring up to 400 in its lifetime. Their effectiveness in commercial crops has not been studied.[34]

Predatory Polistes wasp searching for bollworms or other caterpillars on a cotton plant

Several species of entomopathogenic nematode are important predators of insect and other invertebrate pests.[35]Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is a microscopic nematode that kills slugs. Its complex life cycle includes a free-living, infective stage in the soil where it becomes associated with a pathogenic bacteria such as Moraxella osloensis. The nematode enters the slug through the posterior mantle region, thereafter feeding and reproducing inside, but it is the bacteria that kill the slug. The nematode is available commercially in Europe and is applied by watering onto moist soil.[36]

Species used to control spider mites include the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis,[37]Neoseilus californicus,[38] and Amblyseius cucumeris, the predatory midge Feltiella acarisuga,[38] and a ladybird Stethorus punctillum.[38] The bug Orius insidiosus has been successfully used against the two-spotted spider mite and the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis).[39]

Parasitoids lay their eggs on or in the body of an insect host, which is then used as a food for developing larvae. The host is ultimately killed. Most insect parasitoids are wasps or flies, and many have a very narrow host range. The most important groups are the ichneumonid wasps, which mainly use caterpillars as hosts; braconid wasps, which attack caterpillars and a wide range of other insects including aphids; chalcid wasps, which parasitize eggs and larvae of many insect species; and tachinid flies, which parasitize a wide range of insects including caterpillars, beetle adults and larvae, and true bugs.[40]

Encarsia formosa, widely used in greenhouse horticulture, was one of the first biological control agents developed. Life cycles of greenhouse whitefly and its parasitoid wasp Encarsia formosa

Encarsia formosa is a small predatory chalcid wasp which is a parasitoid of whitefly, a sap-feeding insect which can cause wilting and black sooty moulds in glasshouse vegetable and ornamental crops. It is most effective when dealing with low level infestations, giving protection over a long period of time. The wasp lays its eggs in young whitefly 'scales', turning them black as the parasite larvae pupate.[24]Gonatocerus ashmeadi (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) has been introduced to control the glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in French Polynesia and has successfully controlled ~95% of the pest density.[41]

Parasitoids are among the most widely used biological control agents. Commercially, there are two types of rearing systems: short-term daily output with high production of parasitoids per day, and long-term, low daily output systems.[42] In most instances, production will need to be matched with the appropriate release dates when susceptible host species at a suitable phase of development will be available.[43] Larger production facilities produce on a yearlong basis, whereas some facilities produce only seasonally. Rearing facilities are usually a significant distance from where the agents are to be used in the field, and transporting the parasitoids from the point of production to the point of use can pose problems.[44] Shipping conditions can be too hot, and even vibrations from planes or trucks can adversely affect parasitoids.[42]

Further information: biopesticide

Pathogenic micro-organisms include bacteria, fungi, and viruses. They kill or debilitate their host and are relatively host-specific. Various microbial insect diseases occur naturally, but may also be used as biological pesticides.[45] When naturally occurring, these outbreaks are density-dependent in that they generally only occur as insect populations become denser.[46]

Bacteria used for biological control infect insects via their digestive tracts, so they offer only limited options for controlling insects with sucking mouth parts such as aphids and scale insects.[47]Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely applied species of bacteria used for biological control, with at least four sub-species used against Lepidopteran (moth, butterfly), Coleopteran (beetle) and Dipteran (true fly) insect pests. The bacterium is available to organic farmers in sachets of dried spores which are mixed with water and sprayed onto vulnerable plants such as brassicas and fruit trees.[48][49]Genes from B. thuringiensis have also been incorporated into transgenic crops, making the plants express some of the bacterium's toxins, which are proteins. These confer resistance to insect pests and thus reduce the necessity for pesticide use.[50] If pests develop resistance to the toxins in these crops, B. thuringiensis will become useless in organic farming also.[51][49] The bacterium Paenibacillus popilliae which causes milky spore disease has been found useful in the control of Japanese beetle, killing the larvae. It is very specific to its host species and is harmless to vertebrates and other invertebrates.[52]

Green peach aphid, a pest in its own right and a vector of plant viruses, killed by the fungus Pandora neoaphidis (Zygomycota: Entomophthorales) Scale bar = 0.3 mm.

Entomopathogenic fungi, which cause disease in insects, include at least 14 species that attack aphids.[53]Beauveria bassiana is mass-produced and used to manage a wide variety of insect pests including whiteflies, thrips, aphids and weevils.[54]Lecanicillium spp. are deployed against white flies, thrips and aphids. Metarhizium spp. are used against pests including beetles, locusts and other grasshoppers, Hemiptera, and spider mites. Paecilomyces fumosoroseus is effective against white flies, thrips and aphids; Purpureocillium lilacinus is used against root-knot nematodes, and 89 Trichoderma species against certain plant pathogens. Trichoderma viride has been used against Dutch elm disease, and has shown some effect in suppressing silver leaf, a disease of stone fruits caused by the pathogenic fungus Chondrostereum purpureum.[55]

The fungi Cordyceps and Metacordyceps are deployed against a wide spectrum of arthropods.[56]Entomophaga is effective against pests such as the green peach aphid.[57]

Several members of Chytridiomycota and Blastocladiomycota have been explored as agents of biological control.[58][59] From Chytridiomycota, Synchytrium solstitiale is being considered as a control agent of the yellow star thistle (Centaurea solstitialis) in the United States.[60]

Baculoviruses are specific to individual insect host species and have been shown to be useful in biological pest control. For example, the Lymantria dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus has been used to spray large areas of forest in North America where larvae of the gypsy moth are causing serious defoliation. The moth larvae are killed by the virus they have eaten and die, the disintegrating cadavers leaving virus particles on the foliage to infect other larvae.[61]

A mammalian virus, the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus was introduced to Australia to attempt to control the European rabbit populations there.[62] It escaped from quarantine and spread across the country, killing large numbers of rabbits. Very young animals survived, passing immunity to their offspring in due course and eventually producing a virus-resistant population.[63] Introduction into New Zealand in the 1990s was similarly successful at first, but a decade later, immunity had developed and populations had returned to pre-RHD levels.[64]

Lagenidium giganteum is a water-borne mould that parasitizes the larval stage of mosquitoes. When applied to water, the motile spores avoid unsuitable host species and search out suitable mosquito larval hosts. This alga has the advantages of a dormant phase, resistant to desiccation, with slow-release characteristics over several years. Unfortunately, it is susceptible to many chemicals used in mosquito abatement programmes.[65]

The legume vine Mucuna pruriens is used in the countries of Benin and Vietnam as a biological control for problematic Imperata cylindrica grass: the vine is extremely vigorous and suppresses neighbouring plants by out-competing them for space and light. Mucuna pruriens is said not to be invasive outside its cultivated area.[66]Desmodium uncinatum can be used in push-pull farming to stop the parasitic plant, witchweed (Striga).[67]

The Australian bush fly, Musca vetustissima, is a major nuisance pest in Australia, but native decomposers found in Australia are not adapted to feeding on cow dung, which is where bush flies breed. Therefore, the Australian Dung Beetle Project (1965–1985), led by George Bornemissza of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, released forty-nine species of dung beetle, to reduce the amount of dung and therefore also the potential breeding sites of the fly.[68]

In cases of massive and severe infection of invasive pests, techniques of pest control are often used in combination. An example is the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, an invasive beetle from China, which has destroyed tens of millions of ash trees in its introduced range in North America. As part of the campaign against it, from 2003 American scientists and the Chinese Academy of Forestry searched for its natural enemies in the wild, leading to the discovery of several parasitoid wasps, namely Tetrastichus planipennisi, a gregarious larval endoparasitoid, Oobius agrili, a solitary, parthenogenic egg parasitoid, and Spathius agrili, a gregarious larval ectoparasitoid. These have been introduced and released into the United States of America as a possible biological control of the emerald ash borer. Initial results for Tetrastichus planipennisi have shown promise, and it is now being released along with Beauveria bassiana, a fungal pathogen with known insecticidal properties.[69][70][71]

Many of the most important pests are exotic, invasive species that severely impact agriculture, horticulture, forestry and urban environments. They tend to arrive without their co-evolved parasites, pathogens and predators, and by escaping from these, populations may soar. Importing the natural enemies of these pests may seem a logical move but this may have unintended consequences; regulations may be ineffective and there may be unanticipated effects on biodiversity, and the adoption of the techniques may prove challenging because of a lack of knowledge among farmers and growers.[72]

Biological control can affect biodiversity[13] through predation, parasitism, pathogenicity, competition, or other attacks on non-target species.[73] An introduced control does not always target only the intended pest species; it can also target native species.[74] In Hawaii during the 1940s parasitic wasps were introduced to control a lepidopteran pest and the wasps are still found there today. This may have a negative impact on the native ecosystem, however, host range and impacts need to be studied before declaring their impact on the environment.[75]

Cane toad (introduced into Australia 1935) spread from 1940 to 1980: it was ineffective as a control agent. Its distribution has continued to widen since 1980.

Vertebrate animals tend to be generalist feeders, and seldom make good biological control agents; many of the classic cases of "biocontrol gone awry" involve vertebrates. For example, the cane toad (Rhinella marina) was intentionally introduced to Australia to control the greyback cane beetle (Dermolepida albohirtum),[76] and other pests of sugar cane. 102 toads were obtained from Hawaii and bred in captivity to increase their numbers until they were released into the sugar cane fields of the tropic north in 1935. It was later discovered that the toads could not jump very high and so were unable to eat the cane beetles which stayed up on the upper stalks of the cane plants. However the toad thrived by feeding on other insects and it soon spread very rapidly; it took over native amphibian habitat and brought foreign disease to native toads and frogs, dramatically reducing their populations. Also when it is threatened or handled, the cane toad releases poison from parotoid glands on its shoulders; native Australian species such as goannas, tiger snakes, dingos and northern quolls that attempted to eat the toad were harmed or killed. However, there has been some recent evidence that native predators are adapting, both physiologically and through changing their behaviour, so in the long run, their populations may recover.[77]

Rhinocyllus conicus, a seed-feeding weevil, was introduced to North America to control exotic musk thistle (Carduus nutans) and Canadian thistle (Cirsium arvense). However the weevil also attacks native thistles, harming such species as the endemic Platte thistle (Cirsium neomexicanum) by selecting larger plants (which reduced the gene pool), reducing seed production and ultimately threatening the species' survival.[78]

The small Asian mongoose (Herpestus javanicus) was introduced to Hawaii in order to control the rat population. However the mongoose was diurnal, and the rats emerged at night; so it preyed on the endemic birds of Hawaii, especially their eggs, more often than it ate the rats, and now both rats and mongooses threaten the birds. This introduction was undertaken without understanding the consequences of such an action. No regulations existed at the time, and more careful evaluation should prevent such releases now.[79]

The sturdy and prolific eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) is a native of the southeastern United States and was introduced around the world in the 1930s and 40s to feed on mosquito larvae and thus combat malaria. However, it has thrived at the expense of local species, causing a decline of endemic fish and frogs through competition for food resources, as well as through eating their eggs and larvae.[80] In Australia, the mosquitofish is the subject of discussion as to how best to control it; in 1989 it was said that "biological population control is well beyond present capabilities", and this remains the position.[81]

A potential obstacle to the adoption of biological pest control measures is growers sticking to the familiar use of pesticides. However, pesticides have a variety of undesired effects, including the development of resistance among pests, and the destruction of natural enemies; these may in turn enable outbreaks of pests of other species than the ones originally targeted, and on crops at a distance from those treated with pesticides.[82] One method of increasing grower adoption of biocontrol methods involves letting them learn by doing, for example showing them simple field experiments, enabling them to observe the live predation of pests, or demonstrations of parasitised pests. In the Philippines, early season sprays against leaf folder caterpillars were common practice, but growers were asked to follow a 'rule of thumb' of not spraying against leaf folders for the first 30 days after transplanting; participation in this resulted in a reduction of insecticide use by 1/3 and a change in grower perception of insecticide use.[83]

General Effects on native biodiversity Effects on invasive species Economic effects

Taft

Pest Control: Getting Rid of Rodents


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Bodfish Pigeon Control

Pest control in Bodfish for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Ant Infestation

Bodfish Pest Control For Rodents

Terminix International Company, L.P. is one of the largest pest control companies in the world, operating in 47 states in the United States and 22 countries around the world. It is a subsidiary of ServiceMaster Global Holdings, Inc.[1]

In 1927, E. L. Bruce, owner of the E. L. Bruce Company in Memphis, Tennessee, wanted to find a way to protect the hardwood floors they manufactured from damage by termites and founded the Bruce Terminix Research Laboratory. In 1932, senior chemist Frank Lyons created the first termiticide, an insecticide specifically designed to kill termites. The company began to franchise under the name Bruce Terminix. In 1955, Terminix was the first company to offer a termite protection contract, with annual inspections and a guarantee. In 1957, franchisees began offering residential and commercial pest control services.[2]

In 1968, the E. L. Bruce Company, including Bruce Terminix, was sold to Cook Industries. The company began looking to expand its business both inside and outside of the United States and purchased a pest control company in Mexico. Terminix partnered with Sears, Roebuck and Company to offer pest control services under the Sears Termite and Pest Control name. In 1972, the company changed their name to Terminix International to highlight their expanded operations.[3]

ServiceMaster, a global holding company, purchased Terminix from Cook Industries in 1986.[1] It continued to acquire pest control companies, including former franchisees, to become the largest pest control company in the world by 1990. The company expanded into Europe in 1994 with the acquisition of Peter Cox PLC, a pest-control and wood-preservation business in Britain.[1] In 2001, Terminix purchased its former partner, Sears Termite and Pest Control.[3] In 2007, ServiceMaster moved its main offices from Downers Grove, Illinois to the site of Terminix's headquarters in Memphis, Tennessee.

Over the first three months of 2009, Terminix acquired nine pest management companies across seven states.[4] In December 2012, Terminix closed six acquisitions adding over $10 million in revenue.[5] In 2013, Terminix acquired two Canadian pest control companies, Magical Pest Control, based in Toronto, and Vancouver-based Care Pest & Wildlife Control.[6] During the first five months of 2014, Terminix acquired eight pest and wildlife control companies in ten states.[7] Terminix's parent company, ServiceMaster, held its IPO in June 2014.[8][9] In November 2015, Terminix acquired the Utah-based company, Alterra Pest Control.[10]

Terminix works with residential and commercial customers for pest control services including termite, mosquito and bed bug treatments, as well as insulation options.[2][11]

Terminix released the environmentally safe mosquito bait Attractive Targeted Sugar Bait in 2014. The garlic oil makes mosquitoes sick and kills 90 percent of the mosquitoes within three weeks. [12][13][14] The company also produces AllClear mosquito repellant, which is an all natural mix of essential oils.[citation needed]

In May 2008, termite inspectors in California sued ServiceMaster and its Terminix unit for failure to pay overtime, rest breaks, and other work-required expenses. Terminix held that termite inspectors were outside sales employees.[15][16] In June 2011, the U.S. District Court held that termite inspections are not sales activities.[17] The case was filed as a class action,[18] and class action case was denied, while Individual claims were allowed.[19][20]

In March 2016, Terminix settled with the United States Department of Justice over illegal use of banned pesticides in the United States Virgin Islands and the poisoning of a family vacationing there.[21] The family of four was poisoned when the unit below their rented villa was fumigated with the highly toxic methyl bromide, which has been banned from indoor use in the United States since 1984.

In 1971, Stan Freberg won Clio Awards for three of his radio commercials for Terminix, entitled "Vintage Floorboards," "Interview," and "Blue Tennis Shoes."[22]

In 1983, the movie "Mr. Mom" featured a reference to Terminix technicians.[23]

In 2010, Tim Heidecker and Eric Wareheim claimed at Comic-Con that they had partnered with Terminix for an upcoming release of their movie "Blues Brothers 2012". In this film, the Blues Brothers would take the roles of Terminix technicians.[24]

In June 2015, Terminix provided Attractive Targeted Sugar Bait around the clubhouse and golf course of TPC Southwind for the FedEx St. Jude Classic tournament.[25] That same month, Terminix released "Mosquitonado," a movie trailer parody during National Mosquito Control Awareness Week. The trailer featured Sharknado star Tara Reid.[26][27]

Killing Cockroaches

Rodent Control Necessary For All Homeowners

Electronic pest control is the name given to the use of any of the several types of electrically powered devices designed to repel or eliminate pests, usually rodents or insects. Since these devices are not regulated under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) in the United States, the US EPA does not require the same kind of efficacy testing that it does for chemical pesticides.

There are two types of electronic pest control devices widely available: electromagnetic and ultrasonic.

Electromagnetic ("EM") pest repelling devices claim to affect the nervous system of ants, mice, spiders, and other rodents. There have been similar studies on effects of EM radiation emitted by cellphones on humans.[1]

Ultrasonic devices operate through emitting short wavelength, high frequency sound waves that are too high in pitch to be heard by the human ear (generally accepted to be frequencies greater than 20,000 Hz).[2] Humans are usually unable to hear sounds higher than 20 kHz due to physiological limitations of the cochlea, though there is considerable variation between individuals, especially at such high frequencies. Some animals, such as bats, dogs, and rodents, can hear well into the ultrasonic range.[3] Some insects, such as grasshoppers and locusts, can detect frequencies from 50,000 Hz to 100,000 Hz, and lacewings and moths can detect ultrasound as high as 240,000 Hz produced by insect-hunting bats. Contrary to popular belief, birds cannot hear ultrasonic sound.[4] Some smartphone applications attempt to use this technology to produce high frequency sounds to repel mosquitoes and other insects, but the claims of effectiveness of these application and of ultrasonic control of mosquitoes in general has been questioned. The ultrasonic repeller has several inconvenient side effects in addition to its questionable effectiveness [5]

Insects detect sound by special hairs or sensilla located on the antennae (mosquitoes) or genitalia (cockroaches), or by more complicated tympanal organs (butterflies, grasshoppers, locusts, and moths).

The concept of radio wave (RW) or radio frequency (RF) to control the behavior of living organisms has shown promise. According to Drs. Juming Tang and Shaojin Wang at Washington State University (WSU) with colleagues at the University of California-Davis and USDA's Agricultural Research Service in Parlier, California, since RF energy generates heat through agitation of bound water molecules, it generates heat through ionic conduction and agitation of free water molecules in insects. As a result, more thermal energy is converted in insects.

RF treatments control insect pests without negatively affecting food stuffs and storage locations. RF treatments may serve as a non-chemical alternative to chemical fumigants for post-harvest pest control in commodities (such as almonds, pecans, pistachios, lentils, peas, and soybeans), reducing the long-term impact on the environment, human health, and competitiveness of agricultural industries.

"Ultrasound and Arthropod Pest Control" (2001), an extensive Kansas State University study,[6] confirmed that ultrasonic sound devices do have both a repellent effect as well as reduces mating and reproduction of insects. However, the results were mixed, and ultrasonic sound had little or no effect on some pests. Ultrasonic devices were highly effective on crickets, while the same devices had little repellent effect on cockroaches. Additionally, the results were mixed: some devices were effective, while others had no effect depending on the test subject. The study also concluded there was no effect on ants or spiders in any of the tests. They concluded, based on the mixed results, that more research is needed to improve these devices.[6]

A 2002 study sponsored by Genesis Laboratories, Inc. (the maker of the Pest-A-Cator/Riddex series of electronic repellent devices) does lend some credence to the ability of electronic repellent devices to repel certain pests in controlled environments. “Preliminary study of white-footed mice behavior in the test apparatus demonstrated a significant preference for the non-activated chamber among both sexes.”[7]

In 2003, the Federal Trade Commission required Global Instruments, the maker of the Pest-A-Cator/Riddex series of electromagnetic pest control devices, to discontinue any claims for their efficacy until they are backed by credible scientific evidence.[8][9] This ban continues to be in effect.

In 2009, Victor Pest obtained positive results from independent researchers which resulted in two ultrasonic devices' being granted registration by the Canadian EPA (PMRA). The results from the tests were: the device “successfully repelled the rodents from the protected area in 13 of the 17 sites. This represents a 81.3% success rate...the average number of days before rodent activity was stopped was six days".[10][citation needed]

Cockroaches respond to electronic pest control devices by moving about a bit more than usual, but don't appear eager to escape from the sound waves. This includes devices that emit a uniform frequency as well as those that emit changing frequencies of ultrasound. Researchers were able to use the increased cockroach activity to good effect by increasing the rate at which they caught the roaches in sticky traps.[citation needed]

Rodents adjust to the ultrasound (or any new sound) and eventually ignore it. At best, ultrasonic waves have only a partial or temporary effect on rodents. Numerous studies have rejected ultrasonic sound as a practical means of rodent control in favor of rat traps or rat-catcher.[citation needed] Tests of commercial ultrasonic devices have indicated that rodents may be repelled from the immediate area of the ultrasound device for a few minutes to a few days, but they will nearly always return and resume normal activities. Other tests have shown that the degree of repellance depends on the frequency, intensity, and pre-existing condition of the rodent infestation. The intensity of such sounds must be so great that damage to humans or domestic animals would also be likely; commercial ultrasonic pest control devices do not produce sounds of such intensity.[13]

Professor Tim Leighton[14] at the Institute of Sound and Vibration Research], University of Southampton, U.K.[15] produced an 83-page paper entitled "What is Ultrasound?" (2007), in which he expressed concern about the growth in commercial products which exploit the discomforting effects of in-air ultrasound (to pests for whom it is within their audible frequency range, or to humans for whom it is not, but who can experience unpleasant subjective effects and, potentially, shifts in the hearing threshold). Leighton claims that commercial products are often advertised with cited levels which cannot be critically accepted due to lack of accepted measurement standards for ultrasound in air, and little understanding of the mechanism by which they may represent a hazard.[16]

The UK's independent Advisory Group on Non-ionising Radiation (AGNIR) produced a 180-page report on the health effects of human exposure to ultrasound and infrasound in 2010.[17] The UK Health Protection Agency (HPA) published their report, which recommended an exposure limit for the general public to airborne ultrasound sound pressure levels (SPL) of 70 dB (at 20 kHz), and 100 dB (at 25 kHz and above).[18]

Bodfish

Pest control


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Lake Isabella Exterminating Bed Bugs

Pest control in Lake Isabella for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Pest Inspection

Lake Isabella Pest Control For Rodents

>>HOST: >>HOST: THANK >>HOST: THANK YOU >>HOST: THANK YOU SO >>HOST: THANK YOU SO >>H >>HOST: THANK YOU SO >>HMUCH >>HOST: THANK YOU SO >>HMUCH FOR >>HOST: THANK YOU SO >>HMUCH FOR WATCHING >>HOST: THANK YOU SO >>HMUCH FOR WATCHING 10 MUCH FOR WATCHING 10 MUCH FOR WATCHING 10FAVES, MUCH FOR WATCHING 10FAVES, MY MUCH FOR WATCHING 10FAVES, MY NAME MUCH FOR WATCHING 10FAVES, MY NAME IS MUCH FOR WATCHING 10FAVES, MY NAME IS HELEN FAVES, MY NAME IS HELEN FAVES, MY NAME IS HELENKEANEY FAVES, MY NAME IS HELENKEANEY AND FAVES, MY NAME IS HELENKEANEY AND TODAY FAVES, MY NAME IS HELENKEANEY AND TODAY I'M FAVES, MY NAME IS HELENKEANEY AND TODAY I'M THE KEANEY AND TODAY I'M THE KEANEY AND TODAY I'M THEHOST KEANEY AND TODAY I'M THEHOST OF KEANEY AND TODAY I'M THEHOST OF 10 KEANEY AND TODAY I'M THEHOST OF 10 FAVES KEANEY AND TODAY I'M THEHOST OF 10 FAVES AND KEANEY AND TODAY I'M THEHOST OF 10 FAVES AND I'M HOST OF 10 FAVES AND I'M HOST OF 10 FAVES AND I'MGLAD HOST OF 10 FAVES AND I'MGLAD THAT HOST OF 10 FAVES AND I'MGLAD THAT YOU'RE HOST OF 10 FAVES AND I'MGLAD THAT YOU'RE HANGING GLAD THAT YOU'RE HANGING GLAD THAT YOU'RE HANGINGOUT GLAD THAT YOU'RE HANGINGOUT AND GLAD THAT YOU'RE HANGINGOUT AND JOINING GLAD THAT YOU'RE HANGINGOUT AND JOINING US.

GLAD THAT YOU'RE HANGINGOUT AND JOINING US.

OUR OUT AND JOINING US.

OUR OUT AND JOINING US.

OURNEXT OUT AND JOINING US.

OURNEXT PRODUCT OUT AND JOINING US.

OURNEXT PRODUCT IS OUT AND JOINING US.

OURNEXT PRODUCT IS NEXT OUT AND JOINING US.

OURNEXT PRODUCT IS NEXT PRO NEXT PRODUCT IS NEXT PRO NEXT PRODUCT IS NEXT PROSOMETHING NEXT PRODUCT IS NEXT PROSOMETHING THAT NEXT PRODUCT IS NEXT PROSOMETHING THAT I NEXT PRODUCT IS NEXT PROSOMETHING THAT I HAVE NEXT PRODUCT IS NEXT PROSOMETHING THAT I HAVE IN SOMETHING THAT I HAVE IN SOMETHING THAT I HAVE INMY SOMETHING THAT I HAVE INMY HOME SOMETHING THAT I HAVE INMY HOME THAT SOMETHING THAT I HAVE INMY HOME THAT I SOMETHING THAT I HAVE INMY HOME THAT I PROBABLY MY HOME THAT I PROBABLY MY HOME THAT I PROBABLYUSE MY HOME THAT I PROBABLYUSE ALMOST MY HOME THAT I PROBABLYUSE ALMOST EVERY MY HOME THAT I PROBABLYUSE ALMOST EVERY DAY.

MY HOME THAT I PROBABLYUSE ALMOST EVERY DAY.

I USE ALMOST EVERY DAY.

I USE ALMOST EVERY DAY.

IDO USE ALMOST EVERY DAY.

IDO NOT USE ALMOST EVERY DAY.

IDO NOT LIKE USE ALMOST EVERY DAY.

IDO NOT LIKE GETTING USE ALMOST EVERY DAY.

IDO NOT LIKE GETTING THE DO NOT LIKE GETTING THE DO NOT LIKE GETTING THEMOSQUITO DO NOT LIKE GETTING THEMOSQUITO BITES.

DO NOT LIKE GETTING THEMOSQUITO BITES.

I DO NOT LIKE GETTING THEMOSQUITO BITES.

I AM DO NOT LIKE GETTING THEMOSQUITO BITES.

I AM MO MOSQUITO BITES.

I AM MO MOSQUITO BITES.

I AM MOONE MOSQUITO BITES.

I AM MOONE OF MOSQUITO BITES.

I AM MOONE OF THE MOSQUITO BITES.

I AM MOONE OF THE PEOPLE MOSQUITO BITES.

I AM MOONE OF THE PEOPLE IT ONE OF THE PEOPLE IT ONE OF THE PEOPLE ITSEEMS ONE OF THE PEOPLE ITSEEMS LIKE ONE OF THE PEOPLE ITSEEMS LIKE IF ONE OF THE PEOPLE ITSEEMS LIKE IF I'M ONE OF THE PEOPLE ITSEEMS LIKE IF I'M EVERY SEEMS LIKE IF I'M EVERY SEEMS LIKE IF I'M EVERY-- SEEMS LIKE IF I'M EVERY-- IF SEEMS LIKE IF I'M EVERY-- IF I'M SEEMS LIKE IF I'M EVERY-- IF I'M OUTSIDE, SEEMS LIKE IF I'M EVERY-- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I SEEMS LIKE IF I'M EVERY-- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I -- -- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I -- -- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I --WILL -- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I --WILL GET -- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I --WILL GET TWICE -- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I --WILL GET TWICE AS -- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I --WILL GET TWICE AS MANY -- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I --WILL GET TWICE AS MANY W WILL GET TWICE AS MANY W WILL GET TWICE AS MANY WAS WILL GET TWICE AS MANY WAS EVERYBODY WILL GET TWICE AS MANY WAS EVERYBODY ELSE.

WILL GET TWICE AS MANY WAS EVERYBODY ELSE.

I AS EVERYBODY ELSE.

I AS EVERYBODY ELSE.

ILOVE AS EVERYBODY ELSE.

ILOVE THAT AS EVERYBODY ELSE.

ILOVE THAT TREADED AS EVERYBODY ELSE.

ILOVE THAT TREADED SOLE LOVE THAT TREADED SOLE LOVE THAT TREADED SOLEGREEN LOVE THAT TREADED SOLEGREEN NO LOVE THAT TREADED SOLEGREEN NO MORE LOVE THAT TREADED SOLEGREEN NO MORE BUGS LOVE THAT TREADED SOLEGREEN NO MORE BUGS -- LOVE THAT TREADED SOLEGREEN NO MORE BUGS -- GR GREEN NO MORE BUGS -- GR GREEN NO MORE BUGS -- GRTHE GREEN NO MORE BUGS -- GRTHE NATURALLY GREEN NO MORE BUGS -- GRTHE NATURALLY GREEN GREEN NO MORE BUGS -- GRTHE NATURALLY GREEN NO THE NATURALLY GREEN NO THE NATURALLY GREEN NOMORE THE NATURALLY GREEN NOMORE BUGS! THE NATURALLY GREEN NOMORE BUGS! THAT'S THE NATURALLY GREEN NOMORE BUGS! THAT'S WHAT MORE BUGS! THAT'S WHAT MORE BUGS! THAT'S WHATIT'S MORE BUGS! THAT'S WHATIT'S CALLED MORE BUGS! THAT'S WHATIT'S CALLED BUT MORE BUGS! THAT'S WHATIT'S CALLED BUT ON MORE BUGS! THAT'S WHATIT'S CALLED BUT ON YOUR IT'S CALLED BUT ON YOUR IT'S CALLED BUT ON YOURSKIN, IT'S CALLED BUT ON YOURSKIN, BY IT'S CALLED BUT ON YOURSKIN, BY THE IT'S CALLED BUT ON YOURSKIN, BY THE WAY IT'S CALLED BUT ON YOURSKIN, BY THE WAY IT IT'S CALLED BUT ON YOURSKIN, BY THE WAY IT IS SKIN, BY THE WAY IT IS SKIN, BY THE WAY IT ISFROM SKIN, BY THE WAY IT ISFROM THE SKIN, BY THE WAY IT ISFROM THE HIGHEST SKIN, BY THE WAY IT ISFROM THE HIGHEST QUALITY FROM THE HIGHEST QUALITY FROM THE HIGHEST QUALITYCEDAR.

FROM THE HIGHEST QUALITYCEDAR.

IT FROM THE HIGHEST QUALITYCEDAR.

IT IS FROM THE HIGHEST QUALITYCEDAR.

IT IS MADE FROM THE HIGHEST QUALITYCEDAR.

IT IS MADE IN CEDAR.

IT IS MADE IN CEDAR.

IT IS MADE INUSA, CEDAR.

IT IS MADE INUSA, IS CEDAR.

IT IS MADE INUSA, IS A CEDAR.

IT IS MADE INUSA, IS A COMPANY CEDAR.

IT IS MADE INUSA, IS A COMPANY OWNED USA, IS A COMPANY OWNED USA, IS A COMPANY OWNEDBY USA, IS A COMPANY OWNEDBY A USA, IS A COMPANY OWNEDBY A WOMAN.

USA, IS A COMPANY OWNEDBY A WOMAN.

A BY A WOMAN.

A BY A WOMAN.

AWOMAN-OWNED BY A WOMAN.

AWOMAN-OWNED COMPANY, WOMAN-OWNED COMPANY, WOMAN-OWNED COMPANY,CEDAR, WOMAN-OWNED COMPANY,CEDAR, ALL WOMAN-OWNED COMPANY,CEDAR, ALL NATURAL, WOMAN-OWNED COMPANY,CEDAR, ALL NATURAL, USDA CEDAR, ALL NATURAL, USDA CEDAR, ALL NATURAL, USDACERTIFIED, CEDAR, ALL NATURAL, USDACERTIFIED, AND CEDAR, ALL NATURAL, USDACERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

CERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

CERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

YOU CERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

YOU GO CERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

YOU GO OUT CERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

YOU GO OUT TO CERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

YOU GO OUT TO THE CERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

YOU GO OUT TO THE YOU CERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

YOU GO OUT TO THE YOU GO YOU GO OUT TO THE YOU GO YOU GO OUT TO THE YOU GOGROCERY YOU GO OUT TO THE YOU GOGROCERY STORE, YOU GO OUT TO THE YOU GOGROCERY STORE, YOU YOU GO OUT TO THE YOU GOGROCERY STORE, YOU SPEND GROCERY STORE, YOU SPEND GROCERY STORE, YOU SPENDA GROCERY STORE, YOU SPENDA FORTUNE GROCERY STORE, YOU SPENDA FORTUNE BUYING GROCERY STORE, YOU SPENDA FORTUNE BUYING ORGANIC GROCERY STORE, YOU SPENDA FORTUNE BUYING ORGANICC A FORTUNE BUYING ORGANICC A FORTUNE BUYING ORGANICC, A FORTUNE BUYING ORGANICC, DOING A FORTUNE BUYING ORGANICC, DOING THIS A FORTUNE BUYING ORGANICC, DOING THIS AND A FORTUNE BUYING ORGANICC, DOING THIS AND THAT, , DOING THIS AND THAT, , DOING THIS AND THAT,THEN , DOING THIS AND THAT,THEN YOU , DOING THIS AND THAT,THEN YOU SPRAY , DOING THIS AND THAT,THEN YOU SPRAY CHEMICALS THEN YOU SPRAY CHEMICALS THEN YOU SPRAY CHEMICALSALL THEN YOU SPRAY CHEMICALSALL AROUND THEN YOU SPRAY CHEMICALSALL AROUND YOUR THEN YOU SPRAY CHEMICALSALL AROUND YOUR HOUSE THEN YOU SPRAY CHEMICALSALL AROUND YOUR HOUSE AL ALL AROUND YOUR HOUSE AL ALL AROUND YOUR HOUSE ALYOU ALL AROUND YOUR HOUSE ALYOU WILL ALL AROUND YOUR HOUSE ALYOU WILL LOVE ALL AROUND YOUR HOUSE ALYOU WILL LOVE NO ALL AROUND YOUR HOUSE ALYOU WILL LOVE NO MORE YOU WILL LOVE NO MORE YOU WILL LOVE NO MOREBUGS.

YOU WILL LOVE NO MOREBUGS.

CHAIRS, YOU WILL LOVE NO MOREBUGS.

CHAIRS, SOFAS YOU WILL LOVE NO MOREBUGS.

CHAIRS, SOFAS THE BUGS.

CHAIRS, SOFAS THE BUGS.

CHAIRS, SOFAS THEFLOORS, BUGS.

CHAIRS, SOFAS THEFLOORS, CARPETS, BUGS.

CHAIRS, SOFAS THEFLOORS, CARPETS, YOUR FLOORS, CARPETS, YOUR FLOORS, CARPETS, YOURLONG, FLOORS, CARPETS, YOURLONG, YOUR FLOORS, CARPETS, YOURLONG, YOUR PLANS, FLOORS, CARPETS, YOURLONG, YOUR PLANS, YOUR LONG, YOUR PLANS, YOUR LONG, YOUR PLANS, YOURHOUSE LONG, YOUR PLANS, YOURHOUSE PLANTS! LONG, YOUR PLANS, YOURHOUSE PLANTS! OUTDOOR HOUSE PLANTS! OUTDOOR HOUSE PLANTS! OUTDOORPLANS, HOUSE PLANTS! OUTDOORPLANS, AROUND HOUSE PLANTS! OUTDOORPLANS, AROUND THE HOUSE PLANTS! OUTDOORPLANS, AROUND THE BED, PLANS, AROUND THE BED, PLANS, AROUND THE BED,MATTRESS, PLANS, AROUND THE BED,MATTRESS, BOX PLANS, AROUND THE BED,MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, PLANS, AROUND THE BED,MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, OR MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, OR MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, ORYOURSELF, MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, ORYOURSELF, BY MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, ORYOURSELF, BY THE MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, ORYOURSELF, BY THE WAY MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, ORYOURSELF, BY THE WAY AND YOURSELF, BY THE WAY AND YOURSELF, BY THE WAY ANDYOU YOURSELF, BY THE WAY ANDYOU CAN YOURSELF, BY THE WAY ANDYOU CAN PUT YOURSELF, BY THE WAY ANDYOU CAN PUT IT YOURSELF, BY THE WAY ANDYOU CAN PUT IT ON YOURSELF, BY THE WAY ANDYOU CAN PUT IT ON YOUR YOU CAN PUT IT ON YOUR YOU CAN PUT IT ON YOURPETS.

YOU CAN PUT IT ON YOURPETS.

IT YOU CAN PUT IT ON YOURPETS.

IT IS YOU CAN PUT IT ON YOURPETS.

IT IS SAFE YOU CAN PUT IT ON YOURPETS.

IT IS SAFE OR PETS.

IT IS SAFE OR PETS.

IT IS SAFE ORKIDS! PETS.

IT IS SAFE ORKIDS! HERE'S PETS.

IT IS SAFE ORKIDS! HERE'S WHAT PETS.

IT IS SAFE ORKIDS! HERE'S WHAT IT KIDS! HERE'S WHAT IT KIDS! HERE'S WHAT ITRECALLS KIDS! HERE'S WHAT ITRECALLS TAKES KIDS! HERE'S WHAT ITRECALLS TAKES -- RECALLS TAKES -- RECALLS TAKES --[READING] [READING] [READING]THAT [READING]THAT IS [READING]THAT IS REALLY [READING]THAT IS REALLY GREAT [READING]THAT IS REALLY GREAT TO THAT IS REALLY GREAT TO THAT IS REALLY GREAT TOSPRAY THAT IS REALLY GREAT TOSPRAY ON THAT IS REALLY GREAT TOSPRAY ON YOUR THAT IS REALLY GREAT TOSPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS THAT IS REALLY GREAT TOSPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS S SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS S SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS SIS SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS SIS VIEW SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS SIS VIEW OF SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS SIS VIEW OF MATTRESS SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS SIS VIEW OF MATTRESS IS IS VIEW OF MATTRESS IS IS VIEW OF MATTRESS ISOVER IS VIEW OF MATTRESS ISOVER TWO IS VIEW OF MATTRESS ISOVER TWO YEARS IS VIEW OF MATTRESS ISOVER TWO YEARS OLD, IS VIEW OF MATTRESS ISOVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR, OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR, OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT IS OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT IS IN OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT IS IN ITS OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT OR IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT OR IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT ORNINE IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT ORNINE HERE, IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT ORNINE HERE, YOU IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT ORNINE HERE, YOU NINE IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT ORNINE HERE, YOU NINE HERE NINE HERE, YOU NINE HERE NINE HERE, YOU NINE HEREDEFINITELY NINE HERE, YOU NINE HEREDEFINITELY NEED NINE HERE, YOU NINE HEREDEFINITELY NEED TO NINE HERE, YOU NINE HEREDEFINITELY NEED TO BE DEFINITELY NEED TO BE DEFINITELY NEED TO BESPRAYING DEFINITELY NEED TO BESPRAYING IT.

DEFINITELY NEED TO BESPRAYING IT.

NOW, SPRAYING IT.

NOW, SPRAYING IT.

NOW,MOSQUITOES SPRAYING IT.

NOW,MOSQUITOES ARE SPRAYING IT.

NOW,MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

SPRAYING IT.

NOW,MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

-- MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

-- MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD YOU MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD YOU DON'T MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD YOU DON'T WANT MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BA BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BA BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BAGET BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BAGET A BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BAGET A MOSQUITO BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BAGET A MOSQUITO BITE.

BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BAGET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GE GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GE GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT LET GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT LET ME GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT LET ME TELL GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT LET ME TELL YOU GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT LET ME TELL YOU ARE BUT LET ME TELL YOU ARE BUT LET ME TELL YOU ARETHOSE BUT LET ME TELL YOU ARETHOSE HORRIBLE, BUT LET ME TELL YOU ARETHOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE BUT LET ME TELL YOU ARETHOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE HO THOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE HO THOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE HOCHEMICALS THOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE HOCHEMICALS LIKE THOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE HOCHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEET CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEET CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEETIS CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEETIS A CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEETIS A MAJOR CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEETIS A MAJOR INGREDIENT CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEETIS A MAJOR INGREDIENT IN IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT IN IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT INBUG IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT INBUG SPRAY.

IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT INBUG SPRAY.

THIS IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT INBUG SPRAY.

THIS IS IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT INBUG SPRAY.

THIS IS A BUG SPRAY.

THIS IS A BUG SPRAY.

THIS IS ANATURAL BUG SPRAY.

THIS IS ANATURAL CEDAR BUG SPRAY.

THIS IS ANATURAL CEDAR OIL.

BUG SPRAY.

THIS IS ANATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHAT NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHAT NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHATYOU'RE NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHATYOU'RE GETTING NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHATYOU'RE GETTING IS NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHATYOU'RE GETTING IS THE NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHATYOU'RE GETTING IS THE 32 YOU'RE GETTING IS THE 32 YOU'RE GETTING IS THE 32FLUID YOU'RE GETTING IS THE 32FLUID OUNCE YOU'RE GETTING IS THE 32FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE, FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE, FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD AUTO FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD AUTO FREE FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD AUTO FREE TO FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO A THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO A THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO ADILUTION THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO ADILUTION OF THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO ADILUTION OF IT THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO ADILUTION OF IT AND THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO ADILUTION OF IT AND THE DILUTION OF IT AND THE DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO GO DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO GO ON DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO GO ON THE DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO B BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO B BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO BIT BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO BIT IS BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO BIT IS A BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO BIT IS A TRAVEL BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO BIT IS A TRAVEL SIZED IT IS A TRAVEL SIZED IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, WHAT IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO I IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO IS BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO IS BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI DILUTE BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI DILUTE IT BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI DILUTE IT TO BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI DILUTE IT TO PUT BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI DILUTE IT TO PUT IT I DILUTE IT TO PUT IT I DILUTE IT TO PUT ITON I DILUTE IT TO PUT ITON MYSELF, I DILUTE IT TO PUT ITON MYSELF, AND I DILUTE IT TO PUT ITON MYSELF, AND THEN I DILUTE IT TO PUT ITON MYSELF, AND THEN I ON MYSELF, AND THEN I ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY IT ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY IT ON ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY IT ON AND ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY IT ON AND I ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBED SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBED SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBEDIN SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBEDIN IT SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBEDIN IT SMELLS SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBEDIN IT SMELLS LIKE SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBEDIN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAR IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAR IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I DO IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I DO NOT IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I DO NOT KNOW IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I DO NOT KNOW IF IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOU OIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOU OIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOUHAD OIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOUHAD OR OIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOUHAD OR YOUR OIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOUHAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHER HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHER HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHERHAD HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHERHAD A HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHERHAD A CEDAR HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHERHAD A CEDAR CLOSET HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHERHAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEY HAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEY HAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEYWOULD HAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEYWOULD BUT HAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEYWOULD BUT THERE HAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEYWOULD BUT THERE WILL WOULD BUT THERE WILL WOULD BUT THERE WILLSWEATER'S WOULD BUT THERE WILLSWEATER'S SO WOULD BUT THERE WILLSWEATER'S SO THE WOULD BUT THERE WILLSWEATER'S SO THE MOUSE SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSE SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSEWOULD SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSEWOULD NOT SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSEWOULD NOT EAT SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSEWOULD NOT EAT THEM.

SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSEWOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUT WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUT WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUTCEDAR WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUTCEDAR IS WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUTCEDAR IS A WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUTCEDAR IS A NATURAL WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUTCEDAR IS A NATURAL BUG CEDAR IS A NATURAL BUG CEDAR IS A NATURAL BUGREPELLENT CEDAR IS A NATURAL BUGREPELLENT --WOOL CEDAR IS A NATURAL BUGREPELLENT --WOOL THE CEDAR IS A NATURAL BUGREPELLENT --WOOL THE REP REPELLENT --WOOL THE REP REPELLENT --WOOL THE REPGOOD REPELLENT --WOOL THE REPGOOD FOLKS REPELLENT --WOOL THE REPGOOD FOLKS AT REPELLENT --WOOL THE REPGOOD FOLKS AT NO REPELLENT --WOOL THE REPGOOD FOLKS AT NO MORE GOOD FOLKS AT NO MORE GOOD FOLKS AT NO MOREBUGS! GOOD FOLKS AT NO MOREBUGS! HIGH-GRADE, BUGS! HIGH-GRADE, BUGS! HIGH-GRADE,HIGHEST-QUALITY BUGS! HIGH-GRADE,HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR BUGS! HIGH-GRADE,HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OI BUGS! HIGH-GRADE,HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OIL HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OIL HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OILTHAT HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OILTHAT IS HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OILTHAT IS NATURALLY THAT IS NATURALLY THAT IS NATURALLYGETTING THAT IS NATURALLYGETTING RID THAT IS NATURALLYGETTING RID OF THAT IS NATURALLYGETTING RID OF THESE GETTING RID OF THESE GETTING RID OF THESEBUGS, GETTING RID OF THESEBUGS, DETERRING GETTING RID OF THESEBUGS, DETERRING THEM! GETTING RID OF THESEBUGS, DETERRING THEM! O, BUGS, DETERRING THEM! O, BUGS, DETERRING THEM! O,SPRAY BUGS, DETERRING THEM! O,SPRAY IT BUGS, DETERRING THEM! O,SPRAY IT ON BUGS, DETERRING THEM! O,SPRAY IT ON YOUR SPRAY IT ON YOUR SPRAY IT ON YOURBASEBOARDS, SPRAY IT ON YOURBASEBOARDS, SPRAY SPRAY IT ON YOURBASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWN BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWN BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWNTHE BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWNTHE ENTRY BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWNTHE ENTRY POINT BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWNTHE ENTRY POINT OF BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWNTHE ENTRY POINT OF YOUR THE ENTRY POINT OF YOUR THE ENTRY POINT OF YOURHOME THE ENTRY POINT OF YOURHOME LIKE THE ENTRY POINT OF YOURHOME LIKE A THE ENTRY POINT OF YOURHOME LIKE A SLIDING THE ENTRY POINT OF YOURHOME LIKE A SLIDING LAST HOME LIKE A SLIDING LAST HOME LIKE A SLIDING LASTYOUR! HOME LIKE A SLIDING LASTYOUR! ANYWHERE HOME LIKE A SLIDING LASTYOUR! ANYWHERE YOU HOME LIKE A SLIDING LASTYOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEE YOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEE YOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEEBUGS.

YOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEEBUGS.

TWO YOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEEBUGS.

TWO SPONGES, YOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEEBUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BY BUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BY BUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BYTHE BUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BYTHE WAY, BUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BYTHE WAY, ARE BUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BYTHE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THESE THE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THESE SPONGES THE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THESE SPONGES YOU THE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THESE SPONGES YOU POP THESE SPONGES YOU POP THESE SPONGES YOU POPTHEM THESE SPONGES YOU POPTHEM IN THESE SPONGES YOU POPTHEM IN WATER THESE SPONGES YOU POPTHEM IN WATER AND THESE SPONGES YOU POPTHEM IN WATER AND THEY THEM IN WATER AND THEY THEM IN WATER AND THEYBECOME THEM IN WATER AND THEYBECOME A THEM IN WATER AND THEYBECOME A GROWN-UP THEM IN WATER AND THEYBECOME A GROWN-UP SIZED BECOME A GROWN-UP SIZED BECOME A GROWN-UP SIZEDSPONGES.

BECOME A GROWN-UP SIZEDSPONGES.

AGAIN BECOME A GROWN-UP SIZEDSPONGES.

AGAIN YOU BECOME A GROWN-UP SIZEDSPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POP SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POP SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POPTHEM SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POPTHEM IN SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POPTHEM IN THE SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POPTHEM IN THE MODERN SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POPTHEM IN THE MODERN NAB, THEM IN THE MODERN NAB, THEM IN THE MODERN NAB,GROWN-UP THEM IN THE MODERN NAB,GROWN-UP SIZED THEM IN THE MODERN NAB,GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGES GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGES GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGESAND GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGESAND YOU GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGESAND YOU SPRAY GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGESAND YOU SPRAY SOME AND YOU SPRAY SOME AND YOU SPRAY SOMEPRODUCT AND YOU SPRAY SOMEPRODUCT ON AND YOU SPRAY SOMEPRODUCT ON IT AND YOU SPRAY SOMEPRODUCT ON IT AND AND YOU SPRAY SOMEPRODUCT ON IT AND YOU PRODUCT ON IT AND YOU PRODUCT ON IT AND YOUWIPE PRODUCT ON IT AND YOUWIPE DOWN PRODUCT ON IT AND YOUWIPE DOWN YOUR PRODUCT ON IT AND YOUWIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERS WIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERS WIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERSWHERE WIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERSWHERE YOU WIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERSWHERE YOU KEEP WIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERSWHERE YOU KEEP YOUR WHERE YOU KEEP YOUR WHERE YOU KEEP YOURSILVERWARE, WHERE YOU KEEP YOURSILVERWARE, YOUR WHERE YOU KEEP YOURSILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE, SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE, SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE,YOUR SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE,YOUR CUPS, SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE,YOUR CUPS, THE SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE,YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE,YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE Y YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE Y YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY BUGS YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY BUGS LIKE YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO G YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GO IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GO IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GOTHAT IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GOTHAT -- IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GOTHAT -- PLATES IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GOTHAT -- PLATES IF IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GOTHAT -- PLATES IF YOU THAT -- PLATES IF YOU THAT -- PLATES IF YOUGO THAT -- PLATES IF YOUGO TO THAT -- PLATES IF YOUGO TO THE THAT -- PLATES IF YOUGO TO THE GROCERY THAT -- PLATES IF YOUGO TO THE GROCERY STORE GO TO THE GROCERY STORE GO TO THE GROCERY STORETHE GO TO THE GROCERY STORETHE PLASTIC GO TO THE GROCERY STORETHE PLASTIC BAGS GO TO THE GROCERY STORETHE PLASTIC BAGS IN GO TO THE GROCERY STORETHE PLASTIC BAGS IN THE THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THE THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THEGROCERY THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THEGROCERY STORE THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THEGROCERY STORE TO THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THEGROCERY STORE TO MARK THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THEGROCERY STORE TO MARK GR GROCERY STORE TO MARK GR GROCERY STORE TO MARK GRAND GROCERY STORE TO MARK GRAND THOSE GROCERY STORE TO MARK GRAND THOSE PLASTIC GROCERY STORE TO MARK GRAND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS(.

) AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS(.

) ARE AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS(.

) ARE LIKE AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS(.

) ARE LIKE LARVA AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS(.

) ARE LIKE LARVA AND (.

) ARE LIKE LARVA AND (.

) ARE LIKE LARVA ANDEGGS (.

) ARE LIKE LARVA ANDEGGS FROM (.

) ARE LIKE LARVA ANDEGGS FROM BUGS.

(.

) ARE LIKE LARVA ANDEGGS FROM BUGS.

YOU EGGS FROM BUGS.

YOU EGGS FROM BUGS.

YOUBRING EGGS FROM BUGS.

YOUBRING THOSE EGGS FROM BUGS.

YOUBRING THOSE BAGS EGGS FROM BUGS.

YOUBRING THOSE BAGS HOME, BRING THOSE BAGS HOME, BRING THOSE BAGS HOME,STICK BRING THOSE BAGS HOME,STICK THEM BRING THOSE BAGS HOME,STICK THEM IN BRING THOSE BAGS HOME,STICK THEM IN THE BRING THOSE BAGS HOME,STICK THEM IN THE STICK STICK THEM IN THE STICK STICK THEM IN THE STICKCABINET STICK THEM IN THE STICKCABINET AND STICK THEM IN THE STICKCABINET AND THAT STICK THEM IN THE STICKCABINET AND THAT IS STICK THEM IN THE STICKCABINET AND THAT IS ONE CABINET AND THAT IS ONE CABINET AND THAT IS ONEOF CABINET AND THAT IS ONEOF THE CABINET AND THAT IS ONEOF THE PLACES CABINET AND THAT IS ONEOF THE PLACES (.

) OF THE PLACES (.

) OF THE PLACES (.

)THEY'RE OF THE PLACES (.

)THEY'RE NOT OF THE PLACES (.

)THEY'RE NOT JUST OF THE PLACES (.

)THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'RE THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'RE THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'REMARCHING THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'REMARCHING IN THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'REMARCHING IN FROM THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'REMARCHING IN FROM THE MARCHING IN FROM THE MARCHING IN FROM THEOUTSIDE MARCHING IN FROM THEOUTSIDE SOMETIMES MARCHING IN FROM THEOUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOU OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOU OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOUBRING OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOUBRING THEM OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOUBRING THEM IN.

OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOUBRING THEM IN.

SPRAY OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOUBRING THEM IN.

SPRAY IT BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY IT BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY ITAROUND.

BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY ITAROUND.

LME BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY ITAROUND.

LME TELL BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY ITAROUND.

LME TELL YOU BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY ITAROUND.

LME TELL YOU A AROUND.

LME TELL YOU A AROUND.

LME TELL YOU ALITTLE AROUND.

LME TELL YOU ALITTLE BIT AROUND.

LME TELL YOU ALITTLE BIT OF AROUND.

LME TELL YOU ALITTLE BIT OF HOW AROUND.

LME TELL YOU ALITTLE BIT OF HOW BUGS LITTLE BIT OF HOW BUGS LITTLE BIT OF HOW BUGSBREEZY LITTLE BIT OF HOW BUGSBREEZY DO LITTLE BIT OF HOW BUGSBREEZY DO NOT LITTLE BIT OF HOW BUGSBREEZY DO NOT BREATHE BREEZY DO NOT BREATHE BREEZY DO NOT BREATHETHEIR BREEZY DO NOT BREATHETHEIR NOSE BREEZY DO NOT BREATHETHEIR NOSE OR BREEZY DO NOT BREATHETHEIR NOSE OR THEIR BREEZY DO NOT BREATHETHEIR NOSE OR THEIR THEI THEIR NOSE OR THEIR THEI THEIR NOSE OR THEIR THEIMOUTH THEIR NOSE OR THEIR THEIMOUTH THEY THEIR NOSE OR THEIR THEIMOUTH THEY HAVE THEIR NOSE OR THEIR THEIMOUTH THEY HAVE AN MOUTH THEY HAVE AN MOUTH THEY HAVE ANEXOSKELETON MOUTH THEY HAVE ANEXOSKELETON AND MOUTH THEY HAVE ANEXOSKELETON AND WHAT MOUTH THEY HAVE ANEXOSKELETON AND WHAT THE EXOSKELETON AND WHAT THE EXOSKELETON AND WHAT THECEDAR EXOSKELETON AND WHAT THECEDAR DOES EXOSKELETON AND WHAT THECEDAR DOES IS EXOSKELETON AND WHAT THECEDAR DOES IS IT CEDAR DOES IS IT CEDAR DOES IS ITBASICALLY CEDAR DOES IS ITBASICALLY (.

) CEDAR DOES IS ITBASICALLY (.

) WHEN CEDAR DOES IS ITBASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOU BASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOU BASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOUSPRAY BASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOUSPRAY TO BASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOUSPRAY TO KEEP BASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOUSPRAY TO KEEP THEM BASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOUSPRAY TO KEEP THEM FROM SPRAY TO KEEP THEM FROM SPRAY TO KEEP THEM FROMBEING SPRAY TO KEEP THEM FROMBEING ABLE SPRAY TO KEEP THEM FROMBEING ABLE TO SPRAY TO KEEP THEM FROMBEING ABLE TO BREATHE BEING ABLE TO BREATHE BEING ABLE TO BREATHEWHEN BEING ABLE TO BREATHEWHEN THEY BEING ABLE TO BREATHEWHEN THEY COME BEING ABLE TO BREATHEWHEN THEY COME NEAR BEING ABLE TO BREATHEWHEN THEY COME NEAR IT, WHEN THEY COME NEAR IT, WHEN THEY COME NEAR IT,THEREON WHEN THEY COME NEAR IT,THEREON IN WHEN THEY COME NEAR IT,THEREON IN THE WHEN THEY COME NEAR IT,THEREON IN THE OPPOSITE THEREON IN THE OPPOSITE THEREON IN THE OPPOSITEDIRECTION THEREON IN THE OPPOSITEDIRECTION IS THEREON IN THE OPPOSITEDIRECTION IS LIKE THEREON IN THE OPPOSITEDIRECTION IS LIKE THE DIRECTION IS LIKE THE DIRECTION IS LIKE THELAST DIRECTION IS LIKE THELAST THING DIRECTION IS LIKE THELAST THING IN DIRECTION IS LIKE THELAST THING IN THE DIRECTION IS LIKE THELAST THING IN THE WORLD LAST THING IN THE WORLD LAST THING IN THE WORLDARE LAST THING IN THE WORLDARE EXAMPLE LAST THING IN THE WORLDARE EXAMPLE OF LAST THING IN THE WORLDARE EXAMPLE OF A ARE EXAMPLE OF A ARE EXAMPLE OF AMOSQUITOES ARE EXAMPLE OF AMOSQUITOES BUZZING ARE EXAMPLE OF AMOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQU MOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQU MOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQUAROUND MOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQUAROUND YOU MOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQUAROUND YOU AS MOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQUAROUND YOU AS THEY MOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQUAROUND YOU AS THEY GET AROUND YOU AS THEY GET AROUND YOU AS THEY GETCLOSE AROUND YOU AS THEY GETCLOSE AND AROUND YOU AS THEY GETCLOSE AND SMELL AROUND YOU AS THEY GETCLOSE AND SMELL THE CLOSE AND SMELL THE CLOSE AND SMELL THECEDAR, CLOSE AND SMELL THECEDAR, WHICH CLOSE AND SMELL THECEDAR, WHICH SMELLS CLOSE AND SMELL THECEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERY CEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERY CEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERYNICE CEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERYNICE (.

) CEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERYNICE (.

) IT CEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERYNICE (.

) IT IS CEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERYNICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY, NICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY, NICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY,BUT NICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY,BUT THEY NICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY,BUT THEY ARE NICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY,BUT THEY ARE JUST NICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY,BUT THEY ARE JUST GOING BUT THEY ARE JUST GOING BUT THEY ARE JUST GOINGTO BUT THEY ARE JUST GOINGTO GO BUT THEY ARE JUST GOINGTO GO AWAY BUT THEY ARE JUST GOINGTO GO AWAY IF BUT THEY ARE JUST GOINGTO GO AWAY IF YOU BUT THEY ARE JUST GOINGTO GO AWAY IF YOU ARE BUT THEY ARE JUST GOINGTO GO AWAY IF YOU ARE AT TO GO AWAY IF YOU ARE AT TO GO AWAY IF YOU ARE ATTHE TO GO AWAY IF YOU ARE ATTHE OUTDOOR TO GO AWAY IF YOU ARE ATTHE OUTDOOR CONCERT, TO GO AWAY IF YOU ARE ATTHE OUTDOOR CONCERT, THE THE OUTDOOR CONCERT, THE THE OUTDOOR CONCERT, THETHAT THE OUTDOOR CONCERT, THETHAT THE THE OUTDOOR CONCERT, THETHAT THE PARK THE OUTDOOR CONCERT, THETHAT THE PARK THIS THE OUTDOOR CONCERT, THETHAT THE PARK THIS SUMME THE OUTDOOR CONCERT, THETHAT THE PARK THIS SUMMER THAT THE PARK THIS SUMMER THAT THE PARK THIS SUMMERIF THAT THE PARK THIS SUMMERIF YOU THAT THE PARK THIS SUMMERIF YOU ARE THAT THE PARK THIS SUMMERIF YOU ARE GOING THAT THE PARK THIS SUMMERIF YOU ARE GOING TO THAT THE PARK THIS SUMMERIF YOU ARE GOING TO THE IF YOU ARE GOING TO THE IF YOU ARE GOING TO THEBEACH IF YOU ARE GOING TO THEBEACH AND IF YOU ARE GOING TO THEBEACH AND YOU IF YOU ARE GOING TO THEBEACH AND YOU HAVE IF YOU ARE GOING TO THEBEACH AND YOU HAVE THOSE BEACH AND YOU HAVE THOSE BEACH AND YOU HAVE THOSEBIG BEACH AND YOU HAVE THOSEBIG FLIES, BEACH AND YOU HAVE THOSEBIG FLIES, GREAT BEACH AND YOU HAVE THOSEBIG FLIES, GREAT THINGS BIG FLIES, GREAT THINGS BIG FLIES, GREAT THINGSTHAT BIG FLIES, GREAT THINGSTHAT BITE BIG FLIES, GREAT THINGSTHAT BITE YOU, BIG FLIES, GREAT THINGSTHAT BITE YOU, THIS THAT BITE YOU, THIS THAT BITE YOU, THISREALLY THAT BITE YOU, THISREALLY IS THAT BITE YOU, THISREALLY IS A THAT BITE YOU, THISREALLY IS A MUST THAT BITE YOU, THISREALLY IS A MUST HAVE REALLY IS A MUST HAVE REALLY IS A MUST HAVEEVERYBODY.

REALLY IS A MUST HAVEEVERYBODY.

IT REALLY IS A MUST HAVEEVERYBODY.

IT DOES REALLY IS A MUST HAVEEVERYBODY.

IT DOES NOT EVERYBODY.

IT DOES NOT EVERYBODY.

IT DOES NOTMATTER EVERYBODY.

IT DOES NOTMATTER WHO EVERYBODY.

IT DOES NOTMATTER WHO YOU.

Pest Inspection

Rodent Control Necessary For All Homeowners

The application of pest control ranges from do-it-yourself arrangements to
scientific and very precise deployment of chemicals and predatory insects by
highly skilled practitioners. Despite the fact that pest control is a world-wide
industry it is still dominated by family or 1-person businesses. Those that need
to control pests range from householders to
large scale agri-conglomerates who need to maximise their yield. In between
these two are restaurants, bars, food production facilities, farmers - in fact,
anybody that routinely deals with food. Pest control can make us more
comfortable - but can also save lives.

The word pest is subjective as one man's pest may be another man's
helper. For instance, pest A may be a threat to crop A, and pest B a threat to
crop B. However, if pest B is a natural predator to pest A, then the farmer who
wishes to protect crop A may cultivate and release pest B amongst his crops.
There is a theory that without man's intervention in the food chain through
agriculture, hunting and long distance travel there would be no pests. The
theory continues that man's intervention (for instance, in cultivating and
releasing pest B, or in carrying creatures long distances) has upset the balance
of the food chain, producing instability in insect and other animal numbers and
distorting their evolution. This instability has led to over-population of a
given
species with the result that they have become pests. Having said this, if we assume that the very first fly swat was the first
instance of pest control - and we know that large animals swat flies - it could be
argued that pest control dates back way before humans came on the scene.

At this point pest control was carried out by farmers and some householders
as an everyday activity. By the early nineteenth century however, this changed
as studies and writings started to appear that treated pest control as a
separate discipline. Increasing use of intensive and large scale farming brought
matching increases in the intensity and scale of pest scares such as the
disastrous potato famine in Ireland in 1840. Pest control management was scaled
up to meet these demands, to the point that dedicated pest controllers began to
emerge throughout the 20th century.

In 1921 the first crop-spraying aeroplane was employed and in 1962 flying insect control was revolutionized when Insect-o-cutor started selling fly killer
machines using ultra violet lamps.

Pest control is still carried out by farmers and householders to this day.
There are also pest control specialists (sometimes called pesties); many
are one-person businesses and others work for large companies. In most countries
the pest control industry has been dogged by a few bad practitioners who have
tarnished the reputation for the highly professional and responsible majority.

One thing is for certain, from way before the Sumerians of 2500BC to us in modern times, there have always been - and probably always will be - pests (including some human ones!). Thank goodness, therefore, that we have pest controllers.

Lake Isabella

Category:Pest control


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Arvin Exterminating Bed Bugs

Pest control in Arvin for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Household Pests

Arvin Pest Control For Rodents

Pest Control Marketing Video.

Are you suffering with rat-induced sleeplessnights? Maybe cockroachesare making your life a living hell? There’s nothing worse than pests makingthemselves at home in YOUR home, but trying to end the war is expensiveand tiring.

Sometimes you need someone with the rightknowledge and tools to help claim your space back! Different types of pests require differenttypes of poisons, meaning you can’t just buy one product and expect itto work for everything.

We’re fullyeducated when it comes to controlling your pest problems.

All you need todo is give us the low-down on what’s keeping you up at night, and we’llgather our weapons of choice.

We’ll fight off termites, rats, ants, bedbugs, cockroaches, fleas, flies and more.

Basically, if an unwelcome guest has takenup residence in your house, we’ll get them out – for good! There’s not a minute to lose.

Call us today for a free quote to end thewar once and for all!.

Home Pest Inspection

Natural Home Remedies For Controlling Pest Insects & Bugs

If you have recently become aware of a potential pest control problem in your home or business, you do not have time to waste with repellents or trap ideas that don't work! Taking quick action to deal with the problem and guarding your home or business from further invasion is essential in preventing a larger infestation.

Unfortunately there are many old wives tales and ineffective DIY methods spread across the internet and social media. To help put some of these misconceptions to rest, here are top five pest control myths that tend to mislead consumers.

MYTH: A cleanly kept home will not have mice or bugs

Although keeping an immaculate home is an important way to reduce the risk of vermin challenges, it does not guarantee it. Bed bugs, for example can be found everywhere from upscale homes to low-end hotels. The reason for this is that they are not drawn to dirt, clutter, or garbage - they are attracted to blood. Where ever people are living and sleeping, so too might bedbugs!

In fact, adult bed bugs are easily seen with the naked eye. The challenge is that they are nocturnal and they are good at staying hidden during the day.

MYTH: Ultrasonic repellents as deterrents

Ultrasonic devices are designed to use ultra-high frequency sound waves to drive vermin away. It seems like a great idea, but the problem is that manufacturers of these products have yet to support their claims with scientific evidence.

MYTH: Consult a professional expert only when there is a serious problem

Thinking that a problem will clear up on its own is a mistake. By the time you notice the first signs of pests, your home or business could already be infested. Don't wait until you have a serious problem before you take action.

If you suspect even the slightest pest control problem, contact a professional to get advice immediately.

Arvin

Billy the Exterminator


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Tehachapi Getting Rid Of Fleas

Pest control in Tehachapi for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Rat Pest Control

Tehachapi Pest Control For Rodents

♪ [music] ♪ - [Beverly] Hi, I'm Beverly Welchhere at The Arbor Gate in Tomball, Texas with our good friend, AngelaChandler, from the Garden Academy.

- [Angela] Good morning.

- Good morning, Angela.

Well, you know,here on the Gulf Coast, we're blessed to have such a great growing season.

We cangrow such a variety of plants, but we also grow a lot of bugs anddisease as well, right? - We sure do, and summer is when thepest pressure is going to get the worst.

- It is.

So with our gardens, especiallyanything edible, we love to stay organic.

I think it's so important.

So, can I askyou a few questions about some nice organic methods.

- Sure.

-.

To keep these pests and diseaseunder control? I think, probably, the most important thing, and I think youwould agree, is our cultural methods starting with a good soil and an organicfood; keeping our plants healthy.

- Right.

It is exactly.

If people willthink about it like we do our health, it'll come to them kind of automatically.

The healthier we keep our plants, the less sensitive they are, susceptiblethey are, to a lot of pest and disease pressures.

- Perfect.

So we want to use a goodcompost.

We always want to use expanded shale.

Of course, everything you need isin Arbor Gates' Soil Complete and the food being Arbor Gate Blend but any goodwell-composted compost.

No fresh manures right?- Right.

- Yes, no fresh manures.

Wewant to pay attention to good bed prep.

We want to make sure that wehave great drainage so that.

- So important.

- Our plants don't sit when we do have ourbig rainy periods like we do, and then we want to pay attention when we're plantingthem to where we locate them so that if they're a sun plant, they get sun.

Ifthey're a shade plant, they get shade so that they're not in thatconstant state of stress.

- And watering practices, try not to.

- Very important.

- Do overhead watering.

Nature does that for us enough.

- It does, and if we can keep extramoisture off of the leaves, the plants generally do better.

- Perfect.

So, we've got our beds preparedproperly.

We've got our plants growing.

One thing that we can do organically issome preventative measures, correct? - Correct.

Prevention is a big deal, andyou know, because I'm a believer in foliar feeding.

- Right.

- And foliar feeding does a lot of thingsfor the plant.

One, they can draw in a lot of mineral nutrients.

They don'treally draw in the major NPK.

That's going to comefrom our organic blend.

- Right.

- But they do draw in a lot of theminerals that are really good for their health.

It has a tendency to thicken theleaves a little bit, and those leaves are much more resistant toopportunistic pests.

- So, again, we're just promotinga lot of sturdier, healthier plants.

- Exactly.

- That is going to be more pest.

- That's correct.

- And disease resistant.

Another fun wayare what they call trap crops.

And we've put these beautiful sunflowers herebecause stink bugs are a nemesis for tomato growers here on the Gulf Coast,and they prefer the sunflowers.

- They do.

- Oftentimes over our tomatoes.

- They really do.

It's a great trap crop,not to mention the fact that they're beautiful in the garden and that our beesand butterflies are going to like it, too.

But this is when we get intowhat we call a mechanical control.

Some place is going to attract the pestinsects so that we can remove them.

You can remove them by hand.

They're alittle creepy, but you can remove them by hand.

But a Pet Vac, a battery-operatedPet Vac, works great.

So just walk through your garden when you see them especiallywhen they're in that nymph stage, just get that vacuum after them,zip them up, put them in a ziplock bag, and discard them in the trash.

- Got you.

Now, I would like topoint out, too, that harmful insects work on sense of smell.

- Yes, they do.

- Beneficials on sense of sight so theydon't need to worry about using things like the garlic spray and the liquid fishbecause that also helps repel the harmful insects.

- It does.

And the lovely thing aboutthings like the garlic spray and the fish, people are concerned or they'll ask us aquestion about, "Well, is it going to have a lingering scent in my garden?" And ithas a very temporary scent in the garden.

- Yes, very much so.

- It's gone very quickly and yet theimpact really stays there.

- It does, and mosquitoesare harmful insects.

- They are.

They're definitely harmful.

- And they are repelled by those.

So then, we got those controls.

We are going to have our culturalcontrol, we have our mechanical, we have our preventative.

So what is next? - Well, sometimes, no matter how well youprep and plan, some thing's going to go wrong.

Sometimes, that has todo with weather.

A lot of times, weather can bring on a pest influence.

Sothen, we do have to turn to the chemicals, but we would like to stay, especially withour edibles, we would like to stay in the chemicals that are either harmful orrepellent to the pest insects but are not going to harm our family when we bringthat food in to eat.

So we want to stay away from anything that has that.

- A chemical.

- Chemical scent in it.

So, most of thethings here, they have a zero interval rate, meaning that you can spray and thatsame day you can harvest.

And most of them have a biological source themselves.

Forinstance, Serenade.

It's actually derived from a Bacillus, so it's actually amicroorganism that they've used to create that.

Orange oil pressed from thecitrus oils in the skins.

So basically, all of these will have a biological basisin the first place, so they're safe to use in our gardens, but some of themare very antagonistic to the pests.

The only thing we want to watch for isthere are some things in the organic toolbox that we want to be carefulwhen we use them.

Spinosad is one.

It's great, great, great tool for anorganic gardener, but it's toxic to bees.

So the only thing you want to watch thereis just don't spray it on plants that are blooming, so as long assomething's in the leafy stage or it's not in that blooming stage, it's fineto use.

Or you could use it on all your root crops, you can use it on your leafcrops without any issues to the blooms.

- And you know, you brought up a very goodpoint.

Just because something is natural doesn't mean it's not harmfulto some of our beneficials.

- Exactly.

You still want to be careful.

- Exactly.

So, another good way is, again,biological.

Our Beneficial Nematodes which even eat the ant and flealarvae in the ground.

- They do, and people that have troublewith fleas have found that this is extremely helpful for that.

The one thingyou want to do when you do use Beneficial Nematodes is your job is to pay attentionto maintain an even moisture in the landscape because they'll retreat.

As thesoil dries, they'll retreat into the moist areas, so they'll kind of hide in the rootof trees and things.

So your job is to keep even moisture, not soggy,but just enough that they can thrive.

- And this can gothroughout the landscape.

- Oh, definitely.

- Not just in your garden.

- Everywhere.

- They'll colonize and naturalize inan area.

They're great friends to have.

- They are, certainly.

- And then, of course, Lady Bugs.

- Lady Bugs, yes, not to mentionthe fact that they're just adorable, but they are very good predators.

Andthey're good predators as adults in the lady beetle that we're used to seeing butalso after you release them and they start laying eggs in the garden, theirlarva are amazing predators.

They will go through hundreds of aphids.

- Perfect.

Well, thank you so much,Angela.

So, now we're ready to have a safe and healthy productive garden.

- Absolutely.

Thank you, Beverly.

♪ [music] ♪.

Bed Bug Infestation

Bug Lady Pest Control - Flea Removal

♪ [music] ♪ - [Beverly] Hi, I'm Beverly Welchhere at The Arbor Gate in Tomball, Texas with our good friend, AngelaChandler, from the Garden Academy.

- [Angela] Good morning.

- Good morning, Angela.

Well, you know,here on the Gulf Coast, we're blessed to have such a great growing season.

We cangrow such a variety of plants, but we also grow a lot of bugs anddisease as well, right? - We sure do, and summer is when thepest pressure is going to get the worst.

- It is.

So with our gardens, especiallyanything edible, we love to stay organic.

I think it's so important.

So, can I askyou a few questions about some nice organic methods.

- Sure.

-.

To keep these pests and diseaseunder control? I think, probably, the most important thing, and I think youwould agree, is our cultural methods starting with a good soil and an organicfood; keeping our plants healthy.

- Right.

It is exactly.

If people willthink about it like we do our health, it'll come to them kind of automatically.

The healthier we keep our plants, the less sensitive they are, susceptiblethey are, to a lot of pest and disease pressures.

- Perfect.

So we want to use a goodcompost.

We always want to use expanded shale.

Of course, everything you need isin Arbor Gates' Soil Complete and the food being Arbor Gate Blend but any goodwell-composted compost.

No fresh manures right?- Right.

- Yes, no fresh manures.

Wewant to pay attention to good bed prep.

We want to make sure that wehave great drainage so that.

- So important.

- Our plants don't sit when we do have ourbig rainy periods like we do, and then we want to pay attention when we're plantingthem to where we locate them so that if they're a sun plant, they get sun.

Ifthey're a shade plant, they get shade so that they're not in thatconstant state of stress.

- And watering practices, try not to.

- Very important.

- Do overhead watering.

Nature does that for us enough.

- It does, and if we can keep extramoisture off of the leaves, the plants generally do better.

- Perfect.

So, we've got our beds preparedproperly.

We've got our plants growing.

One thing that we can do organically issome preventative measures, correct? - Correct.

Prevention is a big deal, andyou know, because I'm a believer in foliar feeding.

- Right.

- And foliar feeding does a lot of thingsfor the plant.

One, they can draw in a lot of mineral nutrients.

They don'treally draw in the major NPK.

That's going to comefrom our organic blend.

- Right.

- But they do draw in a lot of theminerals that are really good for their health.

It has a tendency to thicken theleaves a little bit, and those leaves are much more resistant toopportunistic pests.

- So, again, we're just promotinga lot of sturdier, healthier plants.

- Exactly.

- That is going to be more pest.

- That's correct.

- And disease resistant.

Another fun wayare what they call trap crops.

And we've put these beautiful sunflowers herebecause stink bugs are a nemesis for tomato growers here on the Gulf Coast,and they prefer the sunflowers.

- They do.

- Oftentimes over our tomatoes.

- They really do.

It's a great trap crop,not to mention the fact that they're beautiful in the garden and that our beesand butterflies are going to like it, too.

But this is when we get intowhat we call a mechanical control.

Some place is going to attract the pestinsects so that we can remove them.

You can remove them by hand.

They're alittle creepy, but you can remove them by hand.

But a Pet Vac, a battery-operatedPet Vac, works great.

So just walk through your garden when you see them especiallywhen they're in that nymph stage, just get that vacuum after them,zip them up, put them in a ziplock bag, and discard them in the trash.

- Got you.

Now, I would like topoint out, too, that harmful insects work on sense of smell.

- Yes, they do.

- Beneficials on sense of sight so theydon't need to worry about using things like the garlic spray and the liquid fishbecause that also helps repel the harmful insects.

- It does.

And the lovely thing aboutthings like the garlic spray and the fish, people are concerned or they'll ask us aquestion about, "Well, is it going to have a lingering scent in my garden?" And ithas a very temporary scent in the garden.

- Yes, very much so.

- It's gone very quickly and yet theimpact really stays there.

- It does, and mosquitoesare harmful insects.

- They are.

They're definitely harmful.

- And they are repelled by those.

So then, we got those controls.

We are going to have our culturalcontrol, we have our mechanical, we have our preventative.

So what is next? - Well, sometimes, no matter how well youprep and plan, some thing's going to go wrong.

Sometimes, that has todo with weather.

A lot of times, weather can bring on a pest influence.

Sothen, we do have to turn to the chemicals, but we would like to stay, especially withour edibles, we would like to stay in the chemicals that are either harmful orrepellent to the pest insects but are not going to harm our family when we bringthat food in to eat.

So we want to stay away from anything that has that.

- A chemical.

- Chemical scent in it.

So, most of thethings here, they have a zero interval rate, meaning that you can spray and thatsame day you can harvest.

And most of them have a biological source themselves.

Forinstance, Serenade.

It's actually derived from a Bacillus, so it's actually amicroorganism that they've used to create that.

Orange oil pressed from thecitrus oils in the skins.

So basically, all of these will have a biological basisin the first place, so they're safe to use in our gardens, but some of themare very antagonistic to the pests.

The only thing we want to watch for isthere are some things in the organic toolbox that we want to be carefulwhen we use them.

Spinosad is one.

It's great, great, great tool for anorganic gardener, but it's toxic to bees.

So the only thing you want to watch thereis just don't spray it on plants that are blooming, so as long assomething's in the leafy stage or it's not in that blooming stage, it's fineto use.

Or you could use it on all your root crops, you can use it on your leafcrops without any issues to the blooms.

- And you know, you brought up a very goodpoint.

Just because something is natural doesn't mean it's not harmfulto some of our beneficials.

- Exactly.

You still want to be careful.

- Exactly.

So, another good way is, again,biological.

Our Beneficial Nematodes which even eat the ant and flealarvae in the ground.

- They do, and people that have troublewith fleas have found that this is extremely helpful for that.

The one thingyou want to do when you do use Beneficial Nematodes is your job is to pay attentionto maintain an even moisture in the landscape because they'll retreat.

As thesoil dries, they'll retreat into the moist areas, so they'll kind of hide in the rootof trees and things.

So your job is to keep even moisture, not soggy,but just enough that they can thrive.

- And this can gothroughout the landscape.

- Oh, definitely.

- Not just in your garden.

- Everywhere.

- They'll colonize and naturalize inan area.

They're great friends to have.

- They are, certainly.

- And then, of course, Lady Bugs.

- Lady Bugs, yes, not to mentionthe fact that they're just adorable, but they are very good predators.

Andthey're good predators as adults in the lady beetle that we're used to seeing butalso after you release them and they start laying eggs in the garden, theirlarva are amazing predators.

They will go through hundreds of aphids.

- Perfect.

Well, thank you so much,Angela.

So, now we're ready to have a safe and healthy productive garden.

- Absolutely.

Thank you, Beverly.

♪ [music] ♪.

Tehachapi

Category:Pest control


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Oildale Garden Pest Control

Pest control in Oildale for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Ant Infestation

Oildale Pest Control For Rodents

Syrphus hoverfly larva (below) feeding on aphids (above), is a natural biological control agent. A parasitoid wasp (Cotesia congregata) adult with pupal cocoons on its host, a tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta (green background). One example of a hymenopteran biological control agent.

Biological control is a method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms.[1] It relies on predation, parasitism, herbivory, or other natural mechanisms, but typically also involves an active human management role. It can be an important component of integrated pest management (IPM) programs.

There are three basic types of biological pest control strategies: importation (sometimes called classical biological control), in which a natural enemy of a pest is introduced in the hope of achieving control; augmentation, in which locally-occurring natural enemies are bred and released to improve control; and conservation, in which measures are taken to increase natural enemies, such as by planting nectar-producing crop plants in the borders of rice fields.

Natural enemies of insect pests, also known as biological control agents, include predators, parasitoids, pathogens, and competitors. Biological control agents of plant diseases are most often referred to as antagonists. Biological control agents of weeds include seed predators, herbivores and plant pathogens.

Biological control can have side-effects on biodiversity through attacks on non-target species by any of the same mechanisms, especially when a species is introduced without thorough understanding of the possible consequences.

The term "biological control" was first used by Harry Scott Smith at the 1919 meeting of the Pacific Slope Branch of the American Association of Economic Entomologists, in Riverside, California.[2] It was brought into more widespread use by the entomologist Paul H. DeBach (1914–1993) who worked on citrus crop pests throughout his life.[3][4] However, the practice has previously been used for centuries. The first report of the use of an insect species to control an insect pest comes from "Nan Fang Cao Mu Zhuang" (南方草木狀 Plants of the Southern Regions) (ca. 304 AD), attributed to Western Jin dynasty botanist Ji Han (嵇含, 263–307), in which it is mentioned that "Jiaozhi people sell ants and their nests attached to twigs looking like thin cotton envelopes, the reddish-yellow ant being larger than normal. Without such ants, southern citrus fruits will be severely insect-damaged".[5] The ants used are known as huang gan (huang = yellow, gan = citrus) ants (Oecophylla smaragdina). The practice was later reported by Ling Biao Lu Yi (late Tang Dynasty or Early Five Dynasties), in Ji Le Pian by Zhuang Jisu (Southern Song Dynasty), in the Book of Tree Planting by Yu Zhen Mu (Ming Dynasty), in the book Guangdong Xing Yu (17th century), Lingnan by Wu Zhen Fang (Qing Dynasty), in Nanyue Miscellanies by Li Diao Yuan, and others.[5]

Biological control techniques as we know them today started to emerge in the 1870s. During this decade, in the USA, the Missouri State Entomologist C. V. Riley and the Illinois State Entomologist W. LeBaron began within-state redistribution of parasitoids to control crop pests. The first international shipment of an insect as biological control agent was made by Charles V. Riley in 1873, shipping to France the predatory mites Tyroglyphus phylloxera to help fight the grapevine phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae) that was destroying grapevines in France. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) initiated research in classical biological control following the establishment of the Division of Entomology in 1881, with C. V. Riley as Chief. The first importation of a parasitoidal wasp into the United States was that of the braconid Cotesia glomerata in 1883–1884, imported from Europe to control the invasive cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae. In 1888–1889 the vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis, a lady beetle, was introduced from Australia to California to control the cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi. This had become a major problem for the newly developed citrus industry in California, but by the end of 1889 the cottony cushion scale population had already declined. This great success led to further introductions of beneficial insects into the USA.[6][7]

In 1905 the USDA initiated its first large-scale biological control program, sending entomologists to Europe and Japan to look for natural enemies of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar dispar, and brown-tail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhoea, invasive pests of trees and shrubs. As a result, nine parasitoids (solitary wasps) of gypsy moth, seven of brown-tail moth, and two predators of both moths became established in the USA. Although the gypsy moth was not fully controlled by these natural enemies, the frequency, duration, and severity of its outbreaks were reduced and the program was regarded as successful. This program also led to the development of many concepts, principles, and procedures for the implementation of biological control programs.[6][7][8]

Cactoblastis cactorum larvae feeding on Opuntia prickly pear cacti

Prickly pear cacti were introduced into Queensland, Australia as ornamental plants, starting in 1788. They quickly spread to cover over 25 million hectares of Australia by 1920, increasing by 1 million hectares per year. Digging, burning and crushing all proved ineffective. By 1914, two control agents were introduced to help control the spread of the plant, the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum, and the scale insect Dactylopius. By 1917, most areas of prickly pear had been destroyed.[9]

The first reported case of a classical biological control attempt in Canada involves the parasitoidal wasp Trichogramma minutum. Individuals were caught in New York State and released in Ontario gardens in 1882 by William Saunders, trained chemist and first Director of the Dominion Experimental Farms, for controlling the invasive currantworm Nematus ribesii. Between 1884 and 1908, the first Dominion Entomologist, James Fletcher, continued introductions of other parasitoids and pathogens for the control of pests in Canada.[10]

There are three basic biological pest control strategies: importation (classical biological control), augmentation and conservation.[11]

Rodolia cardinalis, the vedalia beetle, was imported to Australia in the 19th century, successfully controlling cottony cushion scale.

Importation or classical biological control involves the introduction of a pest's natural enemies to a new locale where they do not occur naturally. Early instances were often unofficial and not based on research, and some introduced species became serious pests themselves.[12]

To be most effective at controlling a pest, a biological control agent requires a colonizing ability which allows it to keep pace with changes to the habitat in space and time. Control is greatest if the agent has temporal persistence, so that it can maintain its population even in the temporary absence of the target species, and if it is an opportunistic forager, enabling it to rapidly exploit a pest population.[13]

Joseph Needham noted a Chinese text dating from 304 AD, Records of the Plants and Trees of the Southern Regions, by Hsi Han, which describes mandarin oranges protected by large reddish-yellow citrus ants which attack and kill insect pests of the orange trees. The citrus ant (Oecophylla smaragdina)[14] was rediscovered in the 20th century, and since 1958 has been used in China to protect orange groves.[15]

One of the earliest successes in the west was in controlling Icerya purchasi (cottony cushion scale) in Australia, using a predatory insect Rodolia cardinalis (the vedalia beetle). This success was repeated in California using the beetle and a parasitoidal fly, Cryptochaetum iceryae.[16]

Damage from Hypera postica, the alfalfa weevil, a serious introduced pest of forage, was substantially reduced by the introduction of natural enemies. 20 years after their introduction the population of weevils in the alfalfa area treated for alfalfa weevil in the Northeastern United States remained 75 percent down.[17]

The invasive species Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed) was controlled in Florida (U.S.) by introducing alligator weed flea beetle.

Alligator weed was introduced to the United States from South America. It takes root in shallow water, interfering with navigation, irrigation, and flood control. The alligator weed flea beetle and two other biological controls were released in Florida, greatly reducing the amount of land covered by the plant.[18] Another aquatic weed, the giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta) is a serious pest, covering waterways, reducing water flow and harming native species. Control with the salvinia weevil (Cyrtobagous salviniae) is effective in warm climates,[19] and in Zimbabwe, a 99% control of the weed was obtained over a two-year period.[20]

Small commercially reared parasitoidal wasps,[11]Trichogramma ostriniae, provide limited and erratic control of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), a serious pest. Careful formulations of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis are more effective.[21]

The population of Levuana iridescens, the Levuana moth, a serious coconut pest in Fiji, was brought under control by a classical biological control program in the 1920s.[22]

Hippodamia convergens, the convergent lady beetle, is commonly sold for biological control of aphids.

Augmentation involves the supplemental release of natural enemies that occur in a particular area, boosting the naturally occurring populations there. In inoculative release, small numbers of the control agents are released at intervals to allow them to reproduce, in the hope of setting up longer-term control, and thus keeping the pest down to a low level, constituting prevention rather than cure. In inundative release, in contrast, large numbers are released in the hope of rapidly reducing a damaging pest population, correcting a problem that has already arisen. Augmentation can be effective, but is not guaranteed to work, and depends on the precise details of the interactions between each pest and control agent.[23]

An example of inoculative release occurs in the horticultural production of several crops in greenhouses. Periodic releases of the parasitoidal wasp, Encarsia formosa, are used to control greenhouse whitefly,[24] while the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis is used for control of the two-spotted spider mite.[25]

The egg parasite Trichogramma is frequently released inundatively to control harmful moths. Similarly, Bacillus thuringiensis and other microbial insecticides are used in large enough quantities for a rapid effect.[23] Recommended release rates for Trichogramma in vegetable or field crops range from 5,000 to 200,000 per acre (1 to 50 per square metre) per week according to the level of pest infestation.[26] Similarly, nematodes that kill insects (that are entomopathogenic) are released at rates of millions and even billions per acre for control of certain soil-dwelling insect pests.[27]

The conservation of existing natural enemies in an environment is the third method of biological pest control.[28] Natural enemies are already adapted to the habitat and to the target pest, and their conservation can be simple and cost-effective, as when nectar-producing crop plants are grown in the borders of rice fields. These provide nectar to support parasitoids and predators of planthopper pests and have been demonstrated to be so effective (reducing pest densities by 10- or even 100-fold) that farmers sprayed 70% less insecticides and enjoyed yields boosted by 5%.[29] Predators of aphids were similarly found to be present in tussock grasses by field boundary hedges in England, but they spread too slowly to reach the centres of fields. Control was improved by planting a metre-wide strip of tussock grasses in field centres, enabling aphid predators to overwinter there.[28]

An inverted flowerpot filled with straw to attract earwigs

Cropping systems can be modified to favor natural enemies, a practice sometimes referred to as habitat manipulation. Providing a suitable habitat, such as a shelterbelt, hedgerow, or beetle bank where beneficial insects such as parasitoidal wasps can live and reproduce, can help ensure the survival of populations of natural enemies. Things as simple as leaving a layer of fallen leaves or mulch in place provides a suitable food source for worms and provides a shelter for insects, in turn being a food source for such beneficial mammals as hedgehogs and shrews. Compost piles and stacks of wood can provide shelter for invertebrates and small mammals. Long grass and ponds support amphibians. Not removing dead annuals and non-hardy plants in the autumn allows insects to make use of their hollow stems during winter.[30] In California, prune trees are sometimes planted in grape vineyards to provide an improved overwintering habitat or refuge for a key grape pest parasitoid.[31] The providing of artificial shelters in the form of wooden caskets, boxes or flowerpots is also sometimes undertaken, particularly in gardens, to make a cropped area more attractive to natural enemies. For example, earwigs are natural predators which can be encouraged in gardens by hanging upside-down flowerpots filled with straw or wood wool. Green lacewings can be encouraged by using plastic bottles with an open bottom and a roll of cardboard inside. Birdhouses enable insectivorous birds to nest; the most useful birds can be attracted by choosing an opening just large enough for the desired species.[30]

In cotton production, the replacement of broad-spectrum insecticides with selective control measures such as Bt cotton can create a more favorable environment for natural enemies of cotton pests due to reduced insecticide exposure risk. Such predators or parasitoids can control pests not affected by the Bt protein. Reduced prey quality and abundance associated increased control from Bt cotton can also indirectly decrease natural enemy populations in some cases, but the percentage of pests eaten or parasitized in Bt and non-Bt cotton are often similar.[32]

Lacewings are available from biocontrol dealers.

Predators are mainly free-living species that directly consume a large number of prey during their whole lifetime. Given that many major crop pests are insects, many of the predators used in biological control are insectivorous species. Lady beetles, and in particular their larvae which are active between May and July in the northern hemisphere, are voracious predators of aphids, and also consume mites, scale insects and small caterpillars. The spotted lady beetle (Coleomegilla maculata) is also able to feed on the eggs and larvae of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata).[33]

The larvae of many hoverfly species principally feed upon aphids, one larva devouring up to 400 in its lifetime. Their effectiveness in commercial crops has not been studied.[34]

Predatory Polistes wasp searching for bollworms or other caterpillars on a cotton plant

Several species of entomopathogenic nematode are important predators of insect and other invertebrate pests.[35]Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is a microscopic nematode that kills slugs. Its complex life cycle includes a free-living, infective stage in the soil where it becomes associated with a pathogenic bacteria such as Moraxella osloensis. The nematode enters the slug through the posterior mantle region, thereafter feeding and reproducing inside, but it is the bacteria that kill the slug. The nematode is available commercially in Europe and is applied by watering onto moist soil.[36]

Species used to control spider mites include the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis,[37]Neoseilus californicus,[38] and Amblyseius cucumeris, the predatory midge Feltiella acarisuga,[38] and a ladybird Stethorus punctillum.[38] The bug Orius insidiosus has been successfully used against the two-spotted spider mite and the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis).[39]

Parasitoids lay their eggs on or in the body of an insect host, which is then used as a food for developing larvae. The host is ultimately killed. Most insect parasitoids are wasps or flies, and many have a very narrow host range. The most important groups are the ichneumonid wasps, which mainly use caterpillars as hosts; braconid wasps, which attack caterpillars and a wide range of other insects including aphids; chalcid wasps, which parasitize eggs and larvae of many insect species; and tachinid flies, which parasitize a wide range of insects including caterpillars, beetle adults and larvae, and true bugs.[40]

Encarsia formosa, widely used in greenhouse horticulture, was one of the first biological control agents developed. Life cycles of greenhouse whitefly and its parasitoid wasp Encarsia formosa

Encarsia formosa is a small predatory chalcid wasp which is a parasitoid of whitefly, a sap-feeding insect which can cause wilting and black sooty moulds in glasshouse vegetable and ornamental crops. It is most effective when dealing with low level infestations, giving protection over a long period of time. The wasp lays its eggs in young whitefly 'scales', turning them black as the parasite larvae pupate.[24]Gonatocerus ashmeadi (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) has been introduced to control the glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in French Polynesia and has successfully controlled ~95% of the pest density.[41]

Parasitoids are among the most widely used biological control agents. Commercially, there are two types of rearing systems: short-term daily output with high production of parasitoids per day, and long-term, low daily output systems.[42] In most instances, production will need to be matched with the appropriate release dates when susceptible host species at a suitable phase of development will be available.[43] Larger production facilities produce on a yearlong basis, whereas some facilities produce only seasonally. Rearing facilities are usually a significant distance from where the agents are to be used in the field, and transporting the parasitoids from the point of production to the point of use can pose problems.[44] Shipping conditions can be too hot, and even vibrations from planes or trucks can adversely affect parasitoids.[42]

Further information: biopesticide

Pathogenic micro-organisms include bacteria, fungi, and viruses. They kill or debilitate their host and are relatively host-specific. Various microbial insect diseases occur naturally, but may also be used as biological pesticides.[45] When naturally occurring, these outbreaks are density-dependent in that they generally only occur as insect populations become denser.[46]

Bacteria used for biological control infect insects via their digestive tracts, so they offer only limited options for controlling insects with sucking mouth parts such as aphids and scale insects.[47]Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely applied species of bacteria used for biological control, with at least four sub-species used against Lepidopteran (moth, butterfly), Coleopteran (beetle) and Dipteran (true fly) insect pests. The bacterium is available to organic farmers in sachets of dried spores which are mixed with water and sprayed onto vulnerable plants such as brassicas and fruit trees.[48][49]Genes from B. thuringiensis have also been incorporated into transgenic crops, making the plants express some of the bacterium's toxins, which are proteins. These confer resistance to insect pests and thus reduce the necessity for pesticide use.[50] If pests develop resistance to the toxins in these crops, B. thuringiensis will become useless in organic farming also.[51][49] The bacterium Paenibacillus popilliae which causes milky spore disease has been found useful in the control of Japanese beetle, killing the larvae. It is very specific to its host species and is harmless to vertebrates and other invertebrates.[52]

Green peach aphid, a pest in its own right and a vector of plant viruses, killed by the fungus Pandora neoaphidis (Zygomycota: Entomophthorales) Scale bar = 0.3 mm.

Entomopathogenic fungi, which cause disease in insects, include at least 14 species that attack aphids.[53]Beauveria bassiana is mass-produced and used to manage a wide variety of insect pests including whiteflies, thrips, aphids and weevils.[54]Lecanicillium spp. are deployed against white flies, thrips and aphids. Metarhizium spp. are used against pests including beetles, locusts and other grasshoppers, Hemiptera, and spider mites. Paecilomyces fumosoroseus is effective against white flies, thrips and aphids; Purpureocillium lilacinus is used against root-knot nematodes, and 89 Trichoderma species against certain plant pathogens. Trichoderma viride has been used against Dutch elm disease, and has shown some effect in suppressing silver leaf, a disease of stone fruits caused by the pathogenic fungus Chondrostereum purpureum.[55]

The fungi Cordyceps and Metacordyceps are deployed against a wide spectrum of arthropods.[56]Entomophaga is effective against pests such as the green peach aphid.[57]

Several members of Chytridiomycota and Blastocladiomycota have been explored as agents of biological control.[58][59] From Chytridiomycota, Synchytrium solstitiale is being considered as a control agent of the yellow star thistle (Centaurea solstitialis) in the United States.[60]

Baculoviruses are specific to individual insect host species and have been shown to be useful in biological pest control. For example, the Lymantria dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus has been used to spray large areas of forest in North America where larvae of the gypsy moth are causing serious defoliation. The moth larvae are killed by the virus they have eaten and die, the disintegrating cadavers leaving virus particles on the foliage to infect other larvae.[61]

A mammalian virus, the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus was introduced to Australia to attempt to control the European rabbit populations there.[62] It escaped from quarantine and spread across the country, killing large numbers of rabbits. Very young animals survived, passing immunity to their offspring in due course and eventually producing a virus-resistant population.[63] Introduction into New Zealand in the 1990s was similarly successful at first, but a decade later, immunity had developed and populations had returned to pre-RHD levels.[64]

Lagenidium giganteum is a water-borne mould that parasitizes the larval stage of mosquitoes. When applied to water, the motile spores avoid unsuitable host species and search out suitable mosquito larval hosts. This alga has the advantages of a dormant phase, resistant to desiccation, with slow-release characteristics over several years. Unfortunately, it is susceptible to many chemicals used in mosquito abatement programmes.[65]

The legume vine Mucuna pruriens is used in the countries of Benin and Vietnam as a biological control for problematic Imperata cylindrica grass: the vine is extremely vigorous and suppresses neighbouring plants by out-competing them for space and light. Mucuna pruriens is said not to be invasive outside its cultivated area.[66]Desmodium uncinatum can be used in push-pull farming to stop the parasitic plant, witchweed (Striga).[67]

The Australian bush fly, Musca vetustissima, is a major nuisance pest in Australia, but native decomposers found in Australia are not adapted to feeding on cow dung, which is where bush flies breed. Therefore, the Australian Dung Beetle Project (1965–1985), led by George Bornemissza of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, released forty-nine species of dung beetle, to reduce the amount of dung and therefore also the potential breeding sites of the fly.[68]

In cases of massive and severe infection of invasive pests, techniques of pest control are often used in combination. An example is the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, an invasive beetle from China, which has destroyed tens of millions of ash trees in its introduced range in North America. As part of the campaign against it, from 2003 American scientists and the Chinese Academy of Forestry searched for its natural enemies in the wild, leading to the discovery of several parasitoid wasps, namely Tetrastichus planipennisi, a gregarious larval endoparasitoid, Oobius agrili, a solitary, parthenogenic egg parasitoid, and Spathius agrili, a gregarious larval ectoparasitoid. These have been introduced and released into the United States of America as a possible biological control of the emerald ash borer. Initial results for Tetrastichus planipennisi have shown promise, and it is now being released along with Beauveria bassiana, a fungal pathogen with known insecticidal properties.[69][70][71]

Many of the most important pests are exotic, invasive species that severely impact agriculture, horticulture, forestry and urban environments. They tend to arrive without their co-evolved parasites, pathogens and predators, and by escaping from these, populations may soar. Importing the natural enemies of these pests may seem a logical move but this may have unintended consequences; regulations may be ineffective and there may be unanticipated effects on biodiversity, and the adoption of the techniques may prove challenging because of a lack of knowledge among farmers and growers.[72]

Biological control can affect biodiversity[13] through predation, parasitism, pathogenicity, competition, or other attacks on non-target species.[73] An introduced control does not always target only the intended pest species; it can also target native species.[74] In Hawaii during the 1940s parasitic wasps were introduced to control a lepidopteran pest and the wasps are still found there today. This may have a negative impact on the native ecosystem, however, host range and impacts need to be studied before declaring their impact on the environment.[75]

Cane toad (introduced into Australia 1935) spread from 1940 to 1980: it was ineffective as a control agent. Its distribution has continued to widen since 1980.

Vertebrate animals tend to be generalist feeders, and seldom make good biological control agents; many of the classic cases of "biocontrol gone awry" involve vertebrates. For example, the cane toad (Rhinella marina) was intentionally introduced to Australia to control the greyback cane beetle (Dermolepida albohirtum),[76] and other pests of sugar cane. 102 toads were obtained from Hawaii and bred in captivity to increase their numbers until they were released into the sugar cane fields of the tropic north in 1935. It was later discovered that the toads could not jump very high and so were unable to eat the cane beetles which stayed up on the upper stalks of the cane plants. However the toad thrived by feeding on other insects and it soon spread very rapidly; it took over native amphibian habitat and brought foreign disease to native toads and frogs, dramatically reducing their populations. Also when it is threatened or handled, the cane toad releases poison from parotoid glands on its shoulders; native Australian species such as goannas, tiger snakes, dingos and northern quolls that attempted to eat the toad were harmed or killed. However, there has been some recent evidence that native predators are adapting, both physiologically and through changing their behaviour, so in the long run, their populations may recover.[77]

Rhinocyllus conicus, a seed-feeding weevil, was introduced to North America to control exotic musk thistle (Carduus nutans) and Canadian thistle (Cirsium arvense). However the weevil also attacks native thistles, harming such species as the endemic Platte thistle (Cirsium neomexicanum) by selecting larger plants (which reduced the gene pool), reducing seed production and ultimately threatening the species' survival.[78]

The small Asian mongoose (Herpestus javanicus) was introduced to Hawaii in order to control the rat population. However the mongoose was diurnal, and the rats emerged at night; so it preyed on the endemic birds of Hawaii, especially their eggs, more often than it ate the rats, and now both rats and mongooses threaten the birds. This introduction was undertaken without understanding the consequences of such an action. No regulations existed at the time, and more careful evaluation should prevent such releases now.[79]

The sturdy and prolific eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) is a native of the southeastern United States and was introduced around the world in the 1930s and 40s to feed on mosquito larvae and thus combat malaria. However, it has thrived at the expense of local species, causing a decline of endemic fish and frogs through competition for food resources, as well as through eating their eggs and larvae.[80] In Australia, the mosquitofish is the subject of discussion as to how best to control it; in 1989 it was said that "biological population control is well beyond present capabilities", and this remains the position.[81]

A potential obstacle to the adoption of biological pest control measures is growers sticking to the familiar use of pesticides. However, pesticides have a variety of undesired effects, including the development of resistance among pests, and the destruction of natural enemies; these may in turn enable outbreaks of pests of other species than the ones originally targeted, and on crops at a distance from those treated with pesticides.[82] One method of increasing grower adoption of biocontrol methods involves letting them learn by doing, for example showing them simple field experiments, enabling them to observe the live predation of pests, or demonstrations of parasitised pests. In the Philippines, early season sprays against leaf folder caterpillars were common practice, but growers were asked to follow a 'rule of thumb' of not spraying against leaf folders for the first 30 days after transplanting; participation in this resulted in a reduction of insecticide use by 1/3 and a change in grower perception of insecticide use.[83]

General Effects on native biodiversity Effects on invasive species Economic effects Tick Control

Pest Control Marketing Video 805-253-0023 Get Yours Today

When it comes to pest control, you can spend all sorts of money hiring exterminators or buying smelly (and often toxic) sprays and chemicals for your home, but in some cases, you may not need to go to such extremes. There are a lot of completely natural insect and pest control remedies out there, many of which our ancestors have been using with great success for countless generations. You'll be pleased to know that many of these useful items can be found in the average household.

Though pest control can refer to dealing with pest birds, bugs, and rodents, this article will focus on getting rid of insects.

Insect Control in the Garden

Believe it or not, aluminum foil can successfully keep hungry insects and slugs away from your vegetable garden. Simply mix strips of aluminum foil in with your garden mulch to deter bugs and slugs. In addition, since foil is reflective, it will shine light back up onto your plants, giving them a solar boost.

Another household item good at getting rid of insects is vinegar. For example, if your latest trip to the farmers' market brought back fruit flies as well as healthy victuals, then you can make traps for the flies by filling an old jar about halfway full with apple cider vinegar. Punch a few holes in the top, screw it back on, and the fruit flies will be attracted and trapped.

These are just a few of the easy ways to use simple household items to get rid of insects. So when you're having a problem, don't be so eager to pick up a can of chemical-filled bug spray. Look for natural solutions, and you will very likely find them!

Oildale

Natural Home Remedies For Controlling Pest Insects & Bugs


California Treatment For Bed Bugs