Mojave Pest Control Chemicals

Pest control in Mojave for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Rat Infestation

Mojave Pest Control For Rodents

Exterminator may refer to:

Home Pest Inspection

How Rodents Can Make Your Home An Unhealthy Place

Syrphus hoverfly larva (below) feeding on aphids (above), is a natural biological control agent. A parasitoid wasp (Cotesia congregata) adult with pupal cocoons on its host, a tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta (green background). One example of a hymenopteran biological control agent.

Biological control is a method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms.[1] It relies on predation, parasitism, herbivory, or other natural mechanisms, but typically also involves an active human management role. It can be an important component of integrated pest management (IPM) programs.

There are three basic types of biological pest control strategies: importation (sometimes called classical biological control), in which a natural enemy of a pest is introduced in the hope of achieving control; augmentation, in which locally-occurring natural enemies are bred and released to improve control; and conservation, in which measures are taken to increase natural enemies, such as by planting nectar-producing crop plants in the borders of rice fields.

Natural enemies of insect pests, also known as biological control agents, include predators, parasitoids, pathogens, and competitors. Biological control agents of plant diseases are most often referred to as antagonists. Biological control agents of weeds include seed predators, herbivores and plant pathogens.

Biological control can have side-effects on biodiversity through attacks on non-target species by any of the same mechanisms, especially when a species is introduced without thorough understanding of the possible consequences.

The term "biological control" was first used by Harry Scott Smith at the 1919 meeting of the Pacific Slope Branch of the American Association of Economic Entomologists, in Riverside, California.[2] It was brought into more widespread use by the entomologist Paul H. DeBach (1914–1993) who worked on citrus crop pests throughout his life.[3][4] However, the practice has previously been used for centuries. The first report of the use of an insect species to control an insect pest comes from "Nan Fang Cao Mu Zhuang" (南方草木狀 Plants of the Southern Regions) (ca. 304 AD), attributed to Western Jin dynasty botanist Ji Han (嵇含, 263–307), in which it is mentioned that "Jiaozhi people sell ants and their nests attached to twigs looking like thin cotton envelopes, the reddish-yellow ant being larger than normal. Without such ants, southern citrus fruits will be severely insect-damaged".[5] The ants used are known as huang gan (huang = yellow, gan = citrus) ants (Oecophylla smaragdina). The practice was later reported by Ling Biao Lu Yi (late Tang Dynasty or Early Five Dynasties), in Ji Le Pian by Zhuang Jisu (Southern Song Dynasty), in the Book of Tree Planting by Yu Zhen Mu (Ming Dynasty), in the book Guangdong Xing Yu (17th century), Lingnan by Wu Zhen Fang (Qing Dynasty), in Nanyue Miscellanies by Li Diao Yuan, and others.[5]

Biological control techniques as we know them today started to emerge in the 1870s. During this decade, in the USA, the Missouri State Entomologist C. V. Riley and the Illinois State Entomologist W. LeBaron began within-state redistribution of parasitoids to control crop pests. The first international shipment of an insect as biological control agent was made by Charles V. Riley in 1873, shipping to France the predatory mites Tyroglyphus phylloxera to help fight the grapevine phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae) that was destroying grapevines in France. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) initiated research in classical biological control following the establishment of the Division of Entomology in 1881, with C. V. Riley as Chief. The first importation of a parasitoidal wasp into the United States was that of the braconid Cotesia glomerata in 1883–1884, imported from Europe to control the invasive cabbage white butterfly, Pieris rapae. In 1888–1889 the vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis, a lady beetle, was introduced from Australia to California to control the cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi. This had become a major problem for the newly developed citrus industry in California, but by the end of 1889 the cottony cushion scale population had already declined. This great success led to further introductions of beneficial insects into the USA.[6][7]

In 1905 the USDA initiated its first large-scale biological control program, sending entomologists to Europe and Japan to look for natural enemies of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar dispar, and brown-tail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhoea, invasive pests of trees and shrubs. As a result, nine parasitoids (solitary wasps) of gypsy moth, seven of brown-tail moth, and two predators of both moths became established in the USA. Although the gypsy moth was not fully controlled by these natural enemies, the frequency, duration, and severity of its outbreaks were reduced and the program was regarded as successful. This program also led to the development of many concepts, principles, and procedures for the implementation of biological control programs.[6][7][8]

Cactoblastis cactorum larvae feeding on Opuntia prickly pear cacti

Prickly pear cacti were introduced into Queensland, Australia as ornamental plants, starting in 1788. They quickly spread to cover over 25 million hectares of Australia by 1920, increasing by 1 million hectares per year. Digging, burning and crushing all proved ineffective. By 1914, two control agents were introduced to help control the spread of the plant, the cactus moth Cactoblastis cactorum, and the scale insect Dactylopius. By 1917, most areas of prickly pear had been destroyed.[9]

The first reported case of a classical biological control attempt in Canada involves the parasitoidal wasp Trichogramma minutum. Individuals were caught in New York State and released in Ontario gardens in 1882 by William Saunders, trained chemist and first Director of the Dominion Experimental Farms, for controlling the invasive currantworm Nematus ribesii. Between 1884 and 1908, the first Dominion Entomologist, James Fletcher, continued introductions of other parasitoids and pathogens for the control of pests in Canada.[10]

There are three basic biological pest control strategies: importation (classical biological control), augmentation and conservation.[11]

Rodolia cardinalis, the vedalia beetle, was imported to Australia in the 19th century, successfully controlling cottony cushion scale.

Importation or classical biological control involves the introduction of a pest's natural enemies to a new locale where they do not occur naturally. Early instances were often unofficial and not based on research, and some introduced species became serious pests themselves.[12]

To be most effective at controlling a pest, a biological control agent requires a colonizing ability which allows it to keep pace with changes to the habitat in space and time. Control is greatest if the agent has temporal persistence, so that it can maintain its population even in the temporary absence of the target species, and if it is an opportunistic forager, enabling it to rapidly exploit a pest population.[13]

Joseph Needham noted a Chinese text dating from 304 AD, Records of the Plants and Trees of the Southern Regions, by Hsi Han, which describes mandarin oranges protected by large reddish-yellow citrus ants which attack and kill insect pests of the orange trees. The citrus ant (Oecophylla smaragdina)[14] was rediscovered in the 20th century, and since 1958 has been used in China to protect orange groves.[15]

One of the earliest successes in the west was in controlling Icerya purchasi (cottony cushion scale) in Australia, using a predatory insect Rodolia cardinalis (the vedalia beetle). This success was repeated in California using the beetle and a parasitoidal fly, Cryptochaetum iceryae.[16]

Damage from Hypera postica, the alfalfa weevil, a serious introduced pest of forage, was substantially reduced by the introduction of natural enemies. 20 years after their introduction the population of weevils in the alfalfa area treated for alfalfa weevil in the Northeastern United States remained 75 percent down.[17]

The invasive species Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed) was controlled in Florida (U.S.) by introducing alligator weed flea beetle.

Alligator weed was introduced to the United States from South America. It takes root in shallow water, interfering with navigation, irrigation, and flood control. The alligator weed flea beetle and two other biological controls were released in Florida, greatly reducing the amount of land covered by the plant.[18] Another aquatic weed, the giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta) is a serious pest, covering waterways, reducing water flow and harming native species. Control with the salvinia weevil (Cyrtobagous salviniae) is effective in warm climates,[19] and in Zimbabwe, a 99% control of the weed was obtained over a two-year period.[20]

Small commercially reared parasitoidal wasps,[11]Trichogramma ostriniae, provide limited and erratic control of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), a serious pest. Careful formulations of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis are more effective.[21]

The population of Levuana iridescens, the Levuana moth, a serious coconut pest in Fiji, was brought under control by a classical biological control program in the 1920s.[22]

Hippodamia convergens, the convergent lady beetle, is commonly sold for biological control of aphids.

Augmentation involves the supplemental release of natural enemies that occur in a particular area, boosting the naturally occurring populations there. In inoculative release, small numbers of the control agents are released at intervals to allow them to reproduce, in the hope of setting up longer-term control, and thus keeping the pest down to a low level, constituting prevention rather than cure. In inundative release, in contrast, large numbers are released in the hope of rapidly reducing a damaging pest population, correcting a problem that has already arisen. Augmentation can be effective, but is not guaranteed to work, and depends on the precise details of the interactions between each pest and control agent.[23]

An example of inoculative release occurs in the horticultural production of several crops in greenhouses. Periodic releases of the parasitoidal wasp, Encarsia formosa, are used to control greenhouse whitefly,[24] while the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis is used for control of the two-spotted spider mite.[25]

The egg parasite Trichogramma is frequently released inundatively to control harmful moths. Similarly, Bacillus thuringiensis and other microbial insecticides are used in large enough quantities for a rapid effect.[23] Recommended release rates for Trichogramma in vegetable or field crops range from 5,000 to 200,000 per acre (1 to 50 per square metre) per week according to the level of pest infestation.[26] Similarly, nematodes that kill insects (that are entomopathogenic) are released at rates of millions and even billions per acre for control of certain soil-dwelling insect pests.[27]

The conservation of existing natural enemies in an environment is the third method of biological pest control.[28] Natural enemies are already adapted to the habitat and to the target pest, and their conservation can be simple and cost-effective, as when nectar-producing crop plants are grown in the borders of rice fields. These provide nectar to support parasitoids and predators of planthopper pests and have been demonstrated to be so effective (reducing pest densities by 10- or even 100-fold) that farmers sprayed 70% less insecticides and enjoyed yields boosted by 5%.[29] Predators of aphids were similarly found to be present in tussock grasses by field boundary hedges in England, but they spread too slowly to reach the centres of fields. Control was improved by planting a metre-wide strip of tussock grasses in field centres, enabling aphid predators to overwinter there.[28]

An inverted flowerpot filled with straw to attract earwigs

Cropping systems can be modified to favor natural enemies, a practice sometimes referred to as habitat manipulation. Providing a suitable habitat, such as a shelterbelt, hedgerow, or beetle bank where beneficial insects such as parasitoidal wasps can live and reproduce, can help ensure the survival of populations of natural enemies. Things as simple as leaving a layer of fallen leaves or mulch in place provides a suitable food source for worms and provides a shelter for insects, in turn being a food source for such beneficial mammals as hedgehogs and shrews. Compost piles and stacks of wood can provide shelter for invertebrates and small mammals. Long grass and ponds support amphibians. Not removing dead annuals and non-hardy plants in the autumn allows insects to make use of their hollow stems during winter.[30] In California, prune trees are sometimes planted in grape vineyards to provide an improved overwintering habitat or refuge for a key grape pest parasitoid.[31] The providing of artificial shelters in the form of wooden caskets, boxes or flowerpots is also sometimes undertaken, particularly in gardens, to make a cropped area more attractive to natural enemies. For example, earwigs are natural predators which can be encouraged in gardens by hanging upside-down flowerpots filled with straw or wood wool. Green lacewings can be encouraged by using plastic bottles with an open bottom and a roll of cardboard inside. Birdhouses enable insectivorous birds to nest; the most useful birds can be attracted by choosing an opening just large enough for the desired species.[30]

In cotton production, the replacement of broad-spectrum insecticides with selective control measures such as Bt cotton can create a more favorable environment for natural enemies of cotton pests due to reduced insecticide exposure risk. Such predators or parasitoids can control pests not affected by the Bt protein. Reduced prey quality and abundance associated increased control from Bt cotton can also indirectly decrease natural enemy populations in some cases, but the percentage of pests eaten or parasitized in Bt and non-Bt cotton are often similar.[32]

Lacewings are available from biocontrol dealers.

Predators are mainly free-living species that directly consume a large number of prey during their whole lifetime. Given that many major crop pests are insects, many of the predators used in biological control are insectivorous species. Lady beetles, and in particular their larvae which are active between May and July in the northern hemisphere, are voracious predators of aphids, and also consume mites, scale insects and small caterpillars. The spotted lady beetle (Coleomegilla maculata) is also able to feed on the eggs and larvae of the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata).[33]

The larvae of many hoverfly species principally feed upon aphids, one larva devouring up to 400 in its lifetime. Their effectiveness in commercial crops has not been studied.[34]

Predatory Polistes wasp searching for bollworms or other caterpillars on a cotton plant

Several species of entomopathogenic nematode are important predators of insect and other invertebrate pests.[35]Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is a microscopic nematode that kills slugs. Its complex life cycle includes a free-living, infective stage in the soil where it becomes associated with a pathogenic bacteria such as Moraxella osloensis. The nematode enters the slug through the posterior mantle region, thereafter feeding and reproducing inside, but it is the bacteria that kill the slug. The nematode is available commercially in Europe and is applied by watering onto moist soil.[36]

Species used to control spider mites include the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis,[37]Neoseilus californicus,[38] and Amblyseius cucumeris, the predatory midge Feltiella acarisuga,[38] and a ladybird Stethorus punctillum.[38] The bug Orius insidiosus has been successfully used against the two-spotted spider mite and the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis).[39]

Parasitoids lay their eggs on or in the body of an insect host, which is then used as a food for developing larvae. The host is ultimately killed. Most insect parasitoids are wasps or flies, and many have a very narrow host range. The most important groups are the ichneumonid wasps, which mainly use caterpillars as hosts; braconid wasps, which attack caterpillars and a wide range of other insects including aphids; chalcid wasps, which parasitize eggs and larvae of many insect species; and tachinid flies, which parasitize a wide range of insects including caterpillars, beetle adults and larvae, and true bugs.[40]

Encarsia formosa, widely used in greenhouse horticulture, was one of the first biological control agents developed. Life cycles of greenhouse whitefly and its parasitoid wasp Encarsia formosa

Encarsia formosa is a small predatory chalcid wasp which is a parasitoid of whitefly, a sap-feeding insect which can cause wilting and black sooty moulds in glasshouse vegetable and ornamental crops. It is most effective when dealing with low level infestations, giving protection over a long period of time. The wasp lays its eggs in young whitefly 'scales', turning them black as the parasite larvae pupate.[24]Gonatocerus ashmeadi (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) has been introduced to control the glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in French Polynesia and has successfully controlled ~95% of the pest density.[41]

Parasitoids are among the most widely used biological control agents. Commercially, there are two types of rearing systems: short-term daily output with high production of parasitoids per day, and long-term, low daily output systems.[42] In most instances, production will need to be matched with the appropriate release dates when susceptible host species at a suitable phase of development will be available.[43] Larger production facilities produce on a yearlong basis, whereas some facilities produce only seasonally. Rearing facilities are usually a significant distance from where the agents are to be used in the field, and transporting the parasitoids from the point of production to the point of use can pose problems.[44] Shipping conditions can be too hot, and even vibrations from planes or trucks can adversely affect parasitoids.[42]

Further information: biopesticide

Pathogenic micro-organisms include bacteria, fungi, and viruses. They kill or debilitate their host and are relatively host-specific. Various microbial insect diseases occur naturally, but may also be used as biological pesticides.[45] When naturally occurring, these outbreaks are density-dependent in that they generally only occur as insect populations become denser.[46]

Bacteria used for biological control infect insects via their digestive tracts, so they offer only limited options for controlling insects with sucking mouth parts such as aphids and scale insects.[47]Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely applied species of bacteria used for biological control, with at least four sub-species used against Lepidopteran (moth, butterfly), Coleopteran (beetle) and Dipteran (true fly) insect pests. The bacterium is available to organic farmers in sachets of dried spores which are mixed with water and sprayed onto vulnerable plants such as brassicas and fruit trees.[48][49]Genes from B. thuringiensis have also been incorporated into transgenic crops, making the plants express some of the bacterium's toxins, which are proteins. These confer resistance to insect pests and thus reduce the necessity for pesticide use.[50] If pests develop resistance to the toxins in these crops, B. thuringiensis will become useless in organic farming also.[51][49] The bacterium Paenibacillus popilliae which causes milky spore disease has been found useful in the control of Japanese beetle, killing the larvae. It is very specific to its host species and is harmless to vertebrates and other invertebrates.[52]

Green peach aphid, a pest in its own right and a vector of plant viruses, killed by the fungus Pandora neoaphidis (Zygomycota: Entomophthorales) Scale bar = 0.3 mm.

Entomopathogenic fungi, which cause disease in insects, include at least 14 species that attack aphids.[53]Beauveria bassiana is mass-produced and used to manage a wide variety of insect pests including whiteflies, thrips, aphids and weevils.[54]Lecanicillium spp. are deployed against white flies, thrips and aphids. Metarhizium spp. are used against pests including beetles, locusts and other grasshoppers, Hemiptera, and spider mites. Paecilomyces fumosoroseus is effective against white flies, thrips and aphids; Purpureocillium lilacinus is used against root-knot nematodes, and 89 Trichoderma species against certain plant pathogens. Trichoderma viride has been used against Dutch elm disease, and has shown some effect in suppressing silver leaf, a disease of stone fruits caused by the pathogenic fungus Chondrostereum purpureum.[55]

The fungi Cordyceps and Metacordyceps are deployed against a wide spectrum of arthropods.[56]Entomophaga is effective against pests such as the green peach aphid.[57]

Several members of Chytridiomycota and Blastocladiomycota have been explored as agents of biological control.[58][59] From Chytridiomycota, Synchytrium solstitiale is being considered as a control agent of the yellow star thistle (Centaurea solstitialis) in the United States.[60]

Baculoviruses are specific to individual insect host species and have been shown to be useful in biological pest control. For example, the Lymantria dispar multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus has been used to spray large areas of forest in North America where larvae of the gypsy moth are causing serious defoliation. The moth larvae are killed by the virus they have eaten and die, the disintegrating cadavers leaving virus particles on the foliage to infect other larvae.[61]

A mammalian virus, the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus was introduced to Australia to attempt to control the European rabbit populations there.[62] It escaped from quarantine and spread across the country, killing large numbers of rabbits. Very young animals survived, passing immunity to their offspring in due course and eventually producing a virus-resistant population.[63] Introduction into New Zealand in the 1990s was similarly successful at first, but a decade later, immunity had developed and populations had returned to pre-RHD levels.[64]

Lagenidium giganteum is a water-borne mould that parasitizes the larval stage of mosquitoes. When applied to water, the motile spores avoid unsuitable host species and search out suitable mosquito larval hosts. This alga has the advantages of a dormant phase, resistant to desiccation, with slow-release characteristics over several years. Unfortunately, it is susceptible to many chemicals used in mosquito abatement programmes.[65]

The legume vine Mucuna pruriens is used in the countries of Benin and Vietnam as a biological control for problematic Imperata cylindrica grass: the vine is extremely vigorous and suppresses neighbouring plants by out-competing them for space and light. Mucuna pruriens is said not to be invasive outside its cultivated area.[66]Desmodium uncinatum can be used in push-pull farming to stop the parasitic plant, witchweed (Striga).[67]

The Australian bush fly, Musca vetustissima, is a major nuisance pest in Australia, but native decomposers found in Australia are not adapted to feeding on cow dung, which is where bush flies breed. Therefore, the Australian Dung Beetle Project (1965–1985), led by George Bornemissza of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, released forty-nine species of dung beetle, to reduce the amount of dung and therefore also the potential breeding sites of the fly.[68]

In cases of massive and severe infection of invasive pests, techniques of pest control are often used in combination. An example is the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, an invasive beetle from China, which has destroyed tens of millions of ash trees in its introduced range in North America. As part of the campaign against it, from 2003 American scientists and the Chinese Academy of Forestry searched for its natural enemies in the wild, leading to the discovery of several parasitoid wasps, namely Tetrastichus planipennisi, a gregarious larval endoparasitoid, Oobius agrili, a solitary, parthenogenic egg parasitoid, and Spathius agrili, a gregarious larval ectoparasitoid. These have been introduced and released into the United States of America as a possible biological control of the emerald ash borer. Initial results for Tetrastichus planipennisi have shown promise, and it is now being released along with Beauveria bassiana, a fungal pathogen with known insecticidal properties.[69][70][71]

Many of the most important pests are exotic, invasive species that severely impact agriculture, horticulture, forestry and urban environments. They tend to arrive without their co-evolved parasites, pathogens and predators, and by escaping from these, populations may soar. Importing the natural enemies of these pests may seem a logical move but this may have unintended consequences; regulations may be ineffective and there may be unanticipated effects on biodiversity, and the adoption of the techniques may prove challenging because of a lack of knowledge among farmers and growers.[72]

Biological control can affect biodiversity[13] through predation, parasitism, pathogenicity, competition, or other attacks on non-target species.[73] An introduced control does not always target only the intended pest species; it can also target native species.[74] In Hawaii during the 1940s parasitic wasps were introduced to control a lepidopteran pest and the wasps are still found there today. This may have a negative impact on the native ecosystem, however, host range and impacts need to be studied before declaring their impact on the environment.[75]

Cane toad (introduced into Australia 1935) spread from 1940 to 1980: it was ineffective as a control agent. Its distribution has continued to widen since 1980.

Vertebrate animals tend to be generalist feeders, and seldom make good biological control agents; many of the classic cases of "biocontrol gone awry" involve vertebrates. For example, the cane toad (Rhinella marina) was intentionally introduced to Australia to control the greyback cane beetle (Dermolepida albohirtum),[76] and other pests of sugar cane. 102 toads were obtained from Hawaii and bred in captivity to increase their numbers until they were released into the sugar cane fields of the tropic north in 1935. It was later discovered that the toads could not jump very high and so were unable to eat the cane beetles which stayed up on the upper stalks of the cane plants. However the toad thrived by feeding on other insects and it soon spread very rapidly; it took over native amphibian habitat and brought foreign disease to native toads and frogs, dramatically reducing their populations. Also when it is threatened or handled, the cane toad releases poison from parotoid glands on its shoulders; native Australian species such as goannas, tiger snakes, dingos and northern quolls that attempted to eat the toad were harmed or killed. However, there has been some recent evidence that native predators are adapting, both physiologically and through changing their behaviour, so in the long run, their populations may recover.[77]

Rhinocyllus conicus, a seed-feeding weevil, was introduced to North America to control exotic musk thistle (Carduus nutans) and Canadian thistle (Cirsium arvense). However the weevil also attacks native thistles, harming such species as the endemic Platte thistle (Cirsium neomexicanum) by selecting larger plants (which reduced the gene pool), reducing seed production and ultimately threatening the species' survival.[78]

The small Asian mongoose (Herpestus javanicus) was introduced to Hawaii in order to control the rat population. However the mongoose was diurnal, and the rats emerged at night; so it preyed on the endemic birds of Hawaii, especially their eggs, more often than it ate the rats, and now both rats and mongooses threaten the birds. This introduction was undertaken without understanding the consequences of such an action. No regulations existed at the time, and more careful evaluation should prevent such releases now.[79]

The sturdy and prolific eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) is a native of the southeastern United States and was introduced around the world in the 1930s and 40s to feed on mosquito larvae and thus combat malaria. However, it has thrived at the expense of local species, causing a decline of endemic fish and frogs through competition for food resources, as well as through eating their eggs and larvae.[80] In Australia, the mosquitofish is the subject of discussion as to how best to control it; in 1989 it was said that "biological population control is well beyond present capabilities", and this remains the position.[81]

A potential obstacle to the adoption of biological pest control measures is growers sticking to the familiar use of pesticides. However, pesticides have a variety of undesired effects, including the development of resistance among pests, and the destruction of natural enemies; these may in turn enable outbreaks of pests of other species than the ones originally targeted, and on crops at a distance from those treated with pesticides.[82] One method of increasing grower adoption of biocontrol methods involves letting them learn by doing, for example showing them simple field experiments, enabling them to observe the live predation of pests, or demonstrations of parasitised pests. In the Philippines, early season sprays against leaf folder caterpillars were common practice, but growers were asked to follow a 'rule of thumb' of not spraying against leaf folders for the first 30 days after transplanting; participation in this resulted in a reduction of insecticide use by 1/3 and a change in grower perception of insecticide use.[83]

General Effects on native biodiversity Effects on invasive species Economic effects

Mojave

German cockroach


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Tejon Pest Control Flies

Pest control in Tejon for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Killing Cockroaches

Tejon Pest Control For Rodents

This article is about social insects. For other uses, see Termite (disambiguation).

Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea. Termites were once classified in a separate order from cockroaches, but recent phylogenetic studies indicate that they evolved from close ancestors of cockroaches during the Jurassic or Triassic. However, the first termites possibly emerged during the Permian or even the Carboniferous. About 3,106 species are currently described, with a few hundred more left to be described. Although these insects are often called "white ants", they are not ants.

Like ants and some bees and wasps from the separate order Hymenoptera, termites divide labour among castes consisting of sterile male and female "workers" and "soldiers". All colonies have fertile males called "kings" and one or more fertile females called "queens". Termites mostly feed on dead plant material and cellulose, generally in the form of wood, leaf litter, soil, or animal dung. Termites are major detritivores, particularly in the subtropical and tropical regions, and their recycling of wood and plant matter is of considerable ecological importance.

Termites are among the most successful groups of insects on Earth, colonising most landmasses except for Antarctica. Their colonies range in size from a few hundred individuals to enormous societies with several million individuals. Termite queens have the longest lifespan of any insect in the world, with some queens reportedly living up to 30 to 50 years. Unlike ants, which undergo a complete metamorphosis, each individual termite goes through an incomplete metamorphosis that proceeds through egg, nymph, and adult stages. Colonies are described as superorganisms because the termites form part of a self-regulating entity: the colony itself.[1]

Termites are a delicacy in the diet of some human cultures and are used in many traditional medicines. Several hundred species are economically significant as pests that can cause serious damage to buildings, crops, or plantation forests. Some species, such as the West Indian drywood termite (Cryptotermes brevis), are regarded as invasive species.

The infraorder name Isoptera is derived from the Greek words iso (equal) and ptera (winged), which refers to the nearly equal size of the fore and hind wings.[2] "Termite" derives from the Latin and Late Latin word termes ("woodworm, white ant"), altered by the influence of Latin terere ("to rub, wear, erode") from the earlier word tarmes. Termite nests were commonly known as terminarium or termitaria.[3][4] In early English, termites were known as "wood ants" or "white ants".[3] The modern term was first used in 1781.[5]

The external appearance of the giant northern termite Mastotermes darwiniensis is suggestive of the close relationship between termites and cockroaches.

DNA analysis from 16S rRNA sequences[6] has supported a hypothesis, originally suggested by Cleveland and colleagues in 1934, that these insects are most closely related to wood-eating cockroaches (genus Cryptocercus, the woodroach). This earlier conclusion had been based on the similarity of the symbiotic gut flagellates in the wood-eating cockroaches to those in certain species of termites regarded as living fossils.[7] In the 1960s additional evidence supporting that hypothesis emerged when F. A. McKittrick noted similar morphological characteristics between some termites and Cryptocercus nymphs.[8] These similarities have led some authors to propose that termites be reclassified as a single family, the Termitidae, within the order Blattodea, which contains cockroaches.[9][10] Other researchers advocate the more conservative measure of retaining the termites as the Termitoidae, an epifamily within the cockroach order, which preserves the classification of termites at family level and below.[11]

The oldest unambiguous termite fossils date to the early Cretaceous, but given the diversity of Cretaceous termites and early fossil records showing mutualism between microorganisms and these insects, they likely originated earlier in the Jurassic or Triassic.[12][13][14] Further evidence of a Jurassic origin is the assumption that the extinct Fruitafossor consumed termites, judging from its morphological similarity to modern termite-eating mammals.[15] The oldest termite nest discovered is believed to be from the Upper Cretaceous in West Texas, where the oldest known faecal pellets were also discovered.[16]

Claims that termites emerged earlier have faced controversy. For example, F. M. Weesner indicated that the Mastotermitidae termites may go back to the Late Permian, 251 million years ago,[17] and fossil wings that have a close resemblance to the wings of Mastotermes of the Mastotermitidae, the most primitive living termite, have been discovered in the Permian layers in Kansas.[18] It is even possible that the first termites emerged during the Carboniferous.[19] Termites are thought to be the descendants of the genus Cryptocercus.[9] The folded wings of the fossil wood roach Pycnoblattina, arranged in a convex pattern between segments 1a and 2a, resemble those seen in Mastotermes, the only living insect with the same pattern.[18] Krishna et al., though, consider that all of the Paleozoic and Triassic insects tentatively classified as termites are in fact unrelated to termites and should be excluded from the Isoptera.[20] Termites were the first social insects to evolve a caste system, evolving more than 100 million years ago.[21]

Termites have long been accepted to be closely related to cockroaches and mantids, and they are classified in the same superorder (Dictyoptera).[22][23] Strong evidence suggests termites are highly specialised wood-eating cockroaches.[24] The cockroach genus Cryptocercus shares the strongest phylogenetical similarity with termites and is considered to be a sister-group to termites.[25][26] Termites and Cryptocercus share similar morphological and social features: for example, most cockroaches do not exhibit social characteristics, but Cryptocercus takes care of its young and exhibits other social behaviour such as trophallaxis and allogrooming.[27] The primitive giant northern termite (Mastotermes darwiniensis) exhibits numerous cockroach-like characteristics that are not shared with other termites, such as laying its eggs in rafts and having anal lobes on the wings.[28] Cryptocercidae and Isoptera are united in the clade Xylophagodea.[29] Although termites are sometimes called "white ants", they are actually not ants. Ants belong to the family Formicidae within the order Hymenoptera. The similarity of their social structure to that of termites is attributed to convergent evolution.[30]

As of 2013, about 3,106 living and fossil termite species are recognised, classified in 12 families. The infraorder Isoptera is divided into the following clade and family groups, showing the subfamilies in their respective classification:[20]

Termites are found on all continents except Antarctica. The diversity of termite species is low in North America and Europe (10 species known in Europe and 50 in North America), but is high in South America, where over 400 species are known.[31] Of the 3,000 termite species currently classified, 1,000 are found in Africa, where mounds are extremely abundant in certain regions. Approximately 1.1 million active termite mounds can be found in the northern Kruger National Park alone.[32] In Asia, there are 435 species of termites, which are mainly distributed in China. Within China, termite species are restricted to mild tropical and subtropical habitats south of the Yangtze River.[31] In Australia, all ecological groups of termites (dampwood, drywood, subterranean) are endemic to the country, with over 360 classified species.[31]

Due to their soft cuticles, termites do not inhabit cool or cold habitats.[33] There are three ecological groups of termites: dampwood, drywood and subterranean. Dampwood termites are found only in coniferous forests, and drywood termites are found in hardwood forests; subterranean termites live in widely diverse areas.[31] One species in the drywood group is the West Indian drywood termite (Cryptotermes brevis), which is an invasive species in Australia.[34]

Close-up view of a worker's head

Termites are usually small, measuring between 4 to 15 millimetres (0.16 to 0.59 in) in length.[31] The largest of all extant termites are the queens of the species Macrotermes bellicosus, measuring up to over 10 centimetres (4 in) in length.[35] Another giant termite, the extinct Gyatermes styriensis, flourished in Austria during the Miocene and had a wingspan of 76 millimetres (3.0 in) and a body length of 25 millimetres (0.98 in).[36][note 1]

Most worker and soldier termites are completely blind as they do not have a pair of eyes. However, some species, such as Hodotermes mossambicus, have compound eyes which they use for orientation and to distinguish sunlight from moonlight.[37] The alates have eyes along with lateral ocelli. Lateral ocelli, however, are not found in all termites.[38][39] Like other insects, termites have a small tongue-shaped labrum and a clypeus; the clypeus is divided into a postclypeus and anteclypeus. Termite antennae have a number of functions such as the sensing of touch, taste, odours (including pheromones), heat and vibration. The three basic segments of a termite antenna include a scape, a pedicel (typically shorter than the scape), and the flagellum (all segments beyond the scape and pedicel).[39] The mouth parts contain a maxillae, a labium, and a set of mandibles. The maxillae and labium have palps that help termites sense food and handling.[39]

Consistent with all insects, the anatomy of the termite thorax consists of three segments: the prothorax, the mesothorax and the metathorax.[39] Each segment contains a pair of legs. On alates, the wings are located at the mesothorax and metathorax. The mesothorax and metathorax have well-developed exoskeletal plates; the prothorax has smaller plates.[40]

Diagram showing a wing, along with the clypeus and leg

Termites have a ten-segmented abdomen with two plates, the tergites and the sternites.[41] The tenth abdominal segment has a pair of short cerci.[42] There are ten tergites, of which nine are wide and one is elongated.[43] The reproductive organs are similar to those in cockroaches but are more simplified. For example, the intromittent organ is not present in male alates, and the sperm is either immotile or aflagellate. However, Mastotermitidae termites have multiflagellate sperm with limited motility.[44] The genitals in females are also simplified. Unlike in other termites, Mastotermitidae females have an ovipositor, a feature strikingly similar to that in female cockroaches.[45]

The non-reproductive castes of termites are wingless and rely exclusively on their six legs for locomotion. The alates fly only for a brief amount of time, so they also rely on their legs.[41] The appearance of the legs is similar in each caste, but the soldiers have larger and heavier legs. The structure of the legs is consistent with other insects: the parts of a leg include a coxa, trochanter, femur, tibia and the tarsus.[41] The number of tibial spurs on an individual's leg varies. Some species of termite have an arolium, located between the claws, which is present in species that climb on smooth surfaces but is absent in most termites.[46]

Unlike in ants, the hind-wings and fore-wings are of equal length.[2] Most of the time, the alates are poor flyers; their technique is to launch themselves in the air and fly in a random direction.[47] Studies show that in comparison to larger termites, smaller termites cannot fly long distances. When a termite is in flight, its wings remain at a right angle, and when the termite is at rest, its wings remain parallel to the body.[48]

Caste system of termites
A — King
B — Queen
C — Secondary queen
D — Tertiary queen
E — Soldiers
F — Worker

Worker termites undertake the most labour within the colony, being responsible for foraging, food storage, and brood and nest maintenance.[49][50] Workers are tasked with the digestion of cellulose in food and are thus the most likely caste to be found in infested wood. The process of worker termites feeding other nestmates is known as trophallaxis. Trophallaxis is an effective nutritional tactic to convert and recycle nitrogenous components.[51] It frees the parents from feeding all but the first generation of offspring, allowing for the group to grow much larger and ensuring that the necessary gut symbionts are transferred from one generation to another. Some termite species do not have a true worker caste, instead relying on nymphs that perform the same work without differentiating as a separate caste.[50]

The soldier caste has anatomical and behavioural specialisations, and their sole purpose is to defend the colony.[52] Many soldiers have large heads with highly modified powerful jaws so enlarged they cannot feed themselves. Instead, like juveniles, they are fed by workers.[52][53]Fontanelles, simple holes in the forehead that exude defensive secretions, are a feature of the family Rhinotermitidae.[54] Many species are readily identified using the characteristics of the soldiers' larger and darker head and large mandibles.[50][52] Among certain termites, soldiers may use their globular (phragmotic) heads to block their narrow tunnels.[55] Different sorts of soldiers include minor and major soldiers, and nasutes, which have a horn-like nozzle frontal projection (a nasus).[50] These unique soldiers are able to spray noxious, sticky secretions containing diterpenes at their enemies.[56]Nitrogen fixation plays an important role in nasute nutrition.[57]

The reproductive caste of a mature colony includes a fertile female and male, known as the queen and king.[58] The queen of the colony is responsible for egg production for the colony. Unlike in ants, the king mates with her for life.[59] In some species, the abdomen of the queen swells up dramatically to increase fecundity, a characteristic known as physogastrism.[49][58] Depending on the species, the queen starts producing reproductive winged alates at a certain time of the year, and huge swarms emerge from the colony when nuptial flight begins. These swarms attract a wide variety of predators.[58]

A young termite nymph. Nymphs first moult into workers, but others may further moult to become soldiers or alates.

Termites are often compared with the social Hymenoptera (ants and various species of bees and wasps), but their differing evolutionary origins result in major differences in life cycle. In the eusocial Hymenoptera, the workers are exclusively female, males (drones) are haploid and develop from unfertilised eggs, while females (both workers and the queen) are diploid and develop from fertilised eggs. In contrast, worker termites, which constitute the majority in a colony, are diploid individuals of both sexes and develop from fertilised eggs. Depending on species, male and female workers may have different roles in a termite colony.[60]

The life cycle of a termite begins with an egg, but is different from that of a bee or ant in that it goes through a developmental process called incomplete metamorphosis, with egg, nymph and adult stages.[61] Nymphs resemble small adults, and go through a series of moults as they grow. In some species, eggs go through four moulting stages and nymphs go through three.[62] Nymphs first moult into workers, and then some workers go through further moulting and become soldiers or alates; workers become alates only by moulting into alate nymphs.[63]

The development of nymphs into adults can take months; the time period depends on food availability, temperature, and the general population of the colony. Since nymphs are unable to feed themselves, workers must feed them, but workers also take part in the social life of the colony and have certain other tasks to accomplish such as foraging, building or maintaining the nest or tending to the queen.[50][64] Pheromones regulate the caste system in termite colonies, preventing all but a very few of the termites from becoming fertile queens.[65]

Alates swarming during nuptial flight after rain

Termite alates only leave the colony when a nuptial flight takes place. Alate males and females pair up together and then land in search of a suitable place for a colony.[66] A termite king and queen do not mate until they find such a spot. When they do, they excavate a chamber big enough for both, close up the entrance and proceed to mate.[66] After mating, the pair never go outside and spend the rest of their lives in the nest. Nuptial flight time varies in each species. For example, alates in certain species emerge during the day in summer while others emerge during the winter.[67] The nuptial flight may also begin at dusk, when the alates swarm around areas with lots of lights. The time when nuptial flight begins depends on the environmental conditions, the time of day, moisture, wind speed and precipitation.[67] The number of termites in a colony also varies, with the larger species typically having 100–1,000 individuals. However, some termite colonies, including those with large individuals, can number in the millions.[36]

The queen only lays 10–20 eggs in the very early stages of the colony, but lays as many as 1,000 a day when the colony is several years old.[50] At maturity, a primary queen has a great capacity to lay eggs. In some species, the mature queen has a greatly distended abdomen and may produce 40,000 eggs a day.[68] The two mature ovaries may have some 2,000 ovarioles each.[69] The abdomen increases the queen's body length to several times more than before mating and reduces her ability to move freely; attendant workers provide assistance.

Play media Egg grooming behaviour of Reticulitermes speratus workers in a nursery cell

The king grows only slightly larger after initial mating and continues to mate with the queen for life (a termite queen can live between 30  to 50 years); this is very different from ant colonies, in which a queen mates once with the male(s) and stores the gametes for life, as the male ants die shortly after mating.[59][64] If a queen is absent, a termite king produces pheromones which encourage the development of replacement termite queens.[70] As the queen and king are monogamous, sperm competition does not occur.[71]

Termites going through incomplete metamorphosis on the path to becoming alates form a subcaste in certain species of termite, functioning as potential supplementary reproductives. These supplementary reproductives only mature into primary reproductives upon the death of a king or queen, or when the primary reproductives are separated from the colony.[63][72] Supplementaries have the ability to replace a dead primary reproductive, and there may also be more than a single supplementary within a colony.[50] Some queens have the ability to switch from sexual reproduction to asexual reproduction. Studies show that while termite queens mate with the king to produce colony workers, the queens reproduce their replacements (neotenic queens) parthenogenetically.[73][74]

Termite faecal pellets

Termites are detritivores, consuming dead plants at any level of decomposition. They also play a vital role in the ecosystem by recycling waste material such as dead wood, faeces and plants.[75][76][77] Many species eat cellulose, having a specialised midgut that breaks down the fibre.[78] Termites are considered to be a major source (11%) of atmospheric methane, one of the prime greenhouse gases, produced from the breakdown of cellulose.[79] Termites rely primarily upon symbiotic protozoa (metamonads) and other microbes such as flagellate protists in their guts to digest the cellulose for them, allowing them to absorb the end products for their own use.[80][81] Gut protozoa, such as Trichonympha, in turn, rely on symbiotic bacteria embedded on their surfaces to produce some of the necessary digestive enzymes. Most higher termites, especially in the family Termitidae, can produce their own cellulase enzymes, but they rely primarily upon the bacteria. The flagellates have been lost in Termitidae.[82][83][84] Scientists' understanding of the relationship between the termite digestive tract and the microbial endosymbionts is still rudimentary; what is true in all termite species, however, is that the workers feed the other members of the colony with substances derived from the digestion of plant material, either from the mouth or anus.[51] Judging from closely related bacterial species, it is strongly presumed that the termites' and cockroach's gut microbiota derives from their dictyopteran ancestors.[85]

Certain species such as Gnathamitermes tubiformans have seasonal food habits. For example, they may preferentially consume Red three-awn (Aristida longiseta) during the summer, Buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides) from May to August, and blue grama Bouteloua gracilis during spring, summer and autumn. Colonies of G. tubiformans consume less food in spring than they do during autumn when their feeding activity is high.[86]

Various woods differ in their susceptibility to termite attack; the differences are attributed to such factors as moisture content, hardness, and resin and lignin content. In one study, the drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis strongly preferred poplar and maple woods to other woods that were generally rejected by the termite colony. These preferences may in part have represented conditioned or learned behaviour.[87]

Some species of termite practice fungiculture. They maintain a "garden" of specialised fungi of genus Termitomyces, which are nourished by the excrement of the insects. When the fungi are eaten, their spores pass undamaged through the intestines of the termites to complete the cycle by germinating in the fresh faecal pellets.[88][89] Molecular evidence suggests that the family Macrotermitinae developed agriculture about 31 million years ago. It is assumed that more than 90 percent of dry wood in the semiarid savannah ecosystems of Africa and Asia are reprocessed by these termites. Originally living in the rainforest, fungus farming allowed them to colonise the African savannah and other new environments, eventually expanding into Asia.[90]

Depending on their feeding habits, termites are placed into two groups: the lower termites and higher termites. The lower termites predominately feed on wood. As wood is difficult to digest, termites prefer to consume fungus-infected wood because it is easier to digest and the fungi are high in protein. Meanwhile, the higher termites consume a wide variety of materials, including faeces, humus, grass, leaves and roots.[91] The gut in the lower termites contains many species of bacteria along with protozoa, while the higher termites only have a few species of bacteria with no protozoa.[92]

Crab spider with a captured alate

Termites are consumed by a wide variety of predators. One termite species alone, Hodotermes mossambicus, was found in the stomach contents of 65 birds and 19 mammals.[93]ant,[94][95]arthropods, reptiles, and amphibians such as bees, centipedes, cockroaches, crickets, dragonflies, frogs,[96]lizards,[97]scorpions, spiders,[98] and toads consume these insects, while 2 spiders in the family Ammoxenidae are specialist termite predators.[99][100][101] Other predators include aardvarks, aardwolves, anteaters, bats, bears, bilbies, many birds, echidnas, foxes, galagos, numbats, mice and pangolins.[99][102][103][104] The aardwolf is an insectivorous mammal that primarily feeds on termites; it locates its food by sound and also by detecting the scent secreted by the soldiers; a single aardwolf is capable of consuming thousands of termites in a single night by using its long, sticky tongue.[105][106]Sloth bears break open mounds to consume the nestmates, while chimpanzees have developed tools to "fish" termites from their nest. Wear pattern analysis of bone tools used by the early hominin Paranthropus robustus suggests that they used these tools to dig into termite mounds.[107]

A Matabele ant (Megaponera analis) kills a Macrotermes bellicosus termite soldier during a raid.

Among all predators, ants are the greatest enemy to termites.[94][95] Some ant genera are specialist predators of termites. For example, Megaponera is a strictly termite-eating (termitophagous) genus that perform raiding activities, some lasting several hours.[108][109]Paltothyreus tarsatus is another termite-raiding species, with each individual stacking as many termites as possible in its mandibles before returning home, all the while recruiting additional nestmates to the raiding site through chemical trails.[94] The Malaysian basicerotine ants Eurhopalothrix heliscata uses a different strategy of termite hunting by pressing themselves into tight spaces, as they hunt through rotting wood housing termite colonies. Once inside, the ants seize their prey by using their short but sharp mandibles.[94]Tetramorium uelense is a specialised predator species that feeds on small termites. A scout recruits 10–30 workers to an area where termites are present, killing them by immobilising them with their stinger.[110]Centromyrmex and Iridomyrmex colonies sometimes nest in termite mounds, and so the termites are preyed on by these ants. No evidence for any kind of relationship (other than a predatory one) is known.[111][112] Other ants, including Acanthostichus, Camponotus, Crematogaster, Cylindromyrmex, Leptogenys, Odontomachus, Ophthalmopone, Pachycondyla, Rhytidoponera, Solenopsis and Wasmannia, also prey on termites.[102][94][113] In contrast to all these ant species, and despite their enormous diversity of prey, Dorylus ants rarely consume termites.[114]

Ants are not the only invertebrates that perform raids. Many sphecoid wasps and several species including Polybia Lepeletier and Angiopolybia Araujo are known to raid termite mounds during the termites' nuptial flight.[115]

Termites are less likely to be attacked by parasites than bees, wasps and ants, as they are usually well protected in their mounds.[116][117] Nevertheless, termites are infected by a variety of parasites. Some of these include dipteran flies,[118]Pyemotes mites, and a large number of nematode parasites. Most nematode parasites are in the order Rhabditida;[119] others are in the genus Mermis, Diplogaster aerivora and Harteria gallinarum.[120] Under imminent threat of an attack by parasites, a colony may migrate to a new location.[121] Fungi pathogens such as Aspergillus nomius and Metarhizium anisopliae are, however, major threats to a termite colony as they are not host-specific and may infect large portions of the colony;[122][123] transmission usually occurs via direct physical contact.[124]M. anispliae is known to weaken the termite immune system. Infection with A. nomius only occurs when a colony is under great stress.[123]Inquilinism between two termite species does not occur in the termite world.[125]

Termites are infected by viruses including Entomopoxvirinae and the Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus.[126][127]

Because the worker and soldier castes lack wings and thus never fly, and the reproductives use their wings for just a brief amount of time, termites predominantly rely upon their legs to move about.[41]

Foraging behaviour depends on the type of termite. For example, certain species feed on the wood structures they inhabit, and others harvest food that is near the nest.[128] Most workers are rarely found out in the open, and do not forage unprotected; they rely on sheeting and runways to protect them from predators.[49] Subterranean termites construct tunnels and galleries to look for food, and workers who manage to find food sources recruit additional nestmates by depositing a phagostimulant pheromone that attracts workers.[129] Foraging workers use semiochemicals to communicate with each other,[130] and workers who begin to forage outside of their nest release trail pheromones from their sternal glands.[131] In one species, Nasutitermes costalis, there are three phases in a foraging expedition: first, soldiers scout an area. When they find a food source, they communicate to other soldiers and a small force of workers starts to emerge. In the second phase, workers appear in large numbers at the site. The third phase is marked by a decrease in the number of soldiers present and an increase in the number of workers.[132] Isolated termite workers may engage in Lévy flight behaviour as an optimised strategy for finding their nestmates or foraging for food.[133]

Competition between two colonies always results in agonistic behaviour towards each other, resulting in fights. These fights can cause mortality on both sides and, in some cases, the gain or loss of territory.[134][135] "Cemetery pits" may be present, where the bodies of dead termites are buried.[136]

Studies show that when termites encounter each other in foraging areas, some of the termites deliberately block passages to prevent other termites from entering.[130][137] Dead termites from other colonies found in exploratory tunnels leads to the isolation of the area and thus the need to construct new tunnels.[138] Conflict between two competitors does not always occur. For example, though they might block each other's passages, colonies of Macrotermes bellicosus and Macrotermes subhyalinus are not always aggressive towards each other.[139] Suicide cramming is known in Coptotermes formosanus. Since C. formosanus colonies may get into physical conflict, some termites squeeze tightly into foraging tunnels and die, successfully blocking the tunnel and ending all agonistic activities.[140]

Among the reproductive caste, neotenic queens may compete with each other to become the dominant queen when there are no primary reproductives. This struggle among the queens leads to the elimination of all but a single queen, which, with the king, takes over the colony.[141]

Ants and termites may compete with each other for nesting space. In particular, ants that prey on termites usually have a negative impact on arboreal nesting species.[142]

Hordes of Nasutitermes on a march for food, following, and leaving, trail pheromones

Most termites are blind, so communication primarily occurs through chemical, mechanical and pheromonal cues.[38][130] These methods of communication are used in a variety of activities, including foraging, locating reproductives, construction of nests, recognition of nestmates, nuptial flight, locating and fighting enemies, and defending the nests.[38][130] The most common way of communicating is through antennation.[130] A number of pheromones are known, including contact pheromones (which are transmitted when workers are engaged in trophallaxis or grooming) and alarm, trail and sex pheromones. The alarm pheromone and other defensive chemicals are secreted from the frontal gland. Trail pheromones are secreted from the sternal gland, and sex pheromones derive from two glandular sources: the sternal and tergal glands.[38] When termites go out to look for food, they forage in columns along the ground through vegetation. A trail can be identified by the faecal deposits or runways that are covered by objects. Workers leave pheromones on these trails, which are detected by other nestmates through olfactory receptors.[53] Termites can also communicate through mechanical cues, vibrations, and physical contact.[53][130] These signals are frequently used for alarm communication or for evaluating a food source.[130][143]

When termites construct their nests, they use predominantly indirect communication. No single termite would be in charge of any particular construction project. Individual termites react rather than think, but at a group level, they exhibit a sort of collective cognition. Specific structures or other objects such as pellets of soil or pillars cause termites to start building. The termite adds these objects onto existing structures, and such behaviour encourages building behaviour in other workers. The result is a self-organised process whereby the information that directs termite activity results from changes in the environment rather than from direct contact among individuals.[130]

Termites can distinguish nestmates and non-nestmates through chemical communication and gut symbionts: chemicals consisting of hydrocarbons released from the cuticle allow the recognition of alien termite species.[144][145] Each colony has its own distinct odour. This odour is a result of genetic and environmental factors such as the termites' diet and the composition of the bacteria within the termites' intestines.[146]

See also: Insect defences Termites rush to a damaged area of the nest.

Termites rely on alarm communication to defend a colony.[130] Alarm pheromones can be released when the nest has been breached or is being attacked by enemies or potential pathogens. Termites always avoid nestmates infected with Metarhizium anisopliae spores, through vibrational signals released by infected nestmates.[147] Other methods of defence include intense jerking and secretion of fluids from the frontal gland and defecating faeces containing alarm pheromones.[130][148]

In some species, some soldiers block tunnels to prevent their enemies from entering the nest, and they may deliberately rupture themselves as an act of defence.[149] In cases where the intrusion is coming from a breach that is larger than the soldier's head, defence requires a special formations where soldiers form a phalanx-like formation around the breach and bite at intruders.[150] If an invasion carried out by Megaponera analis is successful, an entire colony may be destroyed, although this scenario is rare.[150]

To termites, any breach of their tunnels or nests is a cause for alarm. When termites detect a potential breach, the soldiers usually bang their heads, apparently to attract other soldiers for defence and to recruit additional workers to repair any breach.[53] Additionally, an alarmed termite bumps into other termites which causes them to be alarmed and to leave pheromone trails to the disturbed area, which is also a way to recruit extra workers.[53]

Nasute termite soldiers on rotten wood

The pantropical subfamily Nasutitermitinae has a specialised caste of soldiers, known as nasutes, that have the ability to exude noxious liquids through a horn-like frontal projection that they use for defence.[151] Nasutes have lost their mandibles through the course of evolution and must be fed by workers.[56] A wide variety of monoterpene hydrocarbon solvents have been identified in the liquids that nasutes secrete.[152]

Soldiers of the species Globitermes sulphureus commit suicide by autothysis – rupturing a large gland just beneath the surface of their cuticles. The thick, yellow fluid in the gland becomes very sticky on contact with the air, entangling ants or other insects which are trying to invade the nest.[153][154] Another termite, Neocapriterme taracua, also engages in suicidal defence. Workers physically unable to use their mandibles while in a fight form a pouch full of chemicals, then deliberately rupture themselves, releasing toxic chemicals that paralyse and kill their enemies.[155] The soldiers of the neotropical termite family Serritermitidae have a defence strategy which involves front gland autothysis, with the body rupturing between the head and abdomen. When soldiers guarding nest entrances are attacked by intruders, they engage in autothysis, creating a block that denies entry to any attacker.[156]

Workers use several different strategies to deal with their dead, including burying, cannibalism, and avoiding a corpse altogether.[157][158][159] To avoid pathogens, termites occasionally engage in necrophoresis, in which a nestmate carries away a corpse from the colony to dispose of it elsewhere.[160] Which strategy is used depends on the nature of the corpse a worker is dealing with (i.e. the age of the carcass).[160]

Rhizanthella gardneri is the only orchid known to be pollinated by termites.

A species of fungus is known to mimic termite eggs, successfully avoiding its natural predators. These small brown balls, known as "termite balls", rarely kill the eggs, and in some cases the workers tend to them.[161] This fungus mimics these eggs by producing a cellulose-digesting enzyme known as glucosidases.[162] A unique mimicking behaviour exists between various species of Trichopsenius beetles and certain termite species within Reticulitermes. The beetles share the same cuticle hydrocarbons as the termites and even biosynthesize them. This chemical mimicry allows the beetles to integrate themselves within the termite colonies.[163] The developed appendages on the physogastric abdomen of Austrospirachtha mimetes allows the beetle to mimic a termite worker.[164]

Some species of ant are known to capture termites to use as a fresh food source later on, rather than killing them. For example, Formica nigra captures termites, and those who try to escape are immediately seized and driven underground.[165] Certain species of ants in the subfamily Ponerinae conduct these raids although other ant species go in alone to steal the eggs or nymphs.[142] Ants such as Megaponera analis attack the outside the mounds and Dorylinae ants attack underground.[142][166] Despite this, some termites and ants can coexist peacefully. Some species of termite, including Nasutitermes corniger, form associations with certain ant species to keep away predatory ant species.[167] The earliest known association between Azteca ants and Nasutitermes termites date back to the Oligocene to Miocene period.[168]

An ant raiding party collecting Pseudocanthotermes militaris termites after a successful raid

54 species of ants are known to inhabit Nasutitermes mounds, both occupied and abandoned ones.[169] One reason many ants live in Nasutitermes mounds is due to the termites' frequent occurrence in their geographical range; another is to protect themselves from floods.[169][170]Iridomyrmex also inhabits termite mounds although no evidence for any kind of relationship (other than a predatory one) is known.[111] In rare cases, certain species of termites live inside active ant colonies.[171] Some invertebrate organisms such as beetles, caterpillars, flies and millipedes are termitophiles and dwell inside termite colonies (they are unable to survive independently).[53] As a result, certain beetles and flies have evolved with their hosts. They have developed a gland that secrete a substance that attracts the workers by licking them. Mounds may also provide shelter and warmth to birds, lizards, snakes and scorpions.[53]

Termites are known to carry pollen and regularly visit flowers,[172] so are regarded as potential pollinators for a number of flowering plants.[173] One flower in particular, Rhizanthella gardneri, is regularly pollinated by foraging workers, and it is perhaps the only Orchidaceae flower in the world to be pollinated by termites.[172]

Many plants have developed effective defences against termites. However, seedlings are vulnerable to termite attacks and need additional protection, as their defence mechanisms only develop when they have passed the seedling stage.[174] Defence is typically achieved by secreting antifeedant chemicals into the woody cell walls.[175] This reduces the ability of termites to efficiently digest the cellulose. A commercial product, "Blockaid", has been developed in Australia that uses a range of plant extracts to create a paint-on nontoxic termite barrier for buildings.[175] An extract of a species of Australian figwort, Eremophila, has been shown to repel termites;[176] tests have shown that termites are strongly repelled by the toxic material to the extent that they will starve rather than consume the food. When kept close to the extract, they become disoriented and eventually die.[176]

Termite populations can be substantially impacted by environmental changes including those caused by human intervention. A Brazilian study investigated the termite assemblages of three sites of Caatinga under different levels of anthropogenic disturbance in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil were sampled using 65 x 2 m transects.[177] A total of 26 species of termites were present in the three sites, and 196 encounters were recorded in the transects. The termite assemblages were considerably different among sites, with a conspicuous reduction in both diversity and abundance with increased disturbance, related to the reduction of tree density and soil cover, and with the intensity of trampling by cattle and goats. The wood-feeders were the most severely affected feeding group.

An arboreal termite nest in Mexico

A termite nest can be considered as being composed of two parts, the inanimate and the animate. The animate is all of the termites living inside the colony, and the inanimate part is the structure itself, which is constructed by the termites.[178] Nests can be broadly separated into three main categories: subterranean (completely below ground), epigeal (protruding above the soil surface), and arboreal (built above ground, but always connected to the ground via shelter tubes).[179] Epigeal nests (mounds) protrude from the earth with ground contact and are made out of earth and mud.[180] A nest has many functions such as providing a protected living space and providing shelter against predators. Most termites construct underground colonies rather than multifunctional nests and mounds.[181] Primitive termites of today nest in wooden structures such as logs, stumps and the dead parts of trees, as did termites millions of years ago.[179]

To build their nests, termites primarily use faeces, which have many desirable properties as a construction material.[182] Other building materials include partly digested plant material, used in carton nests (arboreal nests built from faecal elements and wood), and soil, used in subterranean nest and mound construction. Not all nests are visible, as many nests in tropical forests are located underground.[181] Species in the subfamily Apicotermitinae are good examples of subterranean nest builders, as they only dwell inside tunnels.[182] Other termites live in wood, and tunnels are constructed as they feed on the wood. Nests and mounds protect the termites' soft bodies against desiccation, light, pathogens and parasites, as well as providing a fortification against predators.[183] Nests made out of carton are particularly weak, and so the inhabitants use counter-attack strategies against invading predators.[184]

Arboreal carton nests of mangrove swamp-dwelling Nasutitermes are enriched in lignin and depleted in cellulose and xylans. This change is caused by bacterial decay in the gut of the termites: they use their faeces as a carton building material. Arboreal termites nests can account for as much as 2% of above ground carbon storage in Puerto Rican mangrove swamps. These Nasutitermes nests are mainly composed of partially biodegraded wood material from the stems and branches of mangrove trees, namely, Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) and Laguncularia racemose (white mangrove).[185]

Some species build complex nests called polycalic nests; this habitat is called polycalism. Polycalic species of termites form multiple nests, or calies, connected by subterranean chambers.[102] The termite genera Apicotermes and Trinervitermes are known to have polycalic species.[186] Polycalic nests appear to be less frequent in mound-building species although polycalic arboreal nests have been observed in a few species of Nasutitermes.[186]

Main article: Mound-building termites

Nests are considered mounds if they protrude from the earth's surface.[182] A mound provides termites the same protection as a nest but is stronger.[184] Mounds located in areas with torrential and continuous rainfall are at risk of mound erosion due to their clay-rich construction. Those made from carton can provide protection from the rain, and in fact can withstand high precipitation.[182] Certain areas in mounds are used as strong points in case of a breach. For example, Cubitermes colonies build narrow tunnels used as strong points, as the diameter of the tunnels is small enough for soldiers to block.[187] A highly protected chamber, known as the "queens cell", houses the queen and king and is used as a last line of defence.[184]

Species in the genus Macrotermes arguably build the most complex structures in the insect world, constructing enormous mounds.[182] These mounds are among the largest in the world, reaching a height of 8 to 9 metres (26 to 29 feet), and consist of chimneys, pinnacles and ridges.[53] Another termite species, Amitermes meridionalis, can build nests 3 to 4 metres (9 to 13 feet) high and 2.5 metres (8 feet) wide. The tallest mound ever recorded was 12.8 metres (42 ft) long found in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.[188]

The sculptured mounds sometimes have elaborate and distinctive forms, such as those of the compass termite (Amitermes meridionalis and A. laurensis), which builds tall, wedge-shaped mounds with the long axis oriented approximately north–south, which gives them their common name.[189][190] This orientation has been experimentally shown to assist thermoregulation. The north-south orientation causes the internal temperature of a mound to increase rapidly during the morning while avoiding overheating from the midday sun. The temperature then remains at a plateau for the rest of the day until the evening.[191]

Nasutiterminae shelter tubes on a tree trunk provide cover for the trail from nest to forest floor.

Termites construct shelter tubes, also known as earthen tubes or mud tubes, that start from the ground. These shelter tubes can be found on walls and other structures.[192] Constructed by termites during the night, a time of higher humidity, these tubes provide protection to termites from potential predators, especially ants.[193] Shelter tubes also provide high humidity and darkness and allow workers to collect food sources that cannot be accessed in any other way.[192] These passageways are made from soil and faeces and are normally brown in colour. The size of these shelter tubes depends on the amount of food sources that are available. They range from less than 1 cm to several cm in width, but may extend dozens of metres in length.[193]

Termite damage on external structure

Owing to their wood-eating habits, many termite species can do great damage to unprotected buildings and other wooden structures.[194] Their habit of remaining concealed often results in their presence being undetected until the timbers are severely damaged, leaving a thin layer of a wall that protects them from the environment.[195] Of the 3,106 species known, only 183 species cause damage; 83 species cause significant damage to wooden structures.[194] In North America, nine subterranean species are pests; in Australia, 16 species have an economic impact; in the Indian subcontinent 26 species are considered pests, and in tropical Africa, 24. In Central America and the West Indies, there are 17 pest species.[194] Among the termite genera, Coptotermes has the highest number of pest species of any genus, with 28 species known to cause damage.[194] Less than 10% of drywood termites are pests, but they infect wooden structures and furniture in tropical, subtropical and other regions. Dampwood termites only attack lumber material exposed to rainfall or soil.[194]

Drywood termites thrive in warm climates, and human activities can enable them to invade homes since they can be transported through contaminated goods, containers and ships.[194] Colonies of termites have been seen thriving in warm buildings located in cold regions.[196] Some termites are considered invasive species. Cryptotermes brevis, the most widely introduced invasive termite species in the world, has been introduced to all the islands in the West Indies and to Australia.[34][194]

Termite damage in wooden house stumps

In addition to causing damage to buildings, termites can also damage food crops.[197] Termites may attack trees whose resistance to damage is low but generally ignore fast-growing plants. Most attacks occur at harvest time; crops and trees are attacked during the dry season.[197]

The damage caused by termites costs the southwestern United States approximately $1.5 billion each year in wood structure damage, but the true cost of damage worldwide cannot be determined.[194][198] Drywood termites are responsible for a large proportion of the damage caused by termites.[199]

To better control the population of termites, various methods have been developed to track termite movements.[198] One early method involved distributing termite bait laced with immunoglobulin G (IgG) marker proteins from rabbits or chickens. Termites collected from the field could be tested for the rabbit-IgG markers using a rabbit-IgG-specific assay. More recently developed, less expensive alternatives include tracking the termites using egg white, cow milk, or soy milk proteins, which can be sprayed on termites in the field. Termites bearing these proteins can be traced using a protein-specific ELISA test.[198]

See also: Entomophagy Mozambican boys from the Yawo tribe collecting flying termites These flying alates were collected as they came out of their nests in the ground during the early days of the rainy season.

43 termite species are used as food by humans or are fed to livestock.[200] These insects are particularly important in less developed countries where malnutrition is common, as the protein from termites can help improve the human diet. Termites are consumed in many regions globally, but this practice has only become popular in developed nations in recent years.[200]

Termites are consumed by people in many different cultures around the world. In Africa, the alates are an important factor in the diets of native populations.[201] Tribes have different ways of collecting or cultivating insects; sometimes tribes collect soldiers from several species. Though harder to acquire, queens are regarded as a delicacy.[202] Termite alates are high in nutrition with adequate levels of fat and protein. They are regarded as pleasant in taste, having a nut-like flavour after they are cooked.[201]

Alates are collected when the rainy season begins. During a nuptial flight, they are typically seen around lights to which they are attracted, and so nets are set up on lamps and captured alates are later collected. The wings are removed through a technique that is similar to winnowing. The best result comes when they are lightly roasted on a hot plate or fried until crisp. Oil is not required as their bodies usually contain sufficient amounts of oil. Termites are typically eaten when livestock is lean and tribal crops have not yet developed or produced any food, or if food stocks from a previous growing season are limited.[201]

In addition to Africa, termites are consumed in local or tribal areas in Asia and North and South America. In Australia, Indigenous Australians are aware that termites are edible but do not consume them even in times of scarcity; there are few explanations as to why.[201][202] Termite mounds are the main sources of soil consumption (geophagy) in many countries including Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe and South Africa.[203][204][205][206] Researchers have suggested that termites are suitable candidates for human consumption and space agriculture, as they are high in protein and can be used to convert inedible waste to consumable products for humans.[207]

Scientists have developed a more affordable method of tracing the movement of termites using traceable proteins.[198]

Termites can be major agricultural pests, particularly in East Africa and North Asia, where crop losses can be severe (3–100% in crop loss in Africa).[208] Counterbalancing this is the greatly improved water infiltration where termite tunnels in the soil allow rainwater to soak in deeply, which helps reduce runoff and consequent soil erosion through bioturbation.[209] In South America, cultivated plants such as eucalyptus, upland rice and sugarcane can be severely damaged by termite infestations, with attacks on leaves, roots and woody tissue. Termites can also attack other plants, including cassava, coffee, cotton, fruit trees, maize, peanuts, soybeans and vegetables.[23] Mounds can disrupt farming activities, making it difficult for farmers to operate farming machinery; however, despite farmers' dislike of the mounds, it is often the case that no net loss of production occurs.[23] Termites can be beneficial to agriculture, such as by boosting crop yields and enriching the soil. Termites and ants can re-colonise untilled land that contains crop stubble, which colonies use for nourishment when they establish their nests. The presence of nests in fields enables larger amounts of rainwater to soak into the ground and increases the amount of nitrogen in the soil, both essential for the growth of crops.[210]

See also: Renewable energy, Termite-inspired robots, and Sustainable architecture

The termite gut has inspired various research efforts aimed at replacing fossil fuels with cleaner, renewable energy sources.[211] Termites are efficient bioreactors, capable of producing two litres of hydrogen from a single sheet of paper.[212] Approximately 200 species of microbes live inside the termite hindgut, releasing the hydrogen that was trapped inside wood and plants that they digest.[211][213] Through the action of unidentified enzymes in the termite gut, lignocellulose polymers are broken down into sugars and are transformed into hydrogen. The bacteria within the gut turns the sugar and hydrogen into cellulose acetate, an acetate ester of cellulose on which termites rely for energy.[211]Community DNA sequencing of the microbes in the termite hindgut has been employed to provide a better understanding of the metabolic pathway.[211] Genetic engineering may enable hydrogen to be generated in bioreactors from woody biomass.[211]

The development of autonomous robots capable of constructing intricate structures without human assistance has been inspired by the complex mounds that termites build.[214] These robots work independently and can move by themselves on a tracked grid, capable of climbing and lifting up bricks. Such robots may be useful for future projects on Mars, or for building levees to prevent flooding.[215]

Termites use sophisticated means to control the temperatures of their mounds. As discussed above, the shape and orientation of the mounds of the Australian compass termite stabilises their internal temperatures during the day. As the towers heat up, the solar chimney effect (stack effect) creates an updraft of air within the mound.[216] Wind blowing across the tops of the towers enhances the circulation of air through the mounds, which also include side vents in their construction. The solar chimney effect has been in use for centuries in the Middle East and Near East for passive cooling, as well as in Europe by the Romans.[217] It is only relatively recently, however, that climate responsive construction techniques have become incorporated into modern architecture. Especially in Africa, the stack effect has become a popular means to achieve natural ventilation and passive cooling in modern buildings.[216]

The pink-hued Eastgate Centre

The Eastgate Centre is a shopping centre and office block in central Harare, Zimbabwe, whose architect, Mick Pearce, used passive cooling inspired by that used by the local termites.[218] It was the first major building exploiting termite-inspired cooling techniques to attract international attention. Other such buildings include the Learning Resource Center at the Catholic University of Eastern Africa and the Council House 2 building in Melbourne, Australia.[216]

Few zoos hold termites, due to the difficulty in keeping them captive and to the reluctance of authorities to permit potential pests. One of the few that do, the Zoo Basel in Switzerland, has two thriving Macrotermes bellicosus populations – resulting in an event very rare in captivity: the mass migrations of young flying termites. This happened in September 2008, when thousands of male termites left their mound each night, died, and covered the floors and water pits of the house holding their exhibit.[219]

African tribes in several countries have termites as totems, and for this reason tribe members are forbidden to eat the reproductive alates.[220] Termites are widely used in traditional popular medicine; they are used as treatments for diseases and other conditions such as asthma, bronchitis, hoarseness, influenza, sinusitis, tonsillitis and whooping cough.[200] In Nigeria, Macrotermes nigeriensis is used for spiritual protection and to treat wounds and sick pregnant women. In Southeast Asia, termites are used in ritual practices. In Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, termite mounds are commonly worshiped among the populace.[221] Abandoned mounds are viewed as structures created by spirits, believing a local guardian dwells within the mound; this is known as Keramat and Datok Kong. In urban areas, local residents construct red-painted shrines over mounds that have been abandoned, where they pray for good health, protection and luck.[221]

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Pest Inspection

Insect And Rodent Pest Control

A home or business does not want to have the problems associated with an infestation of termites, ants, mice or other pests. There are ways to avoid experiencing these problems. Monthly pest control services can work to prevent any type of infestation from occurring and quickly eliminate ones that are discovered.

1. An Infestation of Pests Can Affect Your Health

Being able to make certain there is not an infestation will contribute to having a healthy home or business environment. There are many different types of insects such as cockroaches and others that can cause sickness. Making certain a home or business is free of such creatures will contribute to the well-being of people who spend a significant amount of time in these environments.

2. Protect Your Property Value

When a person has a house or business, they've made a significant investment. Should their property experience an infestation of pests, it could affect its value and more. Termites can cause serious damage to any type of structure. Rodents can chew electrical wires throughout any structure. In both situations, significant damage can occur and result in expensive repairs. Monthly visits by a pest control service can eliminate any potential damage caused by these pests.

6. Monthly Service is Cost Effective

A business or home can benefit financially from a monthly detection and elimination of pests. Should an infestation be undetected for an extended period, it could become an expensive situation to resolve. Early detection can avoid structural problems and other types of damage. The ability to detect and eliminate pests on a monthly basis can avoid damage occurring to a property that would be costly to repair.

Tejon

Rodent Control Necessary For All Homeowners


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Buttonwillow Fly Control

Pest control in Buttonwillow for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Wasp Exterminator

Buttonwillow Pest Control For Rodents

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CHAIRS, SOFAS THEFLOORS, BUGS.

CHAIRS, SOFAS THEFLOORS, CARPETS, BUGS.

CHAIRS, SOFAS THEFLOORS, CARPETS, YOUR FLOORS, CARPETS, YOUR FLOORS, CARPETS, YOURLONG, FLOORS, CARPETS, YOURLONG, YOUR FLOORS, CARPETS, YOURLONG, YOUR PLANS, FLOORS, CARPETS, YOURLONG, YOUR PLANS, YOUR LONG, YOUR PLANS, YOUR LONG, YOUR PLANS, YOURHOUSE LONG, YOUR PLANS, YOURHOUSE PLANTS! LONG, YOUR PLANS, YOURHOUSE PLANTS! OUTDOOR HOUSE PLANTS! OUTDOOR HOUSE PLANTS! OUTDOORPLANS, HOUSE PLANTS! OUTDOORPLANS, AROUND HOUSE PLANTS! OUTDOORPLANS, AROUND THE HOUSE PLANTS! OUTDOORPLANS, AROUND THE BED, PLANS, AROUND THE BED, PLANS, AROUND THE BED,MATTRESS, PLANS, AROUND THE BED,MATTRESS, BOX PLANS, AROUND THE BED,MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, PLANS, AROUND THE BED,MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, OR MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, OR MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, ORYOURSELF, MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, ORYOURSELF, BY MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, ORYOURSELF, BY THE MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, ORYOURSELF, BY THE WAY MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, ORYOURSELF, BY THE WAY AND YOURSELF, BY THE WAY AND YOURSELF, BY THE WAY ANDYOU YOURSELF, BY THE WAY ANDYOU CAN YOURSELF, BY THE WAY ANDYOU CAN PUT YOURSELF, BY THE WAY ANDYOU CAN PUT IT YOURSELF, BY THE WAY ANDYOU CAN PUT IT ON YOURSELF, BY THE WAY ANDYOU CAN PUT IT ON YOUR YOU CAN PUT IT ON YOUR YOU CAN PUT IT ON YOURPETS.

YOU CAN PUT IT ON YOURPETS.

IT YOU CAN PUT IT ON YOURPETS.

IT IS YOU CAN PUT IT ON YOURPETS.

IT IS SAFE YOU CAN PUT IT ON YOURPETS.

IT IS SAFE OR PETS.

IT IS SAFE OR PETS.

IT IS SAFE ORKIDS! PETS.

IT IS SAFE ORKIDS! HERE'S PETS.

IT IS SAFE ORKIDS! HERE'S WHAT PETS.

IT IS SAFE ORKIDS! HERE'S WHAT IT KIDS! HERE'S WHAT IT KIDS! HERE'S WHAT ITRECALLS KIDS! HERE'S WHAT ITRECALLS TAKES KIDS! HERE'S WHAT ITRECALLS TAKES -- RECALLS TAKES -- RECALLS TAKES --[READING] [READING] [READING]THAT [READING]THAT IS [READING]THAT IS REALLY [READING]THAT IS REALLY GREAT [READING]THAT IS REALLY GREAT TO THAT IS REALLY GREAT TO THAT IS REALLY GREAT TOSPRAY THAT IS REALLY GREAT TOSPRAY ON THAT IS REALLY GREAT TOSPRAY ON YOUR THAT IS REALLY GREAT TOSPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS THAT IS REALLY GREAT TOSPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS S SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS S SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS SIS SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS SIS VIEW SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS SIS VIEW OF SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS SIS VIEW OF MATTRESS SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS SIS VIEW OF MATTRESS IS IS VIEW OF MATTRESS IS IS VIEW OF MATTRESS ISOVER IS VIEW OF MATTRESS ISOVER TWO IS VIEW OF MATTRESS ISOVER TWO YEARS IS VIEW OF MATTRESS ISOVER TWO YEARS OLD, IS VIEW OF MATTRESS ISOVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR, OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR, OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT IS OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT IS IN OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT IS IN ITS OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT OR IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT OR IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT ORNINE IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT ORNINE HERE, IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT ORNINE HERE, YOU IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT ORNINE HERE, YOU NINE IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT ORNINE HERE, YOU NINE HERE NINE HERE, YOU NINE HERE NINE HERE, YOU NINE HEREDEFINITELY NINE HERE, YOU NINE HEREDEFINITELY NEED NINE HERE, YOU NINE HEREDEFINITELY NEED TO NINE HERE, YOU NINE HEREDEFINITELY NEED TO BE DEFINITELY NEED TO BE DEFINITELY NEED TO BESPRAYING DEFINITELY NEED TO BESPRAYING IT.

DEFINITELY NEED TO BESPRAYING IT.

NOW, SPRAYING IT.

NOW, SPRAYING IT.

NOW,MOSQUITOES SPRAYING IT.

NOW,MOSQUITOES ARE SPRAYING IT.

NOW,MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

SPRAYING IT.

NOW,MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

-- MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

-- MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD YOU MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD YOU DON'T MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD YOU DON'T WANT MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BA BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BA BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BAGET BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BAGET A BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BAGET A MOSQUITO BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BAGET A MOSQUITO BITE.

BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BAGET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GE GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GE GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT LET GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT LET ME GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT LET ME TELL GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT LET ME TELL YOU GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT LET ME TELL YOU ARE BUT LET ME TELL YOU ARE BUT LET ME TELL YOU ARETHOSE BUT LET ME TELL YOU ARETHOSE HORRIBLE, BUT LET ME TELL YOU ARETHOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE BUT LET ME TELL YOU ARETHOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE HO THOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE HO THOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE HOCHEMICALS THOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE HOCHEMICALS LIKE THOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE HOCHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEET CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEET CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEETIS CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEETIS A CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEETIS A MAJOR CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEETIS A MAJOR INGREDIENT CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEETIS A MAJOR INGREDIENT IN IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT IN IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT INBUG IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT INBUG SPRAY.

IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT INBUG SPRAY.

THIS IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT INBUG SPRAY.

THIS IS IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT INBUG SPRAY.

THIS IS A BUG SPRAY.

THIS IS A BUG SPRAY.

THIS IS ANATURAL BUG SPRAY.

THIS IS ANATURAL CEDAR BUG SPRAY.

THIS IS ANATURAL CEDAR OIL.

BUG SPRAY.

THIS IS ANATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHAT NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHAT NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHATYOU'RE NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHATYOU'RE GETTING NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHATYOU'RE GETTING IS NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHATYOU'RE GETTING IS THE NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHATYOU'RE GETTING IS THE 32 YOU'RE GETTING IS THE 32 YOU'RE GETTING IS THE 32FLUID YOU'RE GETTING IS THE 32FLUID OUNCE YOU'RE GETTING IS THE 32FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE, FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE, FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD AUTO FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD AUTO FREE FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD AUTO FREE TO FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO A THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO A THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO ADILUTION THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO ADILUTION OF THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO ADILUTION OF IT THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO ADILUTION OF IT AND THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO ADILUTION OF IT AND THE DILUTION OF IT AND THE DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO GO DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO GO ON DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO GO ON THE DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO B BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO B BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO BIT BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO BIT IS BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO BIT IS A BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO BIT IS A TRAVEL BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO BIT IS A TRAVEL SIZED IT IS A TRAVEL SIZED IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, WHAT IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO I IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO IS BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO IS BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI DILUTE BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI DILUTE IT BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI DILUTE IT TO BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI DILUTE IT TO PUT BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI DILUTE IT TO PUT IT I DILUTE IT TO PUT IT I DILUTE IT TO PUT ITON I DILUTE IT TO PUT ITON MYSELF, I DILUTE IT TO PUT ITON MYSELF, AND I DILUTE IT TO PUT ITON MYSELF, AND THEN I DILUTE IT TO PUT ITON MYSELF, AND THEN I ON MYSELF, AND THEN I ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY IT ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY IT ON ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY IT ON AND ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY IT ON AND I ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBED SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBED SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBEDIN SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBEDIN IT SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBEDIN IT SMELLS SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBEDIN IT SMELLS LIKE SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBEDIN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAR IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAR IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I DO IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I DO NOT IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I DO NOT KNOW IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I DO NOT KNOW IF IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOU OIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOU OIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOUHAD OIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOUHAD OR OIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOUHAD OR YOUR OIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOUHAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHER HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHER HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHERHAD HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHERHAD A HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHERHAD A CEDAR HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHERHAD A CEDAR CLOSET HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHERHAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEY HAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEY HAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEYWOULD HAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEYWOULD BUT HAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEYWOULD BUT THERE HAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEYWOULD BUT THERE WILL WOULD BUT THERE WILL WOULD BUT THERE WILLSWEATER'S WOULD BUT THERE WILLSWEATER'S SO WOULD BUT THERE WILLSWEATER'S SO THE WOULD BUT THERE WILLSWEATER'S SO THE MOUSE SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSE SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSEWOULD SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSEWOULD NOT SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSEWOULD NOT EAT SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSEWOULD NOT EAT THEM.

SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSEWOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUT WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUT WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUTCEDAR WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUTCEDAR IS WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUTCEDAR IS A WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUTCEDAR IS A NATURAL WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUTCEDAR IS A NATURAL BUG CEDAR IS A NATURAL BUG CEDAR IS A NATURAL BUGREPELLENT CEDAR IS A NATURAL BUGREPELLENT --WOOL CEDAR IS A NATURAL BUGREPELLENT --WOOL THE CEDAR IS A NATURAL BUGREPELLENT --WOOL THE REP REPELLENT --WOOL THE REP REPELLENT --WOOL THE REPGOOD REPELLENT --WOOL THE REPGOOD FOLKS REPELLENT --WOOL THE REPGOOD FOLKS AT REPELLENT --WOOL THE REPGOOD FOLKS AT NO REPELLENT --WOOL THE REPGOOD FOLKS AT NO MORE GOOD FOLKS AT NO MORE GOOD FOLKS AT NO MOREBUGS! GOOD FOLKS AT NO MOREBUGS! HIGH-GRADE, BUGS! HIGH-GRADE, BUGS! HIGH-GRADE,HIGHEST-QUALITY BUGS! HIGH-GRADE,HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR BUGS! HIGH-GRADE,HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OI BUGS! HIGH-GRADE,HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OIL HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OIL HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OILTHAT HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OILTHAT IS HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OILTHAT IS NATURALLY THAT IS NATURALLY THAT IS NATURALLYGETTING THAT IS NATURALLYGETTING RID THAT IS NATURALLYGETTING RID OF THAT IS NATURALLYGETTING RID OF THESE GETTING RID OF THESE GETTING RID OF THESEBUGS, GETTING RID OF THESEBUGS, DETERRING GETTING RID OF THESEBUGS, DETERRING THEM! GETTING RID OF THESEBUGS, DETERRING THEM! O, BUGS, DETERRING THEM! O, BUGS, DETERRING THEM! O,SPRAY BUGS, DETERRING THEM! O,SPRAY IT BUGS, DETERRING THEM! O,SPRAY IT ON BUGS, DETERRING THEM! O,SPRAY IT ON YOUR SPRAY IT ON YOUR SPRAY IT ON YOURBASEBOARDS, SPRAY IT ON YOURBASEBOARDS, SPRAY SPRAY IT ON YOURBASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWN BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWN BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWNTHE BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWNTHE ENTRY BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWNTHE ENTRY POINT BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWNTHE ENTRY POINT OF BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWNTHE ENTRY POINT OF YOUR THE ENTRY POINT OF YOUR THE ENTRY POINT OF YOURHOME THE ENTRY POINT OF YOURHOME LIKE THE ENTRY POINT OF YOURHOME LIKE A THE ENTRY POINT OF YOURHOME LIKE A SLIDING THE ENTRY POINT OF YOURHOME LIKE A SLIDING LAST HOME LIKE A SLIDING LAST HOME LIKE A SLIDING LASTYOUR! HOME LIKE A SLIDING LASTYOUR! ANYWHERE HOME LIKE A SLIDING LASTYOUR! ANYWHERE YOU HOME LIKE A SLIDING LASTYOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEE YOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEE YOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEEBUGS.

YOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEEBUGS.

TWO YOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEEBUGS.

TWO SPONGES, YOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEEBUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BY BUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BY BUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BYTHE BUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BYTHE WAY, BUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BYTHE WAY, ARE BUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BYTHE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THESE THE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THESE SPONGES THE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THESE SPONGES YOU THE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THESE SPONGES YOU POP THESE SPONGES YOU POP THESE SPONGES YOU POPTHEM THESE SPONGES YOU POPTHEM IN THESE SPONGES YOU POPTHEM IN WATER THESE SPONGES YOU POPTHEM IN WATER AND THESE SPONGES YOU POPTHEM IN WATER AND THEY THEM IN WATER AND THEY THEM IN WATER AND THEYBECOME THEM IN WATER AND THEYBECOME A THEM IN WATER AND THEYBECOME A GROWN-UP THEM IN WATER AND THEYBECOME A GROWN-UP SIZED BECOME A GROWN-UP SIZED BECOME A GROWN-UP SIZEDSPONGES.

BECOME A GROWN-UP SIZEDSPONGES.

AGAIN BECOME A GROWN-UP SIZEDSPONGES.

AGAIN YOU BECOME A GROWN-UP SIZEDSPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POP SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POP SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POPTHEM SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POPTHEM IN SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POPTHEM IN THE SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POPTHEM IN THE MODERN SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POPTHEM IN THE MODERN NAB, THEM IN THE MODERN NAB, THEM IN THE MODERN NAB,GROWN-UP THEM IN THE MODERN NAB,GROWN-UP SIZED THEM IN THE MODERN NAB,GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGES GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGES GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGESAND GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGESAND YOU GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGESAND YOU SPRAY GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGESAND YOU SPRAY SOME AND YOU SPRAY SOME AND YOU SPRAY SOMEPRODUCT AND YOU SPRAY SOMEPRODUCT ON AND YOU SPRAY SOMEPRODUCT ON IT AND YOU SPRAY SOMEPRODUCT ON IT AND AND YOU SPRAY SOMEPRODUCT ON IT AND YOU PRODUCT ON IT AND YOU PRODUCT ON IT AND YOUWIPE PRODUCT ON IT AND YOUWIPE DOWN PRODUCT ON IT AND YOUWIPE DOWN YOUR PRODUCT ON IT AND YOUWIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERS WIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERS WIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERSWHERE WIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERSWHERE YOU WIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERSWHERE YOU KEEP WIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERSWHERE YOU KEEP YOUR WHERE YOU KEEP YOUR WHERE YOU KEEP YOURSILVERWARE, WHERE YOU KEEP YOURSILVERWARE, YOUR WHERE YOU KEEP YOURSILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE, SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE, SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE,YOUR SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE,YOUR CUPS, SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE,YOUR CUPS, THE SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE,YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE,YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE Y YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE Y YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY BUGS YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY BUGS LIKE YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO G YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GO IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GO IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GOTHAT IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GOTHAT -- IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GOTHAT -- PLATES IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GOTHAT -- PLATES IF IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GOTHAT -- PLATES IF YOU THAT -- PLATES IF YOU THAT -- PLATES IF YOUGO THAT -- PLATES IF YOUGO TO THAT -- PLATES IF YOUGO TO THE THAT -- PLATES IF YOUGO TO THE GROCERY THAT -- PLATES IF YOUGO TO THE GROCERY STORE GO TO THE GROCERY STORE GO TO THE GROCERY STORETHE GO TO THE GROCERY STORETHE PLASTIC GO TO THE GROCERY STORETHE PLASTIC BAGS GO TO THE GROCERY STORETHE PLASTIC BAGS IN GO TO THE GROCERY STORETHE PLASTIC BAGS IN THE THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THE THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THEGROCERY THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THEGROCERY STORE THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THEGROCERY STORE TO THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THEGROCERY STORE TO MARK THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THEGROCERY STORE TO MARK GR GROCERY STORE TO MARK GR GROCERY STORE TO MARK GRAND GROCERY STORE TO MARK GRAND THOSE GROCERY STORE TO MARK GRAND THOSE PLASTIC GROCERY STORE TO MARK GRAND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS(.

) AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS(.

) ARE AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS(.

) ARE LIKE AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS(.

) ARE LIKE LARVA AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS(.

) ARE LIKE LARVA AND (.

) ARE LIKE LARVA AND (.

) ARE LIKE LARVA ANDEGGS (.

) ARE LIKE LARVA ANDEGGS FROM (.

) ARE LIKE LARVA ANDEGGS FROM BUGS.

(.

) ARE LIKE LARVA ANDEGGS FROM BUGS.

YOU EGGS FROM BUGS.

YOU EGGS FROM BUGS.

YOUBRING EGGS FROM BUGS.

YOUBRING THOSE EGGS FROM BUGS.

YOUBRING THOSE BAGS EGGS FROM BUGS.

YOUBRING THOSE BAGS HOME, BRING THOSE BAGS HOME, BRING THOSE BAGS HOME,STICK BRING THOSE BAGS HOME,STICK THEM BRING THOSE BAGS HOME,STICK THEM IN BRING THOSE BAGS HOME,STICK THEM IN THE BRING THOSE BAGS HOME,STICK THEM IN THE STICK STICK THEM IN THE STICK STICK THEM IN THE STICKCABINET STICK THEM IN THE STICKCABINET AND STICK THEM IN THE STICKCABINET AND THAT STICK THEM IN THE STICKCABINET AND THAT IS STICK THEM IN THE STICKCABINET AND THAT IS ONE CABINET AND THAT IS ONE CABINET AND THAT IS ONEOF CABINET AND THAT IS ONEOF THE CABINET AND THAT IS ONEOF THE PLACES CABINET AND THAT IS ONEOF THE PLACES (.

) OF THE PLACES (.

) OF THE PLACES (.

)THEY'RE OF THE PLACES (.

)THEY'RE NOT OF THE PLACES (.

)THEY'RE NOT JUST OF THE PLACES (.

)THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'RE THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'RE THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'REMARCHING THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'REMARCHING IN THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'REMARCHING IN FROM THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'REMARCHING IN FROM THE MARCHING IN FROM THE MARCHING IN FROM THEOUTSIDE MARCHING IN FROM THEOUTSIDE SOMETIMES MARCHING IN FROM THEOUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOU OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOU OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOUBRING OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOUBRING THEM OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOUBRING THEM IN.

OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOUBRING THEM IN.

SPRAY OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOUBRING THEM IN.

SPRAY IT BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY IT BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY ITAROUND.

BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY ITAROUND.

LME BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY ITAROUND.

LME TELL BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY ITAROUND.

LME TELL YOU BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY ITAROUND.

LME TELL YOU A AROUND.

LME TELL YOU A AROUND.

LME TELL YOU ALITTLE AROUND.

LME TELL YOU ALITTLE BIT AROUND.

LME TELL YOU ALITTLE BIT OF AROUND.

LME TELL YOU ALITTLE BIT OF HOW AROUND.

LME TELL YOU ALITTLE BIT OF HOW BUGS LITTLE BIT OF HOW BUGS LITTLE BIT OF HOW BUGSBREEZY LITTLE BIT OF HOW BUGSBREEZY DO LITTLE BIT OF HOW BUGSBREEZY DO NOT LITTLE BIT OF HOW BUGSBREEZY DO NOT BREATHE BREEZY DO NOT BREATHE BREEZY DO NOT BREATHETHEIR BREEZY DO NOT BREATHETHEIR NOSE BREEZY DO NOT BREATHETHEIR NOSE OR BREEZY DO NOT BREATHETHEIR NOSE OR THEIR BREEZY DO NOT BREATHETHEIR NOSE OR THEIR THEI THEIR NOSE OR THEIR THEI THEIR NOSE OR THEIR THEIMOUTH THEIR NOSE OR THEIR THEIMOUTH THEY THEIR NOSE OR THEIR THEIMOUTH THEY HAVE THEIR NOSE OR THEIR THEIMOUTH THEY HAVE AN MOUTH THEY HAVE AN MOUTH THEY HAVE ANEXOSKELETON MOUTH THEY HAVE ANEXOSKELETON AND MOUTH THEY HAVE ANEXOSKELETON AND WHAT MOUTH THEY HAVE ANEXOSKELETON AND WHAT THE EXOSKELETON AND WHAT THE EXOSKELETON AND WHAT THECEDAR EXOSKELETON AND WHAT THECEDAR DOES EXOSKELETON AND WHAT THECEDAR DOES IS EXOSKELETON AND WHAT THECEDAR DOES IS IT CEDAR DOES IS IT CEDAR DOES IS ITBASICALLY CEDAR DOES IS ITBASICALLY (.

) CEDAR DOES IS ITBASICALLY (.

) WHEN CEDAR DOES IS ITBASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOU BASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOU BASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOUSPRAY BASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOUSPRAY TO BASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOUSPRAY TO KEEP BASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOUSPRAY TO KEEP THEM BASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOUSPRAY TO KEEP THEM FROM SPRAY TO KEEP THEM FROM SPRAY TO KEEP THEM FROMBEING SPRAY TO KEEP THEM FROMBEING ABLE SPRAY TO KEEP THEM FROMBEING ABLE TO SPRAY TO KEEP THEM FROMBEING ABLE TO BREATHE BEING ABLE TO BREATHE BEING ABLE TO BREATHEWHEN BEING ABLE TO BREATHEWHEN THEY BEING ABLE TO BREATHEWHEN THEY COME BEING ABLE TO BREATHEWHEN THEY COME NEAR BEING ABLE TO BREATHEWHEN THEY COME NEAR IT, WHEN THEY COME NEAR IT, WHEN THEY COME NEAR IT,THEREON WHEN THEY COME NEAR IT,THEREON IN WHEN THEY COME NEAR IT,THEREON IN THE WHEN THEY COME NEAR IT,THEREON IN THE OPPOSITE THEREON IN THE OPPOSITE THEREON IN THE OPPOSITEDIRECTION THEREON IN THE OPPOSITEDIRECTION IS THEREON IN THE OPPOSITEDIRECTION IS LIKE THEREON IN THE OPPOSITEDIRECTION IS LIKE THE DIRECTION IS LIKE THE DIRECTION IS LIKE THELAST DIRECTION IS LIKE THELAST THING DIRECTION IS LIKE THELAST THING IN DIRECTION IS LIKE THELAST THING IN THE DIRECTION IS LIKE THELAST THING IN THE WORLD LAST THING IN THE WORLD LAST THING IN THE WORLDARE LAST THING IN THE WORLDARE EXAMPLE LAST THING IN THE WORLDARE EXAMPLE OF LAST THING IN THE WORLDARE EXAMPLE OF A ARE EXAMPLE OF A ARE EXAMPLE OF AMOSQUITOES ARE EXAMPLE OF AMOSQUITOES BUZZING ARE EXAMPLE OF AMOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQU MOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQU MOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQUAROUND MOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQUAROUND YOU MOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQUAROUND YOU AS MOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQUAROUND YOU AS THEY MOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQUAROUND YOU AS THEY GET AROUND YOU AS THEY GET AROUND YOU AS THEY GETCLOSE AROUND YOU AS THEY GETCLOSE AND AROUND YOU AS THEY GETCLOSE AND SMELL AROUND YOU AS THEY GETCLOSE AND SMELL THE CLOSE AND SMELL THE CLOSE AND SMELL THECEDAR, CLOSE AND SMELL THECEDAR, WHICH CLOSE AND SMELL THECEDAR, WHICH SMELLS CLOSE AND SMELL THECEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERY CEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERY CEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERYNICE CEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERYNICE (.

) CEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERYNICE (.

) IT CEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERYNICE (.

) IT IS CEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERYNICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY, NICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY, NICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY,BUT NICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY,BUT THEY NICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY,BUT THEY ARE NICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY,BUT THEY ARE JUST NICE (.

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IT DOES NOT EVERYBODY.

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IT DOES NOTMATTER EVERYBODY.

IT DOES NOTMATTER WHO EVERYBODY.

IT DOES NOTMATTER WHO YOU.

Bug Service

Pesticide

Pest Control is an exclusive to audio[1]Doctor Who story, produced as part of BBC Books' New Series Adventures line, and the first entry in the series to be produced. Written by author Peter Anghelides[2] and read by series star David Tennant,[1] it is also the first non-televised Doctor Who adventure to feature the companion Donna Noble[1][3] (the first standard printed books featuring her were released in autumn 2008). Pest Control was released on CD on 8 May 2008[1] and is also available for download.[2]


The story is accompanied by an original soundtrack and sound effects created by Simon Hunt.[2]

The Doctor and Donna land on the distant planet of Rescension and find themselves caught in a war between humans and the centaur-like Aquabi. When a far greater threat emerges, the Doctor must convince the two sides to work together before they are all wiped out.


Buttonwillow

Orkin


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Maricopa Local Pest Control

Pest control in Maricopa for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Household Pests

Maricopa Pest Control For Rodents

A customer called us the other day to take care of a rodent problem. She saw a mouse run across her kitchen floor and when she finished freaking out, she decided to call our pest control company to take care of the problem for her. As is our routine, we went down to check the crawl space. What we found was both alarming and unhealthy. This home had a massive rodent population that had severely contaminated this poor lady's home without her even knowing about it.

Why a mouse in the house is kind of a big deal

Nobody ever has just a mouse in the house. Usually, if you see one rodent, there are dozens that you are not seeing. Since your crawl space provides a perfect environment of warmth and safety for rodents, they generally congregate and reproduce in this area. Things can get out of control rather quickly with female mice pumping out over 70 babies a year! In a relatively short period of time, the urine and feces begin to add up and create an unhealthy space.

2) Make sure you are not providing a food source

People sometimes make the horrible mistake of feeding unwanted animals. Sometimes this is intentional and other times it is accidental. For example, our customer that called us about the rodents loved birds and had several bird feeders in her yard. Unfortunately, these bird feeders are also rat and mice feeders. If you are willing to take the risk because of your love for birds, go right ahead, but if you want to be sure about it, get rid of them.

Pest Inspection

Nematode

Pest control services are increasingly becoming popular in recent times due to the rapid expansion of pests in our homes, offices, and agricultural areas which can hamper our health and create huge financial losses if not controlled with the valuable services of pest control department. The pest control department is rendering invaluable service to the humankind by getting rid of these pests with their most modern techniques and innovations in the field of pest control.

Pests can have disastrous impact on the health of our family if not controlled as they can multiply very fast and cause maximum damage. Pests like cockroaches, rats, red and black ants, spiders, bed bugs, silver fish are some of the major ones which can invade our home and property. Effective pest control is the only solution to this menace of pests. Various gels and sprays are commercially available in the market which can be administered in the cracks and crevices where these pests dwell and multiply. These gels and sprays can be used without vacating the premises and it is totally trouble free and safe for the occupants. Various pest control agencies specialize in these products and services and they can render their services in quick time without any hassles.

We can also use various methods to curb the influx of pests into our homes by maintaining proper hygiene in and around our homes, offices and surroundings. All cracks and leakages should be monitored and repaired on time to prevent any pests from entering and making their presence felt in our dwellings. Various medicinal herbs and plants help in reducing the entry of pests into our homes like basil, mint, onion, neem, lemon grass, ginger, butterfly bush, red cedar etc. Chemical treatment for ants and bugs has been found to be very effective in recent times. In this method, small holes are drilled into the wall and certain chemicals are filled into it. The holes are then sealed and any insect or bug venturing around that area is immediately killed. This treatment lasts for several years and nothing is visible on the surface of the walls.

Pest control department also specializes in giving personalized service to the individuals depending on their requirements, type of pest, damage caused, and structural condition of the home or office. They have a team of experts who can come to our place and access the situation and advise methods by which they can eradicate these pests without wasting much of our precious time and money. They also take into account the health hazards that can be caused especially to children during the course of pest control services and the means and methods by which it can be prevented by proper guidance and precautions. Most of the pest control services use natural methods and pesticides which are tested and certified and hence they don't have any dangerous effects on the user and are also environment friendly.

Maricopa

How Rodents Can Make Your Home An Unhealthy Place


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Taft Cockroach Pest Control

Pest control in Taft for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Bed Bug Infestation

Taft Pest Control For Rodents

The application of pest control ranges from do-it-yourself arrangements to
scientific and very precise deployment of chemicals and predatory insects by
highly skilled practitioners. Despite the fact that pest control is a world-wide
industry it is still dominated by family or 1-person businesses. Those that need
to control pests range from householders to
large scale agri-conglomerates who need to maximise their yield. In between
these two are restaurants, bars, food production facilities, farmers - in fact,
anybody that routinely deals with food. Pest control can make us more
comfortable - but can also save lives.

The word pest is subjective as one man's pest may be another man's
helper. For instance, pest A may be a threat to crop A, and pest B a threat to
crop B. However, if pest B is a natural predator to pest A, then the farmer who
wishes to protect crop A may cultivate and release pest B amongst his crops.
There is a theory that without man's intervention in the food chain through
agriculture, hunting and long distance travel there would be no pests. The
theory continues that man's intervention (for instance, in cultivating and
releasing pest B, or in carrying creatures long distances) has upset the balance
of the food chain, producing instability in insect and other animal numbers and
distorting their evolution. This instability has led to over-population of a
given
species with the result that they have become pests. Having said this, if we assume that the very first fly swat was the first
instance of pest control - and we know that large animals swat flies - it could be
argued that pest control dates back way before humans came on the scene.

At this point pest control was carried out by farmers and some householders
as an everyday activity. By the early nineteenth century however, this changed
as studies and writings started to appear that treated pest control as a
separate discipline. Increasing use of intensive and large scale farming brought
matching increases in the intensity and scale of pest scares such as the
disastrous potato famine in Ireland in 1840. Pest control management was scaled
up to meet these demands, to the point that dedicated pest controllers began to
emerge throughout the 20th century.

In 1921 the first crop-spraying aeroplane was employed and in 1962 flying insect control was revolutionized when Insect-o-cutor started selling fly killer
machines using ultra violet lamps.

Pest control is still carried out by farmers and householders to this day.
There are also pest control specialists (sometimes called pesties); many
are one-person businesses and others work for large companies. In most countries
the pest control industry has been dogged by a few bad practitioners who have
tarnished the reputation for the highly professional and responsible majority.

One thing is for certain, from way before the Sumerians of 2500BC to us in modern times, there have always been - and probably always will be - pests (including some human ones!). Thank goodness, therefore, that we have pest controllers.

Getting Rid Of Wasps

Insect And Rodent Pest Control

With 39 years of experience, Bug Lady PestControl brings extensive knowledge and high-caliber equipment to each job.

Flea infestations are common during warm monthswhen pests enter the home by latching onto dogs or cats.

From there, fleas can lay eggs in carpeting,linens, and furniture.

Our pest control specialists will treat theentire home to remove both living fleas and eggs.

For your safety, all chemicals are child,pet, and environmentally friendly.

Visit our website!.

Taft

Bird control


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Bodfish Pest Control Cost

Pest control in Bodfish for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Pesticides

Bodfish Pest Control For Rodents

Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea, which also includes termites. About 30 cockroach species out of 4,600 are associated with human habitats. About four species are well known as pests.

The cockroaches are an ancient group, dating back at least as far as the Carboniferous period, some 320 million years ago. Those early ancestors however lacked the internal ovipositors of modern roaches. Cockroaches are somewhat generalized insects without special adaptations like the sucking mouthparts of aphids and other true bugs; they have chewing mouthparts and are likely among the most primitive of living neopteran insects. They are common and hardy insects, and can tolerate a wide range of environments from Arctic cold to tropical heat. Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger than temperate species, and, contrary to popular belief, extinct cockroach relatives and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species.

Some species, such as the gregarious German cockroach, have an elaborate social structure involving common shelter, social dependence, information transfer and kin recognition. Cockroaches have appeared in human culture since classical antiquity. They are popularly depicted as dirty pests, though the great majority of species are inoffensive and live in a wide range of habitats around the world.

A 40- to 50-million-year-old cockroach in Baltic amber (Eocene)

Cockroaches are members of the order Blattodea, which includes the termites, a group of insects once thought to be separate from cockroaches. Currently, 4,600 species and over 460 genera are described worldwide.[1][2] The name "cockroach" comes from the Spanish word for cockroach, cucaracha, transformed by 1620s English folk etymology into "cock" and "roach".[3] The scientific name derives from the Latin blatta, "an insect that shuns the light", which in classical Latin was applied not only to cockroaches, but also to mantids.[4][5]

Historically, the name Blattaria was used largely interchangeably with the name Blattodea, but whilst the former name was used to refer to 'true' cockroaches exclusively, the latter also includes the termites. The current catalogue of world cockroach species uses the name Blattodea for the group.[1] Another name, Blattoptera, is also sometimes used.[6] The earliest cockroach-like fossils ("blattopterans" or "roachids") are from the Carboniferous period 320 million years ago, as are fossil roachoid nymphs.[7][8][9]

Since the 19th century, scientists believed that cockroaches were an ancient group of insects that had a Devonian origin, according to one hypothesis.[10] Fossil roachoids that lived during that time differ from modern cockroaches in having long external ovipositors and are the ancestors of mantises, as well as modern blattodeans. As the body, hind wings and mouthparts are not preserved in fossils frequently, the relationship of these roachoids and modern cockroaches remains disputed. The first fossils of modern cockroaches with internal ovipositors appeared in the early Cretaceous. A recent phylogenetic analysis suggests that cockroaches originated at least in the Jurassic.[10]

The evolutionary relationships of the Blattodea (cockroaches and termites) shown in the cladogram are based on Eggleton, Beccaloni & Inward (2007).[11] The cockroach families Lamproblattidae and Tryonicidae are not shown but are placed within the superfamily Blattoidea. The cockroach families Corydiidae and Ectobiidae were previously known as the Polyphagidae and Blattellidae.[12]

Termites were previously regarded as a separate order Isoptera to cockroaches. However, recent genetic evidence strongly suggests that they evolved directly from 'true' cockroaches, and many authors now place them as an "epifamily" of Blattodea.[11] This evidence supported a hypothesis suggested in 1934 that termites are closely related to the wood-eating cockroaches (genus Cryptocercus). This hypothesis was originally based on similarity of the symbiotic gut flagellates in termites regarded as living fossils and wood-eating cockroaches.[13] Additional evidence emerged when F. A. McKittrick (1965) noted similar morphological characteristics between some termites and cockroach nymphs.[14] The similarities among these cockroaches and termites have led some scientists to reclassify termites as a single family, the Termitidae, within the order Blattodea.[11][15] Other scientists have taken a more conservative approach, proposing to retain the termites as the Termitoidea, an epifamily within the order. Such measure preserves the classification of termites at family level and below.[16]

Domino cockroach Therea petiveriana, normally found in India

Most species of cockroach are about the size of a thumbnail, but several species are bigger. The world's heaviest cockroach is the Australian giant burrowing cockroach Macropanesthia rhinoceros, which can reach 9 cm (3.5 in) in length and weigh more than 30 g (1.1 oz).[17] Comparable in size is the Central American giant cockroach Blaberus giganteus, which grows to a similar length.[18] The longest cockroach species is Megaloblatta longipennis, which can reach 97 mm (3.8 in) in length and 45 mm (1.8 in) across.[19] A Central and South American species, Megaloblatta blaberoides, has the largest wingspan of up to 185 mm (7.3 in).[20]

Head of Periplaneta americana

Cockroaches are generalized insects, with few special adaptations, and may be among the most primitive living neopteran insects. They have a relatively small head and a broad, flattened body, and most species are reddish-brown to dark brown. They have large compound eyes, two ocelli, and long, flexible antennae. The mouthparts are on the underside of the head and include generalized chewing mandibles, salivary glands and various touch and taste receptors.[21]

The body is divided into a thorax of three segments and a ten-segmented abdomen. The external surface has a tough exoskeleton which contains calcium carbonate and protects the inner organs and provides attachment to muscles. It is coated with wax to repel water. The wings are attached to the second and third thoracic segments. The tegmina, or first pair of wings, are tough and protective, lying as a shield on top of the membranous hind wings, which are used in flight. All four wings have branching longitudinal veins, and multiple cross-veins.[22]

The three pairs of legs are sturdy, with large coxae and five claws each.[22] They are attached to each of the three thoracic segments. The front legs are the shortest and the hind legs the longest, providing the main propulsive power when the insect runs.[21] The spines on the legs were earlier considered to be sensory, but observations of the insect's gait on sand and wire meshes have demonstrated that they help in locomotion on difficult terrain. The structures have been used as inspiration for robotic legs.[23][24]

The abdomen has ten segments, each with a pair of spiracles for respiration. Segment ten bears a pair of cerci, a pair of anal styles, the anus and the external genitalia. Males have an aedeagus through which they secrete sperm during copulation and females have spermathecae for storing sperm and an ovipositor through which the ootheca is laid.[21]

Cockroaches are abundant throughout the world and live in a wide range of environments, especially in the tropics and subtropics.[25] Cockroaches can withstand extremely cold temperatures, allowing them to live in the Arctic. Some species are capable of surviving temperatures of −188 °F (−122 °C) by manufacturing an antifreeze made out of glycerol.[26] In North America, 50 species separated into five families are found throughout the continent.[25] 450 species are found in Australia.[27] Only about four widespread species are commonly regarded as pests.[28][29]

Cockroaches occupy a wide range of habitats. Many live in leaf litter, among the stems of matted vegetation, in rotting wood, in holes in stumps, in cavities under bark, under log piles and among debris. Some live in arid regions and have developed mechanisms to survive without access to water sources. Others are aquatic, living near the surface of water bodies, including bromeliad phytotelmata, and diving to forage for food. Most of these respire by piercing the water surface with the tip of the abdomen which acts as a snorkel, but some carry a bubble of air under their thoracic shield when they submerge. Others live in the forest canopy where they may be one of the main types of invertebrate present. Here they may hide during the day in crevices, among dead leaves, in bird and insect nests or among epiphytes, emerging at night to feed.[30]

A cockroach soon after ecdysis

Cockroaches are social insects; a large number of species are either gregarious or inclined to aggregate, and a slightly smaller number exhibit parental care.[31] It used to be thought that cockroaches aggregated because they were reacting to environmental cues, but it is now believed that pheromones are involved in these behaviors. Some species secrete these in their feces with gut microbial symbionts being involved, while others use glands located on their mandibles. Pheromones produced by the cuticle may enable cockroaches to distinguish between different populations of cockroach by odor. The behaviors involved have only been studied in a few species, but German cockroaches leave fecal trails with an odor gradient.[31] Other cockroaches follow such trails to discover sources of food and water, and where other cockroaches are hiding. Thus, cockroaches have emergent behavior, in which group or swarm behavior emerges from a simple set of individual interactions.[32]

Daily rhythms may also be regulated by a complex set of hormonal controls of which only a small subset have been understood. In 2005, the role of one of these proteins, pigment dispersing factor (PDF), was isolated and found to be a key mediator in the circadian rhythms of the cockroach.[33]

Pest species adapt readily to a variety of environments, but prefer warm conditions found within buildings. Many tropical species prefer even warmer environments. Cockroaches are mainly nocturnal[34] and run away when exposed to light. An exception to this is the Asian cockroach, which flies mostly at night but is attracted to brightly-lit surfaces and pale colors.[35]

Gregarious cockroaches display collective decision-making when choosing food sources. When a sufficient number of individuals (a "quorum") exploits a food source, this signals to newcomer cockroaches that they should stay there longer rather than leave for elsewhere.[36] Other mathematical models have been developed to explain aggregation dynamics and conspecific recognition.[37][38]

Group-based decision-making is responsible for complex behaviors such as resource allocation. In a study where 50 cockroaches were placed in a dish with three shelters with a capacity for 40 insects in each, the insects arranged themselves in two shelters with 25 insects in each, leaving the third shelter empty. When the capacity of the shelters was increased to more than 50 insects per shelter, all of the cockroaches arranged themselves in one shelter. Cooperation and competition are balanced in cockroach group decision-making behavior.[32]

Cockroaches appear to use just two pieces of information to decide where to go, namely how dark it is and how many other cockroaches there are. A study used specially-scented roach-sized robots that appear to the roaches as real to demonstrate that once there are enough insects in a place to form a critical mass, the roaches accepted the collective decision on where to hide, even if this was an unusually light place.[39]

Gregarious German cockroaches show different behavior when reared in isolation from when reared in a group. In one study, isolated cockroaches were less likely to leave their shelters and explore, spent less time eating, interacted less with conspecifics when exposed to them, and took longer to recognize receptive females. Because these changes occurred in many contexts, the authors suggested them as constituting a behavioral syndrome. These effects might have been due either to reduced metabolic and developmental rates in isolated individuals or the fact that the isolated individuals hadn't had a training period to learn about what others were like via their antennae.[40]

Individual American cockroaches appear to have consistently different "personalities" regarding how they seek shelter. In addition, group personality is not simply the sum of individual choices, but reflects conformity and collective decision-making.[41][42]

The gregarious German and American cockroaches have elaborate social structure, chemical signalling, and "social herd" characteristics. Lihoreau and his fellow researchers stated:[32]

Some species make a hissing noise while other cockroaches make a chirping noise. The Madagascar hissing cockroach produces its sound through the modified spiracles on the fourth abdominal segment. Several different hisses are produced, including disturbance sounds, produced by adults and larger nymphs, and aggressive, courtship and copulatory sounds produced by adult males.[43]Henschoutedenia epilamproides has a stridulatory organ between its thorax and abdomen, but the purpose of the sound produced is unclear.[44]

Several Australian species practice acoustic and vibration behavior as an aspect of courtship. They have been observed producing hisses and whistles from air forced through the spiracles. Furthermore, in the presence of a potential mate, some cockroaches tap the substrate in a rhythmic, repetitive manner. Acoustic signals may be of greater prevalence amongst perching species, particularly those that live on low vegetation in Australia's tropics.[45]

Cockroaches are generally omnivorous; the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), for example, feeds on a great variety of foodstuffs including bread, fruit, leather, starch in book bindings, paper, glue, skin flakes, hair, dead insects and soiled clothing.[46] Many species of cockroach harbor symbiotic protozoans and bacteria in their gut which are able to digest cellulose. In many species, these symbionts may be essential if the insect is to utilize cellulose; however, some species secrete cellulase in their saliva, and the wood-eating cockroach, Panesthia cribrata, is able to survive indefinitely on a diet of crystallized cellulose while being free of micro-organisms.[47]

The similarity of these symbionts in the genus Cryptocercus to those in termites are such that these cockroaches have been suggested to be more closely related to termites than to other cockroaches,[48] and current research strongly supports this hypothesis about their relationships.[49] All species studied so far carry the obligate mutualistic endosymbiont bacterium Blattabacterium, with the exception of Nocticola australiensise, an Australian cave-dwelling species without eyes, pigment or wings, which recent genetic studies indicate is a very primitive cockroach.[50][51] It had previously been thought that all five families of cockroach were descended from a common ancestor that was infected with B. cuenoti. It may be that N. australiensise subsequently lost its symbionts, or alternatively this hypothesis will need to be re-examined.[51]

Like other insects, cockroaches breathe through a system of tubes called tracheae which are attached to openings called spiracles on all body segments. When the carbon dioxide level in the insect rises high enough, valves on the spiracles open and carbon dioxide diffuses out and oxygen diffuses in. The tracheal system branches repeatedly, the finest tracheoles bringing air directly to each cell, allowing gaseous exchange to take place.[52]

While cockroaches do not have lungs as do vertebrates, and can continue to respire if their heads are removed, in some very large species, the body musculature may contract rhythmically to forcibly move air in and out of the spiracles; this may be considered a form of breathing.[52]

Cockroaches use pheromones to attract mates, and the males practice courtship rituals, such as posturing and stridulation. Like many insects, cockroaches mate facing away from each other with their genitalia in contact, and copulation can be prolonged. A few species are known to be parthenogenetic, reproducing without the need for males.[22]

Female cockroaches are sometimes seen carrying egg cases on the end of their abdomens; the German cockroach holds about 30 to 40 long, thin eggs in a case called an ootheca. She drops the capsule prior to hatching, though live births do occur in rare instances. The egg capsule may take more than five hours to lay and is initially bright white in color. The eggs are hatched from the combined pressure of the hatchlings gulping air. The hatchlings are initially bright white nymphs and continue inflating themselves with air, becoming harder and darker within about four hours. Their transient white stage while hatching and later while molting has led to claims of albino cockroaches.[22] Development from eggs to adults takes three to four months. Cockroaches live up to a year, and the female may produce up to eight egg cases in a lifetime; in favorable conditions, she can produce 300 to 400 offspring. Other species of cockroaches, however, can produce far more eggs; in some cases a female needs to be impregnated only once to be able to lay eggs for the rest of her life.[22]

The female usually attaches the egg case to a substrate, inserts it into a suitably protective crevice, or carries it about until just before the eggs hatch. Some species, however, are ovoviviparous, keeping the eggs inside their body, with or without an egg case, until they hatch. At least one genus, Diploptera, is fully viviparous.[22]

Cockroaches have incomplete metamorphosis, meaning that the nymphs are generally similar to the adults, except for undeveloped wings and genitalia. Development is generally slow, and may take a few months to over a year. The adults are also long-lived, and have survived for as much as four years in the laboratory.[22]

Cockroaches are among the hardiest insects. Some species are capable of remaining active for a month without food and are able to survive on limited resources, such as the glue from the back of postage stamps.[53] Some can go without air for 45 minutes. Japanese cockroach (Periplaneta japonica) nymphs, which hibernate in cold winters, survived twelve hours at −5 °C to −8 °C in laboratory experiments.[54]

Experiments on decapitated specimens of several species of cockroach found a variety of behavioral functionality remained, including shock avoidance and escape behavior, although many insects other than cockroaches are also able to survive decapitation, and popular claims of the longevity of headless cockroaches do not appear to be based on published research.[55][56] The severed head is able to survive and wave its antennae for several hours, or longer when refrigerated and given nutrients.[56]

It is popularly suggested that cockroaches will "inherit the earth" if humanity destroys itself in a nuclear war. Cockroaches do indeed have a much higher radiation resistance than vertebrates, with the lethal dose perhaps six to 15 times that for humans. However, they are not exceptionally radiation-resistant compared to other insects, such as the fruit fly.[57]

The cockroach's ability to withstand radiation better than human beings can be explained through the cell cycle. Cells are most vulnerable to the effects of radiation when they are dividing. A cockroach's cells divide only once each time it molts, which is weekly at most in a juvenile roach. Since not all cockroaches would be molting at the same time, many would be unaffected by an acute burst of radiation, but lingering radioactive fallout would still be harmful.[52]

Cockroaches in research: Periplaneta americana in an electrophysiology experiment

Because of their ease of rearing and resilience, cockroaches have been used as insect models in the laboratory, particularly in the fields of neurobiology, reproductive physiology and social behavior.[31]

The cockroach is a convenient insect to study as it is large and simple to raise in a laboratory environment. This makes it suitable both for research and for school and undergraduate biology studies. It can be used in experiments on topics such as learning, sexual pheromones, spatial orientation, aggression, activity rhythms and the biological clock, and behavioral ecology.[58]

The Blattodea include some thirty species of cockroaches associated with humans; these species are atypical of the thousands of species in the order.[59] They feed on human and pet food and can leave an offensive odor.[60] They can passively transport pathogenic microbes on their body surfaces, particularly in environments such as hospitals.[61][62] Cockroaches are linked with allergic reactions in humans.[63][64] One of the proteins that trigger allergic reactions is tropomyosin.[65] These allergens are also linked with asthma.[66] About 60% of asthma patients in Chicago are also sensitive to cockroach allergens. Studies similar to this have been done globally and all the results are similar. Cockroaches can live for a few days up to a month without food, so just because no cockroaches are visible in a home does not mean they are not there. Approximately 20-48% of homes with no visible sign of cockroaches have detectable cockroach allergens in dust.[67]

Many remedies have been tried in the search for control of the major pest species of cockroaches, which are resilient and fast-breeding. Household chemicals like sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) have been suggested, without evidence for their effectiveness.[68] Garden herbs including bay, catnip, mint, cucumber, and garlic have been proposed as repellents.[69] Poisoned bait containing hydramethylnon or fipronil, and boric acid powder is effective on adults.[70] Baits with egg killers are also quite effective at reducing the cockroach population. Alternatively, insecticides containing deltamethrin or pyrethrin are very effective.[70] In Singapore and Malaysia, taxi drivers use pandan leaves to repel cockroaches in their vehicles.[71]

Few parasites and predators are effective for biological control of cockroaches. Parasitoidal wasps such as Ampulex wasps sting nerve ganglia in the cockroach's thorax, temporarily paralyzing the victim, allowing the wasp to deliver a second sting into the cockroach's brain. The wasp clips the antennae with its mandibles and drinks some hemolymph before dragging the prey to a burrow, where an egg is laid on it. The wasp larva feeds on the subdued living cockroach.[72]

Cockroaches can be trapped in a deep, smooth-walled jar baited with food inside, placed so that cockroaches can reach the opening, for example with a ramp of card or twigs on the outside. An inch or so of water or stale beer (by itself a cockroach attractant) in the jar can be used to drown any insects thus captured. The method works well with the American cockroach, but less so with the German cockroach.[73]

See also: Entomophagy

Although considered disgusting in Western culture, cockroaches are eaten in many places around the world.[74][75] Whereas household pest cockroaches may carry bacteria and viruses, cockroaches bred under laboratory conditions can be used to prepare nutritious food.[76] Common household cockroaches can be decontaminated by being isolated and fed a diet of apple and lettuce.[74]

In Mexico and Thailand, the heads and legs are removed, and the remainder may be boiled, sauted, grilled, dried or diced.[74]

In China, cockroaches have become popular as medicine and cockroach farming is rising. The cockroaches are fried twice in a wok of hot oil, which makes them crispy with soft innards that are like cottage cheese.[77][78] Fried cockroaches are ground and sold as pills for stomach, heart and liver diseases.[79]

A cockroach recipe from Formosa (Taiwan) specifies salting and frying cockroaches after removing the head and entrails.[80]

In 1905, Henri Coupin wrote a French book Les bizarreries des races humaines, which mentions a cockroach paste recipe used by the English and the Irish people. After being simmered in vinegar and dried in the sun, the cockroaches' heads and intestines are removed, and they are boiled with butter, salt and pepper, made into a paste, and spread on bread. But there is no other evidence of this recipe. The only confirmed edible use of cockroaches by the British is the use of Periplaneta americana feces in homeopathic medicine.[80]

According to International Union of Crystallography journal, the "milk" produced by the Pacific beetle cockroach (Diploptera punctata) is one of the most nutritious foods on earth.[81]

See also: Depopulation of cockroaches in post-Soviet states

While a small minority of cockroaches are associated with human habitats and viewed as repugnant by many people, a few species are of conservation concern. The Lord Howe Island wood-feeding cockroach (Panesthia lata) is listed as endangered by the New South Wales Scientific Committee, but the cockroach may be extinct on Lord Howe Island itself. The introduction of rats, the spread of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) and fires are possible reasons for their scarcity.[82] Two species are currently listed as endangered and critically endangered by the IUCN Red List, Delosia ornata and Nocticola gerlachi.[83][84] Both cockroaches have a restricted distribution and are threatened by habitat loss and rising sea levels. Only 600 Delosia ornata adults and 300 nymphs are known to exist, and these are threatened by a hotel development. No action has been taken to save the two cockroach species, but protecting their natural habitats may prevent their extinction. In the former Soviet Union, cockroach populations have been declining at an alarming rate; this may be exaggerated, or the phenomenon may be temporary or cyclic.[85]

Main article: Cockroaches in popular culture Madagascar hissing cockroaches kept as pets

Cockroaches were known and considered repellent but useful in medicines in Classical times. An insect named in Greek "σίλφη" ("Silphe") has been identified with the cockroach. It is mentioned by Aristotle, saying that it sheds its skin; it is described as foul-smelling in Aristophanes' play Peace; Euenus called it a pest of book collections, being "page-eating, destructive, black-bodied" in his Analect. Virgil named the cockroach "Lucifuga" ("one that avoids light"). Pliny the Elder recorded the use of "Blatta" in various medicines; he describes the insect as disgusting, and as seeking out dark corners to avoid the light.[86][87]Dioscorides recorded the use of the "Silphe", ground up with oil, as a remedy for earache.[87]

Lafcadio Hearn (1850–1904) asserted that "For tetanus cockroach tea is given. I do not know how many cockroaches go to make up the cup; but I find that faith in this remedy is strong among many of the American population of New Orleans. A poultice of boiled cockroaches is placed over the wound." He adds that cockroaches are eaten, fried with garlic, for indigestion.[88]

Several cockroach species, such as Blaptica dubia, are raised as food for insectivorous pets.[89] A few cockroach species are raised as pets, most commonly the giant Madagascar hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa.[90] Whilst the hissing cockroaches may be the most commonly kept species, there are many species that are kept by cockroach enthusiasts; there is even a specialist society: the Blattodea Culture Group (BCG), which was a thriving organisation for about 15 years although now appears to be dormant.[91] The BCG provided a source of literature for people interested in rearing cockroaches which was otherwise limited to either scientific papers, or general insect books, or books covering a variety of exotic pets; in the absence of an inclusive book one member published Introduction to Rearing Cockroaches which still appears to be the only book dedicated to rearing cockroaches.[92]

Cockroaches have been used for space tests. A cockroach given the name Nadezhda was sent into space by Russian scientists during Foton-M test, becoming the first terrestrial animal to "give birth" in space.[93]

Because of their long association with humans, cockroaches are frequently referred to in popular culture. In Western culture, cockroaches are often depicted as dirty pests.[94][95] In a 1750–1752 journal, Peter Osbeck noted that cockroaches were frequently seen and found their way to the bakeries, after the sailing ship Gothenburg ran aground and was destroyed by rocks.[96]

Donald Harington's satirical novel The Cockroaches of Stay More (Harcourt, 1989) imagines a community of "roosterroaches" in a mythical Ozark town where the insects are named after their human counterparts. Madonna has famously quoted, "I am a survivor. I am like a cockroach, you just can't get rid of me."[97] An urban legend maintains that cockroaches are immortal.[98]

Cockroach Infestation

Natural Home Remedies For Controlling Pest Insects & Bugs

Exterminator may refer to:

Bodfish

Physical pest control


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Lake Isabella Bed Bug Pesticide

Pest control in Lake Isabella for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Pest Inspection

Lake Isabella Pest Control For Rodents

Rats and mice have earned a reputation for being among the worst scavengers within our society for good reason. They are capable of feeding on nearly anything left over from people and their waste introduces disease to other species, including humans, throughout the world. They reproduce quickly and can live within a large variety of environments, and often they are intelligent enough to avoid contact with people even when living within their homes or offices. In the wild mice and rats fall prey to a number of species including birds (particularly hawks and eagles), snakes, spiders, and all sorts of wild and domesticated cats and dogs. The solidarity and lack of predators within our buildings allows this species ample time to nurse their young, locate suitable food sources, and spread whatever infectious disease they happen to be carrying.

If rats or mice are present within the home it is often difficult to eradicate them. Baits and pesticides sometimes prove successful, but because of these species eating habits it is unlikely to destroy the entire pack using this method. Often a professional is required; they will distribute bait traps around your home containing favorite foods such as peanut butter or cheese. These traps will either kill the rodent or prevent its escape, effectively solving the problem either way.

Pest Control Quotes

Pest Control - Philippians 1:15-18

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--CEDAR OILVISIT IS MADE IN YOUR.

--CEDAR OILVISIT IS MADE IN THE YOUR.

--CEDAR OILVISIT IS MADE IN THE VIS VISIT IS MADE IN THE VIS VISIT IS MADE IN THE VISUSA, VISIT IS MADE IN THE VISUSA, THE VISIT IS MADE IN THE VISUSA, THE CEDAR VISIT IS MADE IN THE VISUSA, THE CEDAR OIL VISIT IS MADE IN THE VISUSA, THE CEDAR OIL COMES USA, THE CEDAR OIL COMES USA, THE CEDAR OIL COMESFROM USA, THE CEDAR OIL COMESFROM TEXAS, USA, THE CEDAR OIL COMESFROM TEXAS, THIS USA, THE CEDAR OIL COMESFROM TEXAS, THIS IS USA, THE CEDAR OIL COMESFROM TEXAS, THIS IS A FROM TEXAS, THIS IS A FROM TEXAS, THIS IS AFAMILY FROM TEXAS, THIS IS AFAMILY OWNED FROM TEXAS, THIS IS AFAMILY OWNED BUSINESS FAMILY OWNED BUSINESS FAMILY OWNED BUSINESSRIGHT FAMILY OWNED BUSINESSRIGHT HERE, FAMILY OWNED BUSINESSRIGHT HERE, AND FAMILY OWNED BUSINESSRIGHT HERE, AND THE FAMILY OWNED BUSINESSRIGHT HERE, AND THE NEAT RIGHT HERE, AND THE NEAT RIGHT HERE, AND THE NEATTHING RIGHT HERE, AND THE NEATTHING ABOUT RIGHT HERE, AND THE NEATTHING ABOUT THIS RIGHT HERE, AND THE NEATTHING ABOUT THIS IS THING ABOUT THIS IS THING ABOUT THIS ISALL-NATURAL.

THING ABOUT THIS ISALL-NATURAL.

IT THING ABOUT THIS ISALL-NATURAL.

IT IS THING ABOUT THIS ISALL-NATURAL.

IT IS USDA ALL-NATURAL.

IT IS USDA ALL-NATURAL.

IT IS USDACERTIFIED, ALL-NATURAL.

IT IS USDACERTIFIED, THIS ALL-NATURAL.

IT IS USDACERTIFIED, THIS IS ALL-NATURAL.

IT IS USDACERTIFIED, THIS IS A CERTIFIED, THIS IS A CERTIFIED, THIS IS ABIOBASED CERTIFIED, THIS IS ABIOBASED PRODUCT CERTIFIED, THIS IS ABIOBASED PRODUCT THAT BIOBASED PRODUCT THAT BIOBASED PRODUCT THATNEEDS BIOBASED PRODUCT THATNEEDS IT BIOBASED PRODUCT THATNEEDS IT IS BIOBASED PRODUCT THATNEEDS IT IS SAFE BIOBASED PRODUCT THATNEEDS IT IS SAFE FOR BIOBASED PRODUCT THATNEEDS IT IS SAFE FOR NEE NEEDS IT IS SAFE FOR NEE NEEDS IT IS SAFE FOR NEEYOU, NEEDS IT IS SAFE FOR NEEYOU, IT NEEDS IT IS SAFE FOR NEEYOU, IT IS NEEDS IT IS SAFE FOR NEEYOU, IT IS SAFE NEEDS IT IS SAFE FOR NEEYOU, IT IS SAFE FOR NEEDS IT IS SAFE FOR NEEYOU, IT IS SAFE FOR YOUR YOU, IT IS SAFE FOR YOUR YOU, IT IS SAFE FOR YOURFAMILY, YOU, IT IS SAFE FOR YOURFAMILY, YOUR YOU, IT IS SAFE FOR YOURFAMILY, YOUR PETS, FAMILY, YOUR PETS, FAMILY, YOUR PETS,EVERYTHING.

FAMILY, YOUR PETS,EVERYTHING.

IT FAMILY, YOUR PETS,EVERYTHING.

IT IS EVERYTHING.

IT IS EVERYTHING.

IT ISBASICALLY EVERYTHING.

IT ISBASICALLY TAKING EVERYTHING.

IT ISBASICALLY TAKING WITH EVERYTHING.

IT ISBASICALLY TAKING WITH BA BASICALLY TAKING WITH BA BASICALLY TAKING WITH BATHE BASICALLY TAKING WITH BATHE BOMBS, BASICALLY TAKING WITH BATHE BOMBS, THE BASICALLY TAKING WITH BATHE BOMBS, THE SPRAYS, THE BOMBS, THE SPRAYS, THE BOMBS, THE SPRAYS,THE THE BOMBS, THE SPRAYS,THE PERSONAL THE BOMBS, THE SPRAYS,THE PERSONAL SPRAYS, THE BOMBS, THE SPRAYS,THE PERSONAL SPRAYS, THE THE PERSONAL SPRAYS, THE THE PERSONAL SPRAYS, THEPET THE PERSONAL SPRAYS, THEPET PHRASE, THE PERSONAL SPRAYS, THEPET PHRASE, EVERYTHING! PET PHRASE, EVERYTHING! PET PHRASE, EVERYTHING!>>HOST: PET PHRASE, EVERYTHING!>>HOST: THERE'S PET PHRASE, EVERYTHING!>>HOST: THERE'S ALWAYS >>HOST: THERE'S ALWAYS >>HOST: THERE'S ALWAYSA >>HOST: THERE'S ALWAYSA BIT >>HOST: THERE'S ALWAYSA BIT WITH >>HOST: THERE'S ALWAYSA BIT WITH A >>HOST: THERE'S ALWAYSA BIT WITH A NATURAL A BIT WITH A NATURAL A BIT WITH A NATURALPRODUCT, A BIT WITH A NATURALPRODUCT, NUMBER A BIT WITH A NATURALPRODUCT, NUMBER ONE A BIT WITH A NATURALPRODUCT, NUMBER ONE DO PRODUCT, NUMBER ONE DO PRODUCT, NUMBER ONE DOTHEY PRODUCT, NUMBER ONE DOTHEY ACTUALLY PRODUCT, NUMBER ONE DOTHEY ACTUALLY WORK PRODUCT, NUMBER ONE DOTHEY ACTUALLY WORK WE THEY ACTUALLY WORK WE THEY ACTUALLY WORK WEHAVE THEY ACTUALLY WORK WEHAVE SOLD THEY ACTUALLY WORK WEHAVE SOLD LITERALLY HAVE SOLD LITERALLY HAVE SOLD LITERALLYACTING HAVE SOLD LITERALLYACTING LIKE HAVE SOLD LITERALLYACTING LIKE 100,000 ACTING LIKE 100,000 ACTING LIKE 100,000BOTTLES ACTING LIKE 100,000BOTTLES HERE ACTING LIKE 100,000BOTTLES HERE AT ACTING LIKE 100,000BOTTLES HERE AT HSN ACTING LIKE 100,000BOTTLES HERE AT HSN AND BOTTLES HERE AT HSN AND BOTTLES HERE AT HSN ANDIT BOTTLES HERE AT HSN ANDIT ALWAYS BOTTLES HERE AT HSN ANDIT ALWAYS COMES BOTTLES HERE AT HSN ANDIT ALWAYS COMES IN BOTTLES HERE AT HSN ANDIT ALWAYS COMES IN WITH IT ALWAYS COMES IN WITH IT ALWAYS COMES IN WITHRAVE IT ALWAYS COMES IN WITHRAVE REVIEWS IT ALWAYS COMES IN WITHRAVE REVIEWS COUSIN IT ALWAYS COMES IN WITHRAVE REVIEWS COUSIN HAS RAVE REVIEWS COUSIN HAS RAVE REVIEWS COUSIN HASWORKED RAVE REVIEWS COUSIN HASWORKED FOR RAVE REVIEWS COUSIN HASWORKED FOR PEOPLE.

RAVE REVIEWS COUSIN HASWORKED FOR PEOPLE.

AND WORKED FOR PEOPLE.

AND WORKED FOR PEOPLE.

ANDNUMBER WORKED FOR PEOPLE.

ANDNUMBER TWO, WORKED FOR PEOPLE.

ANDNUMBER TWO, A WORKED FOR PEOPLE.

ANDNUMBER TWO, A NATURAL NUMBER TWO, A NATURAL NUMBER TWO, A NATURALPRODUCT NUMBER TWO, A NATURALPRODUCT IS NUMBER TWO, A NATURALPRODUCT IS MORE NUMBER TWO, A NATURALPRODUCT IS MORE PRODUCT PRODUCT IS MORE PRODUCT PRODUCT IS MORE PRODUCTEXPENSIVE PRODUCT IS MORE PRODUCTEXPENSIVE THAN PRODUCT IS MORE PRODUCTEXPENSIVE THAN WHAT PRODUCT IS MORE PRODUCTEXPENSIVE THAN WHAT YOU EXPENSIVE THAN WHAT YOU EXPENSIVE THAN WHAT YOUTHINK EXPENSIVE THAN WHAT YOUTHINK ABOUT EXPENSIVE THAN WHAT YOUTHINK ABOUT THIS.

--CAUSE THINK ABOUT THIS.

--CAUSE THINK ABOUT THIS.

--CAUSEIT IT ITYOU ITYOU CAN ITYOU CAN FILL ITYOU CAN FILL EACH ITYOU CAN FILL EACH YOU ITYOU CAN FILL EACH YOU CA YOU CAN FILL EACH YOU CA YOU CAN FILL EACH YOU CABOTTLES YOU CAN FILL EACH YOU CABOTTLES WITH YOU CAN FILL EACH YOU CABOTTLES WITH THIS YOU CAN FILL EACH YOU CABOTTLES WITH THIS BOTTLE BOTTLES WITH THIS BOTTLE BOTTLES WITH THIS BOTTLEMASSIVE BOTTLES WITH THIS BOTTLEMASSIVE SPRAY BOTTLES WITH THIS BOTTLEMASSIVE SPRAY BOTTLE BOTTLES WITH THIS BOTTLEMASSIVE SPRAY BOTTLE MAS MASSIVE SPRAY BOTTLE MAS MASSIVE SPRAY BOTTLE MASTHAT MASSIVE SPRAY BOTTLE MASTHAT YOU MASSIVE SPRAY BOTTLE MASTHAT YOU ARE MASSIVE SPRAY BOTTLE MASTHAT YOU ARE GETTING THAT YOU ARE GETTING THAT YOU ARE GETTINGTODAY, THAT YOU ARE GETTINGTODAY, 8! THAT YOU ARE GETTINGTODAY, 8! 30 THAT YOU ARE GETTINGTODAY, 8! 30 DIVIDED THAT YOU ARE GETTINGTODAY, 8! 30 DIVIDED BY TODAY, 8! 30 DIVIDED BY TODAY, 8! 30 DIVIDED BYEIGHT, TODAY, 8! 30 DIVIDED BYEIGHT, VERSUS TODAY, 8! 30 DIVIDED BYEIGHT, VERSUS THE EIGHT, VERSUS THE EIGHT, VERSUS THEAEROSOLS EIGHT, VERSUS THEAEROSOLS YOU EIGHT, VERSUS THEAEROSOLS YOU BUY EIGHT, VERSUS THEAEROSOLS YOU BUY IN EIGHT, VERSUS THEAEROSOLS YOU BUY IN THE AEROSOLS YOU BUY IN THE AEROSOLS YOU BUY IN THEGROCERY AEROSOLS YOU BUY IN THEGROCERY STORE AEROSOLS YOU BUY IN THEGROCERY STORE THAT AEROSOLS YOU BUY IN THEGROCERY STORE THAT GOES GROCERY STORE THAT GOES GROCERY STORE THAT GOESIN GROCERY STORE THAT GOESIN THE GROCERY STORE THAT GOESIN THE COURSE GROCERY STORE THAT GOESIN THE COURSE OF GROCERY STORE THAT GOESIN THE COURSE OF A IN THE COURSE OF A IN THE COURSE OF AWEEKEND.

IN THE COURSE OF AWEEKEND.

NOW IN THE COURSE OF AWEEKEND.

NOW IS IN THE COURSE OF AWEEKEND.

NOW IS A WEEKEND.

NOW IS A WEEKEND.

NOW IS ADEFECTIVE? WEEKEND.

NOW IS ADEFECTIVE? YOU WEEKEND.

NOW IS ADEFECTIVE? YOU BET WEEKEND.

NOW IS ADEFECTIVE? YOU BET YOU DEFECTIVE? YOU BET YOU DEFECTIVE? YOU BET YOUOR DEFECTIVE? YOU BET YOUOR WE DEFECTIVE? YOU BET YOUOR WE WOULD DEFECTIVE? YOU BET YOUOR WE WOULD NOT DEFECTIVE? YOU BET YOUOR WE WOULD NOT OFFER DEFECTIVE? YOU BET YOUOR WE WOULD NOT OFFER IT OR WE WOULD NOT OFFER IT OR WE WOULD NOT OFFER ITHERE OR WE WOULD NOT OFFER ITHERE AT OR WE WOULD NOT OFFER ITHERE AT HSN.

OR WE WOULD NOT OFFER ITHERE AT HSN.

IS OR WE WOULD NOT OFFER ITHERE AT HSN.

IS IT OR WE WOULD NOT OFFER ITHERE AT HSN.

IS IT MORE HERE AT HSN.

IS IT MORE HERE AT HSN.

IS IT MOREEXPENSIVE? HERE AT HSN.

IS IT MOREEXPENSIVE? NO.

HERE AT HSN.

IS IT MOREEXPENSIVE? NO.

IT HERE AT HSN.

IS IT MOREEXPENSIVE? NO.

IT IS EXPENSIVE? NO.

IT IS EXPENSIVE? NO.

IT ISACTUALLY EXPENSIVE? NO.

IT ISACTUALLY LESS EXPENSIVE? NO.

IT ISACTUALLY LESS EXPENSIVE ACTUALLY LESS EXPENSIVE ACTUALLY LESS EXPENSIVEAND ACTUALLY LESS EXPENSIVEAND WITH ACTUALLY LESS EXPENSIVEAND WITH THE ACTUALLY LESS EXPENSIVEAND WITH THE SPONGES ACTUALLY LESS EXPENSIVEAND WITH THE SPONGES AND AND WITH THE SPONGES AND AND WITH THE SPONGES ANDTHE AND WITH THE SPONGES ANDTHE TRAVEL AND WITH THE SPONGES ANDTHE TRAVEL BOTTLE, AND WITH THE SPONGES ANDTHE TRAVEL BOTTLE, AND THE TRAVEL BOTTLE, AND THE TRAVEL BOTTLE, ANDTHE THE TRAVEL BOTTLE, ANDTHE FULL THE TRAVEL BOTTLE, ANDTHE FULL BOTTLE THE TRAVEL BOTTLE, ANDTHE FULL BOTTLE WE THE TRAVEL BOTTLE, ANDTHE FULL BOTTLE WE OFFER THE FULL BOTTLE WE OFFER THE FULL BOTTLE WE OFFERYOU THE FULL BOTTLE WE OFFERYOU TODAY, THE FULL BOTTLE WE OFFERYOU TODAY, IT THE FULL BOTTLE WE OFFERYOU TODAY, IT IS THE FULL BOTTLE WE OFFERYOU TODAY, IT IS A YOU TODAY, IT IS A YOU TODAY, IT IS ANO-BRAINER.

YOU TODAY, IT IS ANO-BRAINER.

YOU YOU TODAY, IT IS ANO-BRAINER.

YOU KNOW, NO-BRAINER.

YOU KNOW, NO-BRAINER.

YOU KNOW,MY NO-BRAINER.

YOU KNOW,MY DAUGHTER NO-BRAINER.

YOU KNOW,MY DAUGHTER GOT NO-BRAINER.

YOU KNOW,MY DAUGHTER GOT EATEN NO-BRAINER.

YOU KNOW,MY DAUGHTER GOT EATEN UP MY DAUGHTER GOT EATEN UP MY DAUGHTER GOT EATEN UPLAST MY DAUGHTER GOT EATEN UPLAST WEEKEND, MY DAUGHTER GOT EATEN UPLAST WEEKEND, POOR MY DAUGHTER GOT EATEN UPLAST WEEKEND, POOR GIRL LAST WEEKEND, POOR GIRL LAST WEEKEND, POOR GIRLSHE LAST WEEKEND, POOR GIRLSHE IS LAST WEEKEND, POOR GIRLSHE IS SCRATCHING SHE IS SCRATCHING SHE IS SCRATCHINGHERSELF SHE IS SCRATCHINGHERSELF CRAZY SHE IS SCRATCHINGHERSELF CRAZY BUT SHE IS SCRATCHINGHERSELF CRAZY BUT I'M SHE IS SCRATCHINGHERSELF CRAZY BUT I'M HE HERSELF CRAZY BUT I'M HE HERSELF CRAZY BUT I'M HENOT HERSELF CRAZY BUT I'M HENOT WITH HERSELF CRAZY BUT I'M HENOT WITH THE HERSELF CRAZY BUT I'M HENOT WITH THE CHEMICALS HERSELF CRAZY BUT I'M HENOT WITH THE CHEMICALS N NOT WITH THE CHEMICALS N NOT WITH THE CHEMICALS NON NOT WITH THE CHEMICALS NON HER.

NOT WITH THE CHEMICALS NON HER.

FOR NOT WITH THE CHEMICALS NON HER.

FOR YOUNG NOT WITH THE CHEMICALS NON HER.

FOR YOUNG ON NOT WITH THE CHEMICALS NON HER.

FOR YOUNG ON H ON HER.

FOR YOUNG ON H ON HER.

FOR YOUNG ON HKIDS, ON HER.

FOR YOUNG ON HKIDS, POOR ON HER.

FOR YOUNG ON HKIDS, POOR THRESHOLD ON HER.

FOR YOUNG ON HKIDS, POOR THRESHOLD ON KIDS, POOR THRESHOLD ON KIDS, POOR THRESHOLD ONYOUR KIDS, POOR THRESHOLD ONYOUR HOUSE, KIDS, POOR THRESHOLD ONYOUR HOUSE, FOR KIDS, POOR THRESHOLD ONYOUR HOUSE, FOR SPRAYING YOUR HOUSE, FOR SPRAYING YOUR HOUSE, FOR SPRAYINGYOUR YOUR HOUSE, FOR SPRAYINGYOUR SUITCASES YOUR HOUSE, FOR SPRAYINGYOUR SUITCASES BEFORE YOUR HOUSE, FOR SPRAYINGYOUR SUITCASES BEFORE YO YOUR SUITCASES BEFORE YO YOUR SUITCASES BEFORE YOYOU YOUR SUITCASES BEFORE YOYOU GO YOUR SUITCASES BEFORE YOYOU GO CAMPING YOUR SUITCASES BEFORE YOYOU GO CAMPING , YOUR SUITCASES BEFORE YOYOU GO CAMPING , CAN YOU GO CAMPING , CAN YOU GO CAMPING , CANAPPLY YOU GO CAMPING , CANAPPLY IT YOU GO CAMPING , CANAPPLY IT ABSOLUTELY APPLY IT ABSOLUTELY APPLY IT ABSOLUTELYEVERYWHERE.

APPLY IT ABSOLUTELYEVERYWHERE.

WHETHER APPLY IT ABSOLUTELYEVERYWHERE.

WHETHER IT EVERYWHERE.

WHETHER IT EVERYWHERE.

WHETHER ITIS EVERYWHERE.

WHETHER ITIS DIRECTLY EVERYWHERE.

WHETHER ITIS DIRECTLY TO EVERYWHERE.

WHETHER ITIS DIRECTLY TO SKIN EVERYWHERE.

WHETHER ITIS DIRECTLY TO SKIN OR IS DIRECTLY TO SKIN OR IS DIRECTLY TO SKIN ORTWO IS DIRECTLY TO SKIN ORTWO SERVICES IS DIRECTLY TO SKIN ORTWO SERVICES IT IS DIRECTLY TO SKIN ORTWO SERVICES IT WORKS, IS DIRECTLY TO SKIN ORTWO SERVICES IT WORKS, T TWO SERVICES IT WORKS, T TWO SERVICES IT WORKS, TIT TWO SERVICES IT WORKS, TIT WORKS, TWO SERVICES IT WORKS, TIT WORKS, IT TWO SERVICES IT WORKS, TIT WORKS, IT WORKS TWO SERVICES IT WORKS, TIT WORKS, IT WORKS AND IT WORKS, IT WORKS AND IT WORKS, IT WORKS ANDTHIS IT WORKS, IT WORKS ANDTHIS IS IT WORKS, IT WORKS ANDTHIS IS YOUR IT WORKS, IT WORKS ANDTHIS IS YOUR ONLY IT WORKS, IT WORKS ANDTHIS IS YOUR ONLY CHANCE THIS IS YOUR ONLY CHANCE THIS IS YOUR ONLY CHANCETO THIS IS YOUR ONLY CHANCETO SHOP THIS IS YOUR ONLY CHANCETO SHOP FOR THIS IS YOUR ONLY CHANCETO SHOP FOR TODAY.

THIS IS YOUR ONLY CHANCETO SHOP FOR TODAY.

IT THIS IS YOUR ONLY CHANCETO SHOP FOR TODAY.

IT IS TO SHOP FOR TODAY.

IT IS TO SHOP FOR TODAY.

IT ISTHE TO SHOP FOR TODAY.

IT ISTHE FIRST TO SHOP FOR TODAY.

IT ISTHE FIRST TIME TO SHOP FOR TODAY.

IT ISTHE FIRST TIME WE'VE TO SHOP FOR TODAY.

IT ISTHE FIRST TIME WE'VE HAD THE FIRST TIME WE'VE HAD THE FIRST TIME WE'VE HADA THE FIRST TIME WE'VE HADA HORRIBLE THE FIRST TIME WE'VE HADA HORRIBLE PRICE THE FIRST TIME WE'VE HADA HORRIBLE PRICE TO A HORRIBLE PRICE TO A HORRIBLE PRICE TOGALLON A HORRIBLE PRICE TOGALLON OFFER A HORRIBLE PRICE TOGALLON OFFER IN-STORE, A HORRIBLE PRICE TOGALLON OFFER IN-STORE, G GALLON OFFER IN-STORE, G GALLON OFFER IN-STORE, GON GALLON OFFER IN-STORE, GON FLEX.

GALLON OFFER IN-STORE, GON FLEX.

200 GALLON OFFER IN-STORE, GON FLEX.

200 ORDERED, ON FLEX.

200 ORDERED, ON FLEX.

200 ORDERED,ONLY ON FLEX.

200 ORDERED,ONLY 200 ON FLEX.

200 ORDERED,ONLY 200 TO ON FLEX.

200 ORDERED,ONLY 200 TO SHOP ON FLEX.

200 ORDERED,ONLY 200 TO SHOP FOR.

ON FLEX.

200 ORDERED,ONLY 200 TO SHOP FOR.

F ONLY 200 TO SHOP FOR.

F ONLY 200 TO SHOP FOR.

FYOU ONLY 200 TO SHOP FOR.

FYOU HAVE ONLY 200 TO SHOP FOR.

FYOU HAVE DOG ONLY 200 TO SHOP FOR.

FYOU HAVE DOG BITE, ONLY 200 TO SHOP FOR.

FYOU HAVE DOG BITE, YOU YOU HAVE DOG BITE, YOU YOU HAVE DOG BITE, YOUNEED YOU HAVE DOG BITE, YOUNEED THIS, YOU HAVE DOG BITE, YOUNEED THIS, IF YOU HAVE DOG BITE, YOUNEED THIS, IF YOU YOU HAVE DOG BITE, YOUNEED THIS, IF YOU HAVE NEED THIS, IF YOU HAVE NEED THIS, IF YOU HAVEDOGS NEED THIS, IF YOU HAVEDOGS AND NEED THIS, IF YOU HAVEDOGS AND CATS NEED THIS, IF YOU HAVEDOGS AND CATS IN NEED THIS, IF YOU HAVEDOGS AND CATS IN YOUR DOGS AND CATS IN YOUR DOGS AND CATS IN YOURBRIGHT DOGS AND CATS IN YOURBRIGHT CALLERS DOGS AND CATS IN YOURBRIGHT CALLERS AND BRIGHT CALLERS AND BRIGHT CALLERS ANDCHEMICALS, BRIGHT CALLERS ANDCHEMICALS, TRY BRIGHT CALLERS ANDCHEMICALS, TRY THIS BRIGHT CALLERS ANDCHEMICALS, TRY THIS IS CHEMICALS, TRY THIS IS CHEMICALS, TRY THIS ISJUST CHEMICALS, TRY THIS ISJUST SO CHEMICALS, TRY THIS ISJUST SO MUCH CHEMICALS, TRY THIS ISJUST SO MUCH BETTER.

JUST SO MUCH BETTER.

JUST SO MUCH BETTER.

--COLLARS --COLLARS --COLLARS>>GUEST: --COLLARS>>GUEST: BUT --COLLARS>>GUEST: BUT TALK --COLLARS>>GUEST: BUT TALK ABOUT >>GUEST: BUT TALK ABOUT >>GUEST: BUT TALK ABOUTHOW >>GUEST: BUT TALK ABOUTHOW BUGS >>GUEST: BUT TALK ABOUTHOW BUGS GET >>GUEST: BUT TALK ABOUTHOW BUGS GET IN, >>GUEST: BUT TALK ABOUTHOW BUGS GET IN, DIG >>GUEST: BUT TALK ABOUTHOW BUGS GET IN, DIG IN HOW BUGS GET IN, DIG IN HOW BUGS GET IN, DIG INTHE HOW BUGS GET IN, DIG INTHE SAME HOW BUGS GET IN, DIG INTHE SAME WAY HOW BUGS GET IN, DIG INTHE SAME WAY THAT HOW BUGS GET IN, DIG INTHE SAME WAY THAT WE HOW BUGS GET IN, DIG INTHE SAME WAY THAT WE DO.

THE SAME WAY THAT WE DO.

THE SAME WAY THAT WE DO.

DO THE SAME WAY THAT WE DO.

DO THIS, THE SAME WAY THAT WE DO.

DO THIS, MAKE THE SAME WAY THAT WE DO.

DO THIS, MAKE SURE THE SAME WAY THAT WE DO.

DO THIS, MAKE SURE YOU DO THIS, MAKE SURE YOU DO THIS, MAKE SURE YOUTAKE DO THIS, MAKE SURE YOUTAKE YOUR DO THIS, MAKE SURE YOUTAKE YOUR SPONGE DO THIS, MAKE SURE YOUTAKE YOUR SPONGE ANY TAKE YOUR SPONGE ANY TAKE YOUR SPONGE ANYSPRAY TAKE YOUR SPONGE ANYSPRAY ON TAKE YOUR SPONGE ANYSPRAY ON YOUR TAKE YOUR SPONGE ANYSPRAY ON YOUR SPOT SPRAY ON YOUR SPOT SPRAY ON YOUR SPOTOTHERWISE SPRAY ON YOUR SPOTOTHERWISE RECORDED SPRAY ON YOUR SPOTOTHERWISE RECORDED USING OTHERWISE RECORDED USING OTHERWISE RECORDED USINGONE OTHERWISE RECORDED USINGONE OF OTHERWISE RECORDED USINGONE OF PRODUCT.

OTHERWISE RECORDED USINGONE OF PRODUCT.

WHEN ONE OF PRODUCT.

WHEN ONE OF PRODUCT.

WHENYOU ONE OF PRODUCT.

WHENYOU DO ONE OF PRODUCT.

WHENYOU DO THIS, ONE OF PRODUCT.

WHENYOU DO THIS, USE ONE OF PRODUCT.

WHENYOU DO THIS, USE THE YOU DO THIS, USE THE YOU DO THIS, USE THECONCENTRATE YOU DO THIS, USE THECONCENTRATE ON YOU DO THIS, USE THECONCENTRATE.

YOU DO THIS, USE THECONCENTRATE.

SO YOU DO THIS, USE THECONCENTRATE.

SO THE CONCENTRATE.

SO THE CONCENTRATE.

SO THELITTLE CONCENTRATE.

SO THELITTLE ABC CONCENTRATE.

SO THELITTLE ABC NO CONCENTRATE.

SO THELITTLE ABC NO CM'S CONCENTRATE.

SO THELITTLE ABC NO CM'S CAN LITTLE ABC NO CM'S CAN LITTLE ABC NO CM'S CANGET LITTLE ABC NO CM'S CANGET IN.

LITTLE ABC NO CM'S CANGET IN.

-- LITTLE ABC NO CM'S CANGET IN.

-- YOU LITTLE ABC NO CM'S CANGET IN.

-- YOU ARE LITTLE ABC NO CM'S CANGET IN.

-- YOU ARE GET GET IN.

-- YOU ARE GET GET IN.

-- YOU ARE GETGOING GET IN.

-- YOU ARE GETGOING TO GET IN.

-- YOU ARE GETGOING TO BE GET IN.

-- YOU ARE GETGOING TO BE EVERYTHING GOING TO BE EVERYTHING GOING TO BE EVERYTHINGAROUND GOING TO BE EVERYTHINGAROUND THE GOING TO BE EVERYTHINGAROUND THE BASEBOARDS, AROUND THE BASEBOARDS, AROUND THE BASEBOARDS,THE AROUND THE BASEBOARDS,THE THINGS AROUND THE BASEBOARDS,THE THINGS YOU AROUND THE BASEBOARDS,THE THINGS YOU WANT AROUND THE BASEBOARDS,THE THINGS YOU WANT TO THE THINGS YOU WANT TO THE THINGS YOU WANT TOKNOW THE THINGS YOU WANT TOKNOW IS THE THINGS YOU WANT TOKNOW IS THAT THE THINGS YOU WANT TOKNOW IS THAT YOU THE THINGS YOU WANT TOKNOW IS THAT YOU CAN THE THINGS YOU WANT TOKNOW IS THAT YOU CAN GO KNOW IS THAT YOU CAN GO KNOW IS THAT YOU CAN GOBAREFOOT KNOW IS THAT YOU CAN GOBAREFOOT ON KNOW IS THAT YOU CAN GOBAREFOOT ON HERE, KNOW IS THAT YOU CAN GOBAREFOOT ON HERE, YOUR BAREFOOT ON HERE, YOUR BAREFOOT ON HERE, YOURKIDS BAREFOOT ON HERE, YOURKIDS CAN BAREFOOT ON HERE, YOURKIDS CAN CRAWL BAREFOOT ON HERE, YOURKIDS CAN CRAWL AROUND, KIDS CAN CRAWL AROUND, KIDS CAN CRAWL AROUND,YOUR KIDS CAN CRAWL AROUND,YOUR ANIMALS KIDS CAN CRAWL AROUND,YOUR ANIMALS CAN.

YOUR ANIMALS CAN.

YOUR ANIMALS CAN.

--NO YOUR ANIMALS CAN.

--NO SEE-UM'S --NO SEE-UM'S --NO SEE-UM'SAND --NO SEE-UM'SAND YOU --NO SEE-UM'SAND YOU ALSO --NO SEE-UM'SAND YOU ALSO WANT --NO SEE-UM'SAND YOU ALSO WANT TO --NO SEE-UM'SAND YOU ALSO WANT TO AND AND YOU ALSO WANT TO AND AND YOU ALSO WANT TO ANDMAKE AND YOU ALSO WANT TO ANDMAKE SURE AND YOU ALSO WANT TO ANDMAKE SURE YOU AND YOU ALSO WANT TO ANDMAKE SURE YOU SPRAY AND YOU ALSO WANT TO ANDMAKE SURE YOU SPRAY THE MAKE SURE YOU SPRAY THE MAKE SURE YOU SPRAY THEINSIDE MAKE SURE YOU SPRAY THEINSIDE OF MAKE SURE YOU SPRAY THEINSIDE OF YOUR MAKE SURE YOU SPRAY THEINSIDE OF YOUR DRAWERS, INSIDE OF YOUR DRAWERS, INSIDE OF YOUR DRAWERS,NOW INSIDE OF YOUR DRAWERS,NOW YOU INSIDE OF YOUR DRAWERS,NOW YOU SAID INSIDE OF YOUR DRAWERS,NOW YOU SAID THAT, NOW YOU SAID THAT, NOW YOU SAID THAT,WHETHER NOW YOU SAID THAT,WHETHER IT'S NOW YOU SAID THAT,WHETHER IT'S YOUR NOW YOU SAID THAT,WHETHER IT'S YOUR WHETHE WHETHER IT'S YOUR WHETHE WHETHER IT'S YOUR WHETHEUTENSIL WHETHER IT'S YOUR WHETHEUTENSIL DRAWER WHETHER IT'S YOUR WHETHEUTENSIL DRAWER IN WHETHER IT'S YOUR WHETHEUTENSIL DRAWER IN YOUR UTENSIL DRAWER IN YOUR UTENSIL DRAWER IN YOURKITCHEN, UTENSIL DRAWER IN YOURKITCHEN, OR UTENSIL DRAWER IN YOURKITCHEN, OR IT UTENSIL DRAWER IN YOURKITCHEN, OR IT IS UTENSIL DRAWER IN YOURKITCHEN, OR IT IS HER KITCHEN, OR IT IS HER KITCHEN, OR IT IS HERCLOTHING KITCHEN, OR IT IS HERCLOTHING DRAWER, KITCHEN, OR IT IS HERCLOTHING DRAWER, SAME CLOTHING DRAWER, SAME CLOTHING DRAWER, SAMETHING, CLOTHING DRAWER, SAMETHING, AND CLOTHING DRAWER, SAMETHING, AND THIS CLOTHING DRAWER, SAMETHING, AND THIS IS CLOTHING DRAWER, SAMETHING, AND THIS IS HOW CLOTHING DRAWER, SAMETHING, AND THIS IS HOW T THING, AND THIS IS HOW T THING, AND THIS IS HOW TIT THING, AND THIS IS HOW TIT WORKS.

THING, AND THIS IS HOW TIT WORKS.

YOU THING, AND THIS IS HOW TIT WORKS.

YOU SEE THING, AND THIS IS HOW TIT WORKS.

YOU SEE BUGS IT WORKS.

YOU SEE BUGS IT WORKS.

YOU SEE BUGSARE IT WORKS.

YOU SEE BUGSARE EXOSKELETON IT WORKS.

YOU SEE BUGSARE EXOSKELETON WILL, IT WORKS.

YOU SEE BUGSARE EXOSKELETON WILL, AR ARE EXOSKELETON WILL, AR ARE EXOSKELETON WILL, ARAND ARE EXOSKELETON WILL, ARAND HE ARE EXOSKELETON WILL, ARAND HE GREETED ARE EXOSKELETON WILL, ARAND HE GREETED THROUGH AND HE GREETED THROUGH AND HE GREETED THROUGHTHEIR AND HE GREETED THROUGHTHEIR SHELL, AND HE GREETED THROUGHTHEIR SHELL, SO AND HE GREETED THROUGHTHEIR SHELL, SO WHEN AND HE GREETED THROUGHTHEIR SHELL, SO WHEN THE THEIR SHELL, SO WHEN THE THEIR SHELL, SO WHEN THETHEY THEIR SHELL, SO WHEN THETHEY SMELL THEIR SHELL, SO WHEN THETHEY SMELL CEDAR THEIR SHELL, SO WHEN THETHEY SMELL CEDAR OIL, THEY SMELL CEDAR OIL, THEY SMELL CEDAR OIL,THEY THEY SMELL CEDAR OIL,THEY JUST THEY SMELL CEDAR OIL,THEY JUST FLEECE THEY SMELL CEDAR OIL,THEY JUST FLEECE HOOD THEY SMELL CEDAR OIL,THEY JUST FLEECE HOOD TO THEY JUST FLEECE HOOD TO THEY JUST FLEECE HOOD TOSAY.

SAY.

SAY.

>>GUEST: SAY.

>>GUEST: NO SAY.

>>GUEST: NO PUN >>GUEST: NO PUN >>GUEST: NO PUNINTENDED! INTENDED! INTENDED!>>HOST: INTENDED!>>HOST: NO INTENDED!>>HOST: NO PUN INTENDED!>>HOST: NO PUN INTENDED! >>HOST: NO PUN INTENDED! >>GUEST: >>GUEST: --JUST >>GUEST: --JUST FLEE >>GUEST: --JUST FLEE, >>GUEST: --JUST FLEE,SAY >>GUEST: --JUST FLEE,SAY TO >>GUEST: --JUST FLEE,SAY TO SO SAY TO SO SAY TO SOWHEN SAY TO SOWHEN YOU SAY TO SOWHEN YOU SPRAY SAY TO SOWHEN YOU SPRAY THIS SAY TO SOWHEN YOU SPRAY THIS IN WHEN YOU SPRAY THIS IN WHEN YOU SPRAY THIS INYOUR WHEN YOU SPRAY THIS INYOUR HOME, WHEN YOU SPRAY THIS INYOUR HOME, IT WHEN YOU SPRAY THIS INYOUR HOME, IT KEEPS WHEN YOU SPRAY THIS INYOUR HOME, IT KEEPS THE YOUR HOME, IT KEEPS THE YOUR HOME, IT KEEPS THEBUGS YOUR HOME, IT KEEPS THEBUGS AWAY YOUR HOME, IT KEEPS THEBUGS AWAY NOW YOUR HOME, IT KEEPS THEBUGS AWAY NOW FOR BUGS AWAY NOW FOR BUGS AWAY NOW FORMAINTENANCE, BUGS AWAY NOW FORMAINTENANCE, PUT BUGS AWAY NOW FORMAINTENANCE, PUT 4 BUGS AWAY NOW FORMAINTENANCE, PUT 4 MAINT MAINTENANCE, PUT 4 MAINT MAINTENANCE, PUT 4 MAINTOUNCES MAINTENANCE, PUT 4 MAINTOUNCES OF MAINTENANCE, PUT 4 MAINTOUNCES OF THIS MAINTENANCE, PUT 4 MAINTOUNCES OF THIS AND MAINTENANCE, PUT 4 MAINTOUNCES OF THIS AND TO OUNCES OF THIS AND TO OUNCES OF THIS AND TOYOUR OUNCES OF THIS AND TOYOUR EMPTY OUNCES OF THIS AND TOYOUR EMPTY BOTTLE, OUNCES OF THIS AND TOYOUR EMPTY BOTTLE, AND OUNCES OF THIS AND TOYOUR EMPTY BOTTLE, AND Y YOUR EMPTY BOTTLE, AND Y YOUR EMPTY BOTTLE, AND YIT YOUR EMPTY BOTTLE, AND YIT CAN YOUR EMPTY BOTTLE, AND YIT CAN MAKE YOUR EMPTY BOTTLE, AND YIT CAN MAKE UP YOUR EMPTY BOTTLE, AND YIT CAN MAKE UP TO YOUR EMPTY BOTTLE, AND YIT CAN MAKE UP TO EIGHT IT CAN MAKE UP TO EIGHT IT CAN MAKE UP TO EIGHTOF IT CAN MAKE UP TO EIGHTOF THESE IT CAN MAKE UP TO EIGHTOF THESE 32 IT CAN MAKE UP TO EIGHTOF THESE 32 OUNCE IT CAN MAKE UP TO EIGHTOF THESE 32 OUNCE SPRAY OF THESE 32 OUNCE SPRAY OF THESE 32 OUNCE SPRAYBOTTLES, OF THESE 32 OUNCE SPRAYBOTTLES, OF OF THESE 32 OUNCE SPRAYBOTTLES, OF THE OF THESE 32 OUNCE SPRAYBOTTLES, OF THE BOTTLE BOTTLES, OF THE BOTTLE BOTTLES, OF THE BOTTLEFOR BOTTLES, OF THE BOTTLEFOR MAINTENANCE.

BOTTLES, OF THE BOTTLEFOR MAINTENANCE.

NADER FOR MAINTENANCE.

NADER FOR MAINTENANCE.

NADERALSO FOR MAINTENANCE.

NADERALSO GAIN FOR MAINTENANCE.

NADERALSO GAIN THE FOR MAINTENANCE.

NADERALSO GAIN THE TRAVEL ALSO GAIN THE TRAVEL ALSO GAIN THE TRAVELSIZE, ALSO GAIN THE TRAVELSIZE, AND ALSO GAIN THE TRAVELSIZE, AND THE ALSO GAIN THE TRAVELSIZE, AND THE NICE ALSO GAIN THE TRAVELSIZE, AND THE NICE THING SIZE, AND THE NICE THING SIZE, AND THE NICE THINGABOUT SIZE, AND THE NICE THINGABOUT TRAVEL SIZE, AND THE NICE THINGABOUT TRAVEL SIZE SIZE, AND THE NICE THINGABOUT TRAVEL SIZE IS SIZE, AND THE NICE THINGABOUT TRAVEL SIZE IS IT ABOUT TRAVEL SIZE IS IT ABOUT TRAVEL SIZE IS ITIS ABOUT TRAVEL SIZE IS ITIS TSA ABOUT TRAVEL SIZE IS ITIS TSA APPROVED ABOUT TRAVEL SIZE IS ITIS TSA APPROVED AMOUNT.

IS TSA APPROVED AMOUNT.

IS TSA APPROVED AMOUNT.

>>HOST: IS TSA APPROVED AMOUNT.

>>HOST: NOT IS TSA APPROVED AMOUNT.

>>HOST: NOT TO IS TSA APPROVED AMOUNT.

>>HOST: NOT TO MENTION >>HOST: NOT TO MENTION >>HOST: NOT TO MENTIONFOURTH >>HOST: NOT TO MENTIONFOURTH OF >>HOST: NOT TO MENTIONFOURTH OF JULY >>HOST: NOT TO MENTIONFOURTH OF JULY YOU >>HOST: NOT TO MENTIONFOURTH OF JULY YOU DON'T FOURTH OF JULY YOU DON'T FOURTH OF JULY YOU DON'TWANT FOURTH OF JULY YOU DON'TWANT TO FOURTH OF JULY YOU DON'TWANT TO BE FOURTH OF JULY YOU DON'TWANT TO BE DOING FOURTH OF JULY YOU DON'TWANT TO BE DOING THIS FOURTH OF JULY YOU DON'TWANT TO BE DOING THIS WA WANT TO BE DOING THIS WA WANT TO BE DOING THIS WAALL WANT TO BE DOING THIS WAALL NIGHT, WANT TO BE DOING THIS WAALL NIGHT, AND WANT TO BE DOING THIS WAALL NIGHT, AND THIS WANT TO BE DOING THIS WAALL NIGHT, AND THIS ALL ALL NIGHT, AND THIS ALL ALL NIGHT, AND THIS ALLNIGHT, ALL NIGHT, AND THIS ALLNIGHT, LOOKING ALL NIGHT, AND THIS ALLNIGHT, LOOKING LIKE ALL NIGHT, AND THIS ALLNIGHT, LOOKING LIKE A NIGHT, LOOKING LIKE A NIGHT, LOOKING LIKE ACRAZY NIGHT, LOOKING LIKE ACRAZY PERSON NIGHT, LOOKING LIKE ACRAZY PERSON RUNNING CRAZY PERSON RUNNING CRAZY PERSON RUNNINGAROUND, CRAZY PERSON RUNNINGAROUND, OUR CRAZY PERSON RUNNINGAROUND, OUR KIDS, CRAZY PERSON RUNNINGAROUND, OUR KIDS, OUR AROUND, OUR KIDS, OUR AROUND, OUR KIDS, OURMEMORIES AROUND, OUR KIDS, OURMEMORIES GO AROUND, OUR KIDS, OURMEMORIES GO TO AROUND, OUR KIDS, OURMEMORIES GO TO SUMMER MEMORIES GO TO SUMMER MEMORIES GO TO SUMMERCAMP MEMORIES GO TO SUMMERCAMP EVERY MEMORIES GO TO SUMMERCAMP EVERY SUMMER, MEMORIES GO TO SUMMERCAMP EVERY SUMMER, AND MEMORIES GO TO SUMMERCAMP EVERY SUMMER, AND C CAMP EVERY SUMMER, AND C CAMP EVERY SUMMER, AND CWE CAMP EVERY SUMMER, AND CWE HAD CAMP EVERY SUMMER, AND CWE HAD A CAMP EVERY SUMMER, AND CWE HAD A CONTEST CAMP EVERY SUMMER, AND CWE HAD A CONTEST TO CAMP EVERY SUMMER, AND CWE HAD A CONTEST TO SEE WE HAD A CONTEST TO SEE WE HAD A CONTEST TO SEEWHO WE HAD A CONTEST TO SEEWHO HAD WE HAD A CONTEST TO SEEWHO HAD MORE WE HAD A CONTEST TO SEEWHO HAD MORE BITE WE HAD A CONTEST TO SEEWHO HAD MORE BITE ON WHO HAD MORE BITE ON WHO HAD MORE BITE ONTHEIR WHO HAD MORE BITE ONTHEIR ARMS WHO HAD MORE BITE ONTHEIR ARMS THEY WHO HAD MORE BITE ONTHEIR ARMS THEY WERE WHO HAD MORE BITE ONTHEIR ARMS THEY WERE THE THEIR ARMS THEY WERE THE THEIR ARMS THEY WERE THEABLE THEIR ARMS THEY WERE THEABLE TO THEIR ARMS THEY WERE THEABLE TO NOT THEIR ARMS THEY WERE THEABLE TO NOT SCRATCH THEIR ARMS THEY WERE THEABLE TO NOT SCRATCH OFF.

ABLE TO NOT SCRATCH OFF.

ABLE TO NOT SCRATCH OFF.

I ABLE TO NOT SCRATCH OFF.

I MEAN ABLE TO NOT SCRATCH OFF.

I MEAN IT ABLE TO NOT SCRATCH OFF.

I MEAN IT WAS ABLE TO NOT SCRATCH OFF.

I MEAN IT WAS TERRIBLE! I MEAN IT WAS TERRIBLE! I MEAN IT WAS TERRIBLE!>>GUEST: I MEAN IT WAS TERRIBLE!>>GUEST: [LAUGHTER] I MEAN IT WAS TERRIBLE!>>GUEST: [LAUGHTER] AT >>GUEST: [LAUGHTER] AT >>GUEST: [LAUGHTER] ATA >>GUEST: [LAUGHTER] ATA CONTEST! A CONTEST! A CONTEST!>>HOST: A CONTEST!>>HOST: WHAT A CONTEST!>>HOST: WHAT YOU >>HOST: WHAT YOU >>HOST: WHAT YOU11-YEAR-OLD >>HOST: WHAT YOU11-YEAR-OLD BOYS >>HOST: WHAT YOU11-YEAR-OLD BOYS LOOKING 11-YEAR-OLD BOYS LOOKING 11-YEAR-OLD BOYS LOOKINGFOR 11-YEAR-OLD BOYS LOOKINGFOR SOMETHING 11-YEAR-OLD BOYS LOOKINGFOR SOMETHING CRAZY 11-YEAR-OLD BOYS LOOKINGFOR SOMETHING CRAZY TO 11-YEAR-OLD BOYS LOOKINGFOR SOMETHING CRAZY TO DO FOR SOMETHING CRAZY TO DO FOR SOMETHING CRAZY TO DODO.

FOR SOMETHING CRAZY TO DODO.

IT FOR SOMETHING CRAZY TO DODO.

IT WAS FOR SOMETHING CRAZY TO DODO.

IT WAS TORTURE! DO.

IT WAS TORTURE! DO.

IT WAS TORTURE!THIS DO.

IT WAS TORTURE!THIS IS DO.

IT WAS TORTURE!THIS IS A DO.

IT WAS TORTURE!THIS IS A BETTER DO.

IT WAS TORTURE!THIS IS A BETTER SOLUTION THIS IS A BETTER SOLUTION THIS IS A BETTER SOLUTIONSOLUTION.

THIS IS A BETTER SOLUTIONSOLUTION.

HERE THIS IS A BETTER SOLUTIONSOLUTION.

HERE IN SOLUTION.

HERE IN SOLUTION.

HERE INFLORIDA SOLUTION.

HERE INFLORIDA WE SOLUTION.

HERE INFLORIDA WE ARE SOLUTION.

HERE INFLORIDA WE ARE TERRIFIED FLORIDA WE ARE TERRIFIED FLORIDA WE ARE TERRIFIEDOF FLORIDA WE ARE TERRIFIEDOF MOSQUITOES FLORIDA WE ARE TERRIFIEDOF MOSQUITOES AND FLORIDA WE ARE TERRIFIEDOF MOSQUITOES AND FOR OF MOSQUITOES AND FOR OF MOSQUITOES AND FORGOOD OF MOSQUITOES AND FORGOOD REASON OF MOSQUITOES AND FORGOOD REASON RIGHT OF MOSQUITOES AND FORGOOD REASON RIGHT NOW.

OF MOSQUITOES AND FORGOOD REASON RIGHT NOW.

O GOOD REASON RIGHT NOW.

O GOOD REASON RIGHT NOW.

OBE GOOD REASON RIGHT NOW.

OBE ABLE GOOD REASON RIGHT NOW.

OBE ABLE TO GOOD REASON RIGHT NOW.

OBE ABLE TO SPRAY GOOD REASON RIGHT NOW.

OBE ABLE TO SPRAY ON GOOD REASON RIGHT NOW.

OBE ABLE TO SPRAY ON THE BE ABLE TO SPRAY ON THE BE ABLE TO SPRAY ON THEPET BE ABLE TO SPRAY ON THEPET BEDS BE ABLE TO SPRAY ON THEPET BEDS AND BE ABLE TO SPRAY ON THEPET BEDS AND DIRECTLY PET BEDS AND DIRECTLY PET BEDS AND DIRECTLYONTO PET BEDS AND DIRECTLYONTO THE PET BEDS AND DIRECTLYONTO THE PETS.

PET BEDS AND DIRECTLYONTO THE PETS.

THERE ONTO THE PETS.

THERE ONTO THE PETS.

THEREARE ONTO THE PETS.

THEREARE NO ONTO THE PETS.

THEREARE NO PRODUCTS ONTO THE PETS.

THEREARE NO PRODUCTS LIKE ONTO THE PETS.

THEREARE NO PRODUCTS LIKE ARE ARE NO PRODUCTS LIKE ARE ARE NO PRODUCTS LIKE ARETHAT ARE NO PRODUCTS LIKE ARETHAT ON ARE NO PRODUCTS LIKE ARETHAT ON THE ARE NO PRODUCTS LIKE ARETHAT ON THE INDUSTRY ARE NO PRODUCTS LIKE ARETHAT ON THE INDUSTRY THA THAT ON THE INDUSTRY THA THAT ON THE INDUSTRY THATHAT THAT ON THE INDUSTRY THATHAT YOU THAT ON THE INDUSTRY THATHAT YOU CAN THAT ON THE INDUSTRY THATHAT YOU CAN SPRAY THAT ON THE INDUSTRY THATHAT YOU CAN SPRAY YOUR THAT YOU CAN SPRAY YOUR THAT YOU CAN SPRAY YOURTHRESHOLD THAT YOU CAN SPRAY YOURTHRESHOLD AND THAT YOU CAN SPRAY YOURTHRESHOLD AND DIVERSITY THRESHOLD AND DIVERSITY THRESHOLD AND DIVERSITYIN THRESHOLD AND DIVERSITYIN THE THRESHOLD AND DIVERSITYIN THE BED THRESHOLD AND DIVERSITYIN THE BED IN THRESHOLD AND DIVERSITYIN THE BED IN THE THRESHOLD AND DIVERSITYIN THE BED IN THE HOTEL IN THE BED IN THE HOTEL IN THE BED IN THE HOTELTHAT IN THE BED IN THE HOTELTHAT MIGHT IN THE BED IN THE HOTELTHAT MIGHT HAVE IN THE BED IN THE HOTELTHAT MIGHT HAVE A IN THE BED IN THE HOTELTHAT MIGHT HAVE A THAT IN THE BED IN THE HOTELTHAT MIGHT HAVE A THAT M THAT MIGHT HAVE A THAT M THAT MIGHT HAVE A THAT MCERTAIN THAT MIGHT HAVE A THAT MCERTAIN KIND THAT MIGHT HAVE A THAT MCERTAIN KIND OF THAT MIGHT HAVE A THAT MCERTAIN KIND OF BUG CERTAIN KIND OF BUG CERTAIN KIND OF BUGCRAWLING CERTAIN KIND OF BUGCRAWLING AROUND.

CERTAIN KIND OF BUGCRAWLING AROUND.

THIS CRAWLING AROUND.

THIS CRAWLING AROUND.

THISACTUALLY CRAWLING AROUND.

THISACTUALLY SMELLS CRAWLING AROUND.

THISACTUALLY SMELLS NICE, CRAWLING AROUND.

THISACTUALLY SMELLS NICE, IF ACTUALLY SMELLS NICE, IF ACTUALLY SMELLS NICE, IFMEL'S ACTUALLY SMELLS NICE, IFMEL'S FRESH, ACTUALLY SMELLS NICE, IFMEL'S FRESH, IS ACTUALLY SMELLS NICE, IFMEL'S FRESH, IS HEALTHY MEL'S FRESH, IS HEALTHY MEL'S FRESH, IS HEALTHYAND MEL'S FRESH, IS HEALTHYAND NATURAL.

-- MEL'S FRESH, IS HEALTHYAND NATURAL.

-- DIRECTLY AND NATURAL.

-- DIRECTLY AND NATURAL.

-- DIRECTLYINTO INTO INTOI INTOI CANNOT INTOI CANNOT RECOMMEND INTOI CANNOT RECOMMEND I INTOI CANNOT RECOMMEND I CAN I CANNOT RECOMMEND I CAN I CANNOT RECOMMEND I CANHIGHLY I CANNOT RECOMMEND I CANHIGHLY ENOUGH, I CANNOT RECOMMEND I CANHIGHLY ENOUGH, AND I CANNOT RECOMMEND I CANHIGHLY ENOUGH, AND HIGHL HIGHLY ENOUGH, AND HIGHL HIGHLY ENOUGH, AND HIGHLTHAT'S HIGHLY ENOUGH, AND HIGHLTHAT'S WHY HIGHLY ENOUGH, AND HIGHLTHAT'S WHY WE HIGHLY ENOUGH, AND HIGHLTHAT'S WHY WE ARE THAT'S WHY WE ARE THAT'S WHY WE ARETHRILLED THAT'S WHY WE ARETHRILLED EVERY THAT'S WHY WE ARETHRILLED EVERY TIME THAT'S WHY WE ARETHRILLED EVERY TIME HE THRILLED EVERY TIME HE THRILLED EVERY TIME HECOMES THRILLED EVERY TIME HECOMES IN THRILLED EVERY TIME HECOMES IN STOCK THRILLED EVERY TIME HECOMES IN STOCK I'M THRILLED EVERY TIME HECOMES IN STOCK I'M ALWAY THRILLED EVERY TIME HECOMES IN STOCK I'M ALWAYS COMES IN STOCK I'M ALWAYS COMES IN STOCK I'M ALWAYSHAPPY COMES IN STOCK I'M ALWAYSHAPPY TO COMES IN STOCK I'M ALWAYSHAPPY TO BE COMES IN STOCK I'M ALWAYSHAPPY TO BE ABLE COMES IN STOCK I'M ALWAYSHAPPY TO BE ABLE TO HAPPY TO BE ABLE TO HAPPY TO BE ABLE TOOFFER HAPPY TO BE ABLE TOOFFER TO HAPPY TO BE ABLE TOOFFER TO OUR HAPPY TO BE ABLE TOOFFER TO OUR CUSTOMERS OFFER TO OUR CUSTOMERS OFFER TO OUR CUSTOMERSBECAUSE OFFER TO OUR CUSTOMERSBECAUSE IT OFFER TO OUR CUSTOMERSBECAUSE IT IS OFFER TO OUR CUSTOMERSBECAUSE IT IS SAFER, OFFER TO OUR CUSTOMERSBECAUSE IT IS SAFER, IS BECAUSE IT IS SAFER, IS BECAUSE IT IS SAFER, ISHEALTHIER.

BECAUSE IT IS SAFER, ISHEALTHIER.

AS BECAUSE IT IS SAFER, ISHEALTHIER.

AS SOMEBODY HEALTHIER.

AS SOMEBODY HEALTHIER.

AS SOMEBODYWITH HEALTHIER.

AS SOMEBODYWITH TWO HEALTHIER.

AS SOMEBODYWITH TWO YOUNG HEALTHIER.

AS SOMEBODYWITH TWO YOUNG KIDS, HEALTHIER.

AS SOMEBODYWITH TWO YOUNG KIDS, ONE WITH TWO YOUNG KIDS, ONE WITH TWO YOUNG KIDS, ONECAT, WITH TWO YOUNG KIDS, ONECAT, ONE WITH TWO YOUNG KIDS, ONECAT, ONE DOG, WITH TWO YOUNG KIDS, ONECAT, ONE DOG, WITH WITH TWO YOUNG KIDS, ONECAT, ONE DOG, WITH MY WITH TWO YOUNG KIDS, ONECAT, ONE DOG, WITH MY CA CAT, ONE DOG, WITH MY CA CAT, ONE DOG, WITH MY CAOWN CAT, ONE DOG, WITH MY CAOWN SENSE CAT, ONE DOG, WITH MY CAOWN SENSE OF CAT, ONE DOG, WITH MY CAOWN SENSE OF HIS CAT, ONE DOG, WITH MY CAOWN SENSE OF HIS SKIN OWN SENSE OF HIS SKIN OWN SENSE OF HIS SKINALLERGY OWN SENSE OF HIS SKINALLERGY ISSUES OWN SENSE OF HIS SKINALLERGY ISSUES AND OWN SENSE OF HIS SKINALLERGY ISSUES AND ALLER ALLERGY ISSUES AND ALLER ALLERGY ISSUES AND ALLERASTHMA ALLERGY ISSUES AND ALLERASTHMA MYSELF.

ALLERGY ISSUES AND ALLERASTHMA MYSELF.

I ALLERGY ISSUES AND ALLERASTHMA MYSELF.

I DON'T ASTHMA MYSELF.

I DON'T ASTHMA MYSELF.

I DON'TWANT ASTHMA MYSELF.

I DON'TWANT TO ASTHMA MYSELF.

I DON'TWANT TO GIVE ASTHMA MYSELF.

I DON'TWANT TO GIVE IN, ASTHMA MYSELF.

I DON'TWANT TO GIVE IN, I ASTHMA MYSELF.

I DON'TWANT TO GIVE IN, I DON'T WANT TO GIVE IN, I DON'T WANT TO GIVE IN, I DON'TWANT WANT TO GIVE IN, I DON'TWANT TO WANT TO GIVE IN, I DON'TWANT TO BE WANT TO GIVE IN, I DON'TWANT TO BE SWATTING.

WANT TO GIVE IN, I DON'TWANT TO BE SWATTING.

T WANT TO BE SWATTING.

T WANT TO BE SWATTING.

TI WANT TO BE SWATTING.

TI ALSO WANT TO BE SWATTING.

TI ALSO DON'T WANT TO BE SWATTING.

TI ALSO DON'T WANT WANT TO BE SWATTING.

TI ALSO DON'T WANT TO WANT TO BE SWATTING.

TI ALSO DON'T WANT TO BE I ALSO DON'T WANT TO BE I ALSO DON'T WANT TO BEEXPOSED I ALSO DON'T WANT TO BEEXPOSED MY I ALSO DON'T WANT TO BEEXPOSED MY SKIN, I ALSO DON'T WANT TO BEEXPOSED MY SKIN, MY EXPOSED MY SKIN, MY EXPOSED MY SKIN, MYBONDS, EXPOSED MY SKIN, MYBONDS, CERTAINLY EXPOSED MY SKIN, MYBONDS, CERTAINLY MY EXPOSED MY SKIN, MYBONDS, CERTAINLY MY KIDS BONDS, CERTAINLY MY KIDS BONDS, CERTAINLY MY KIDSTO BONDS, CERTAINLY MY KIDSTO THOSE BONDS, CERTAINLY MY KIDSTO THOSE HARMFUL TO THOSE HARMFUL TO THOSE HARMFULCHEMICALS TO THOSE HARMFULCHEMICALS OR TO THOSE HARMFULCHEMICALS OR LIGHTING CHEMICALS OR LIGHTING CHEMICALS OR LIGHTINGCANDLES CHEMICALS OR LIGHTINGCANDLES AND CHEMICALS OR LIGHTINGCANDLES AND ALL CHEMICALS OR LIGHTINGCANDLES AND ALL THE CANDLES AND ALL THE CANDLES AND ALL THEARCHAIC CANDLES AND ALL THEARCHAIC ALTERNATIVES CANDLES AND ALL THEARCHAIC ALTERNATIVES WE ARCHAIC ALTERNATIVES WE ARCHAIC ALTERNATIVES WEHAVE ARCHAIC ALTERNATIVES WEHAVE DONE.

ARCHAIC ALTERNATIVES WEHAVE DONE.

THERE ARCHAIC ALTERNATIVES WEHAVE DONE.

THERE IS ARCHAIC ALTERNATIVES WEHAVE DONE.

THERE IS AN HAVE DONE.

THERE IS AN HAVE DONE.

THERE IS ANALTERNATIVE HAVE DONE.

THERE IS ANALTERNATIVE PRODUCT, HAVE DONE.

THERE IS ANALTERNATIVE PRODUCT, YOU ALTERNATIVE PRODUCT, YOU ALTERNATIVE PRODUCT, YOUWILL ALTERNATIVE PRODUCT, YOUWILL GET ALTERNATIVE PRODUCT, YOUWILL GET IT, ALTERNATIVE PRODUCT, YOUWILL GET IT, I ALTERNATIVE PRODUCT, YOUWILL GET IT, I PROMISE WILL GET IT, I PROMISE WILL GET IT, I PROMISEYOU WILL GET IT, I PROMISEYOU ANY WILL GET IT, I PROMISEYOU ANY STEEL WILL GET IT, I PROMISEYOU ANY STEEL TODAY.

YOU ANY STEEL TODAY.

YOU ANY STEEL TODAY.

--STEAL --STEAL --STEAL2 --STEAL2 GALLONS, --STEAL2 GALLONS, FOR --STEAL2 GALLONS, FOR FULL-SIZE 2 GALLONS, FOR FULL-SIZE 2 GALLONS, FOR FULL-SIZEBOTTLES, 2 GALLONS, FOR FULL-SIZEBOTTLES, YOU 2 GALLONS, FOR FULL-SIZEBOTTLES, YOU BREAK 2 GALLONS, FOR FULL-SIZEBOTTLES, YOU BREAK IT BOTTLES, YOU BREAK IT BOTTLES, YOU BREAK ITDOWN, BOTTLES, YOU BREAK ITDOWN, OVER BOTTLES, YOU BREAK ITDOWN, OVER A BOTTLES, YOU BREAK ITDOWN, OVER A BOTTLES.

DOWN, OVER A BOTTLES.

DOWN, OVER A BOTTLES.

-- DOWN, OVER A BOTTLES.

-- 8 DOWN, OVER A BOTTLES.

-- 8 EIGHTS -- 8 EIGHTS -- 8 EIGHTSIT -- 8 EIGHTSIT COST -- 8 EIGHTSIT COST THEM -- 8 EIGHTSIT COST THEM NOTHING, -- 8 EIGHTSIT COST THEM NOTHING, IT IT COST THEM NOTHING, IT IT COST THEM NOTHING, ITFOR IT COST THEM NOTHING, ITFOR HOW IT COST THEM NOTHING, ITFOR HOW AFFECT IT COST THEM NOTHING, ITFOR HOW AFFECT OF IT COST THEM NOTHING, ITFOR HOW AFFECT OF IT IT COST THEM NOTHING, ITFOR HOW AFFECT OF IT IS.

FOR HOW AFFECT OF IT IS.

FOR HOW AFFECT OF IT IS.

ALL FOR HOW AFFECT OF IT IS.

ALL THE FOR HOW AFFECT OF IT IS.

ALL THE TYPES FOR HOW AFFECT OF IT IS.

ALL THE TYPES OF FOR HOW AFFECT OF IT IS.

ALL THE TYPES OF BUGS FOR HOW AFFECT OF IT IS.

ALL THE TYPES OF BUGS IT ALL THE TYPES OF BUGS IT ALL THE TYPES OF BUGS ITWORKS ALL THE TYPES OF BUGS ITWORKS ON ALL THE TYPES OF BUGS ITWORKS ON CIELO.

ALL THE TYPES OF BUGS ITWORKS ON CIELO.

--TOO WORKS ON CIELO.

--TOO WORKS ON CIELO.

--TOO>>GUEST: WORKS ON CIELO.

--TOO>>GUEST: WHEN WORKS ON CIELO.

--TOO>>GUEST: WHEN YOU'RE WORKS ON CIELO.

--TOO>>GUEST: WHEN YOU'RE IN >>GUEST: WHEN YOU'RE IN >>GUEST: WHEN YOU'RE INYOUR >>GUEST: WHEN YOU'RE INYOUR KITCHEN, >>GUEST: WHEN YOU'RE INYOUR KITCHEN, YOU >>GUEST: WHEN YOU'RE INYOUR KITCHEN, YOU PUT >>GUEST: WHEN YOU'RE INYOUR KITCHEN, YOU PUT IT YOUR KITCHEN, YOU PUT IT YOUR KITCHEN, YOU PUT ITON YOUR KITCHEN, YOU PUT ITON SUGAR YOUR KITCHEN, YOU PUT ITON SUGAR AND YOUR KITCHEN, YOU PUT ITON SUGAR AND STORE YOUR KITCHEN, YOU PUT ITON SUGAR AND STORE SUGAR ON SUGAR AND STORE SUGAR ON SUGAR AND STORE SUGARON ON SUGAR AND STORE SUGARON THE ON SUGAR AND STORE SUGARON THE COUNTER ON SUGAR AND STORE SUGARON THE COUNTER AND ON THE COUNTER AND ON THE COUNTER ANDSUDDENLY ON THE COUNTER ANDSUDDENLY THE ON THE COUNTER ANDSUDDENLY THE MARGIN ON THE COUNTER ANDSUDDENLY THE MARGIN WITH SUDDENLY THE MARGIN WITH SUDDENLY THE MARGIN WITHA SUDDENLY THE MARGIN WITHA MARCHING SUDDENLY THE MARGIN WITHA MARCHING BAND.

SUDDENLY THE MARGIN WITHA MARCHING BAND.

THEY A MARCHING BAND.

THEY A MARCHING BAND.

THEYCOME A MARCHING BAND.

THEYCOME OUT A MARCHING BAND.

THEYCOME OUT OF A MARCHING BAND.

THEYCOME OUT OF NOWHERE, A MARCHING BAND.

THEYCOME OUT OF NOWHERE, COM COME OUT OF NOWHERE, COM COME OUT OF NOWHERE, COMTHAT COME OUT OF NOWHERE, COMTHAT IS COME OUT OF NOWHERE, COMTHAT IS WHY COME OUT OF NOWHERE, COMTHAT IS WHY HE COME OUT OF NOWHERE, COMTHAT IS WHY HE WOULD THAT IS WHY HE WOULD THAT IS WHY HE WOULDSPRAY THAT IS WHY HE WOULDSPRAY TO THAT IS WHY HE WOULDSPRAY TO PERIMETER, SPRAY TO PERIMETER, SPRAY TO PERIMETER,AROUND SPRAY TO PERIMETER,AROUND YOUR SPRAY TO PERIMETER,AROUND YOUR WINDOWS, SPRAY TO PERIMETER,AROUND YOUR WINDOWS, ARO AROUND YOUR WINDOWS, ARO AROUND YOUR WINDOWS, AROYOUR AROUND YOUR WINDOWS, AROYOUR DOORS, AROUND YOUR WINDOWS, AROYOUR DOORS, IT'S AROUND YOUR WINDOWS, AROYOUR DOORS, IT'S ALSO YOUR DOORS, IT'S ALSO YOUR DOORS, IT'S ALSOSNAKE YOUR DOORS, IT'S ALSOSNAKE REPELLENT YOUR DOORS, IT'S ALSOSNAKE REPELLENT AS YOUR DOORS, IT'S ALSOSNAKE REPELLENT AS WELL.

SNAKE REPELLENT AS WELL.

SNAKE REPELLENT AS WELL.

BUT SNAKE REPELLENT AS WELL.

BUT ISRAEL SNAKE REPELLENT AS WELL.

BUT ISRAEL DETERS SNAKE REPELLENT AS WELL.

BUT ISRAEL DETERS SNAKES SNAKE REPELLENT AS WELL.

BUT ISRAEL DETERS SNAKES.

BUT ISRAEL DETERS SNAKES.

BUT ISRAEL DETERS SNAKES.

URUGUAY BUT ISRAEL DETERS SNAKES.

URUGUAY GET BUT ISRAEL DETERS SNAKES.

URUGUAY GET THESE BUT ISRAEL DETERS SNAKES.

URUGUAY GET THESE TWO URUGUAY GET THESE TWO URUGUAY GET THESE TWOTHINGS URUGUAY GET THESE TWOTHINGS WE URUGUAY GET THESE TWOTHINGS WE GET URUGUAY GET THESE TWOTHINGS WE GET THIS URUGUAY GET THESE TWOTHINGS WE GET THIS KID, THINGS WE GET THIS KID, THINGS WE GET THIS KID,THEY THINGS WE GET THIS KID,THEY ARE THINGS WE GET THIS KID,THEY ARE NOT THINGS WE GET THIS KID,THEY ARE NOT FRENCH THEY ARE NOT FRENCH THEY ARE NOT FRENCHFRIES, THEY ARE NOT FRENCHFRIES, YOU THEY ARE NOT FRENCHFRIES, YOU ARE THEY ARE NOT FRENCHFRIES, YOU ARE JUST THEY ARE NOT FRENCHFRIES, YOU ARE JUST ONE FRIES, YOU ARE JUST ONE FRIES, YOU ARE JUST ONEAPPLAUD FRIES, YOU ARE JUST ONEAPPLAUD THE FRIES, YOU ARE JUST ONEAPPLAUD THE RIGHT FRIES, YOU ARE JUST ONEAPPLAUD THE RIGHT IN FRIES, YOU ARE JUST ONEAPPLAUD THE RIGHT IN AND APPLAUD THE RIGHT IN AND APPLAUD THE RIGHT IN ANDWHAT APPLAUD THE RIGHT IN ANDWHAT THEY APPLAUD THE RIGHT IN ANDWHAT THEY DO APPLAUD THE RIGHT IN ANDWHAT THEY DO IS APPLAUD THE RIGHT IN ANDWHAT THEY DO IS THEY APPLAUD THE RIGHT IN ANDWHAT THEY DO IS THEY WHA WHAT THEY DO IS THEY WHA WHAT THEY DO IS THEY WHATURN WHAT THEY DO IS THEY WHATURN INTO WHAT THEY DO IS THEY WHATURN INTO THESE WHAT THEY DO IS THEY WHATURN INTO THESE LUNGES TURN INTO THESE LUNGES TURN INTO THESE LUNGESARE, TURN INTO THESE LUNGESARE, I TURN INTO THESE LUNGESARE, I JUST TURN INTO THESE LUNGESARE, I JUST WANT TURN INTO THESE LUNGESARE, I JUST WANT TO TURN INTO THESE LUNGESARE, I JUST WANT TO ARE, ARE, I JUST WANT TO ARE, ARE, I JUST WANT TO ARE,POINT ARE, I JUST WANT TO ARE,POINT THAT ARE, I JUST WANT TO ARE,POINT THAT OUT.

ARE, I JUST WANT TO ARE,POINT THAT OUT.

-- POINT THAT OUT.

-- POINT THAT OUT.

--YOU'RE POINT THAT OUT.

--YOU'RE GOING POINT THAT OUT.

--YOU'RE GOING TO YOU'RE GOING TO YOU'RE GOING TO-- YOU'RE GOING TO-- THAT YOU'RE GOING TO-- THAT IS YOU'RE GOING TO-- THAT IS RIGHT YOU'RE GOING TO-- THAT IS RIGHT THEY -- THAT IS RIGHT THEY -- THAT IS RIGHT THEYDETER DETER DETERI DETERI USE DETERI USE THIS DETERI USE THIS ON DETERI USE THIS ON MY DETERI USE THIS ON MY DOG DETERI USE THIS ON MY DOG AND I USE THIS ON MY DOG AND I USE THIS ON MY DOG ANDMY I USE THIS ON MY DOG ANDMY CATS, I USE THIS ON MY DOG ANDMY CATS, YOU I USE THIS ON MY DOG ANDMY CATS, YOU GO I USE THIS ON MY DOG ANDMY CATS, YOU GO AGAINST MY CATS, YOU GO AGAINST MY CATS, YOU GO AGAINSTTHERE MY CATS, YOU GO AGAINSTTHERE FOR, MY CATS, YOU GO AGAINSTTHERE FOR, PLEASE MY CATS, YOU GO AGAINSTTHERE FOR, PLEASE SPRAY, THERE FOR, PLEASE SPRAY, THERE FOR, PLEASE SPRAY,SPRAY, THERE FOR, PLEASE SPRAY,SPRAY, SPRAY THERE FOR, PLEASE SPRAY,SPRAY, SPRAY AGAINST SPRAY, SPRAY AGAINST SPRAY, SPRAY AGAINSTTHERE SPRAY, SPRAY AGAINSTTHERE FOR SPRAY, SPRAY AGAINSTTHERE FOR OUR SPRAY, SPRAY AGAINSTTHERE FOR OUR WEDDING THERE FOR OUR WEDDING THERE FOR OUR WEDDINGCOMES THERE FOR OUR WEDDINGCOMES TO THERE FOR OUR WEDDINGCOMES TO AROUND THERE FOR OUR WEDDINGCOMES TO AROUND THEIR COMES TO AROUND THEIR COMES TO AROUND THEIRHEAD COMES TO AROUND THEIRHEAD YOU COMES TO AROUND THEIRHEAD YOU PUT COMES TO AROUND THEIRHEAD YOU PUT ON COMES TO AROUND THEIRHEAD YOU PUT ON YOUR HEAD YOU PUT ON YOUR HEAD YOU PUT ON YOURHANDS HEAD YOU PUT ON YOURHANDS AND HEAD YOU PUT ON YOURHANDS AND YOU HEAD YOU PUT ON YOURHANDS AND YOU GO HEAD YOU PUT ON YOURHANDS AND YOU GO AROUND HANDS AND YOU GO AROUND HANDS AND YOU GO AROUNDTHE HANDS AND YOU GO AROUNDTHE EARS HANDS AND YOU GO AROUNDTHE EARS AND HANDS AND YOU GO AROUNDTHE EARS AND THE HANDS AND YOU GO AROUNDTHE EARS AND THE NECK, THE EARS AND THE NECK, THE EARS AND THE NECK,THAT THE EARS AND THE NECK,THAT IS THE EARS AND THE NECK,THAT IS HOW THE EARS AND THE NECK,THAT IS HOW YOU THE EARS AND THE NECK,THAT IS HOW YOU PROTECT THAT IS HOW YOU PROTECT THAT IS HOW YOU PROTECTANIMALS.

THAT IS HOW YOU PROTECTANIMALS.

IT'S THAT IS HOW YOU PROTECTANIMALS.

IT'S REALLY ANIMALS.

IT'S REALLY ANIMALS.

IT'S REALLYWONDERFUL, ANIMALS.

IT'S REALLYWONDERFUL, THINK ANIMALS.

IT'S REALLYWONDERFUL, THINK ABOUT WONDERFUL, THINK ABOUT WONDERFUL, THINK ABOUTTHE WONDERFUL, THINK ABOUTTHE HORSEFLIES, WONDERFUL, THINK ABOUTTHE HORSEFLIES, THE WONDERFUL, THINK ABOUTTHE HORSEFLIES, THE THE THE HORSEFLIES, THE THE THE HORSEFLIES, THE THESTINK THE HORSEFLIES, THE THESTINK BUGS, THE HORSEFLIES, THE THESTINK BUGS, THE THE HORSEFLIES, THE THESTINK BUGS, THE FLEA THE HORSEFLIES, THE THESTINK BUGS, THE FLEA AND STINK BUGS, THE FLEA AND STINK BUGS, THE FLEA ANDTICK STINK BUGS, THE FLEA ANDTICK SEASON STINK BUGS, THE FLEA ANDTICK SEASON THIS STINK BUGS, THE FLEA ANDTICK SEASON THIS YEAR STINK BUGS, THE FLEA ANDTICK SEASON THIS YEAR IS TICK SEASON THIS YEAR IS TICK SEASON THIS YEAR ISOUT TICK SEASON THIS YEAR ISOUT OF TICK SEASON THIS YEAR ISOUT OF CONTROL.

TICK SEASON THIS YEAR ISOUT OF CONTROL.

I TICK SEASON THIS YEAR ISOUT OF CONTROL.

I KNOW OUT OF CONTROL.

I KNOW OUT OF CONTROL.

I KNOWYOU OUT OF CONTROL.

I KNOWYOU KNOW OUT OF CONTROL.

I KNOWYOU KNOW WHAT OUT OF CONTROL.

I KNOWYOU KNOW WHAT I'M OUT OF CONTROL.

I KNOWYOU KNOW WHAT I'M YOU OUT OF CONTROL.

I KNOWYOU KNOW WHAT I'M YOU KN YOU KNOW WHAT I'M YOU KN YOU KNOW WHAT I'M YOU KNTALKING YOU KNOW WHAT I'M YOU KNTALKING ABOUT.

YOU KNOW WHAT I'M YOU KNTALKING ABOUT.

THEY YOU KNOW WHAT I'M YOU KNTALKING ABOUT.

THEY ARE TALKING ABOUT.

THEY ARE TALKING ABOUT.

THEY AREWILD TALKING ABOUT.

THEY AREWILD IN TALKING ABOUT.

THEY AREWILD IN THE TALKING ABOUT.

THEY AREWILD IN THE PART, TALKING ABOUT.

THEY AREWILD IN THE PART, SO TALKING ABOUT.

THEY AREWILD IN THE PART, SO WIL WILD IN THE PART, SO WIL WILD IN THE PART, SO WILWHEN WILD IN THE PART, SO WILWHEN YOU WILD IN THE PART, SO WILWHEN YOU GO WILD IN THE PART, SO WILWHEN YOU GO AND WILD IN THE PART, SO WILWHEN YOU GO AND WALK WILD IN THE PART, SO WILWHEN YOU GO AND WALK WHE WHEN YOU GO AND WALK WHE WHEN YOU GO AND WALK WHEYOUR WHEN YOU GO AND WALK WHEYOUR DOG WHEN YOU GO AND WALK WHEYOUR DOG OR WHEN YOU GO AND WALK WHEYOUR DOG OR YOUR WHEN YOU GO AND WALK WHEYOUR DOG OR YOUR CATS, WHEN YOU GO AND WALK WHEYOUR DOG OR YOUR CATS, Y YOUR DOG OR YOUR CATS, Y YOUR DOG OR YOUR CATS, YOR YOUR DOG OR YOUR CATS, YOR YOUR YOUR DOG OR YOUR CATS, YOR YOUR PIG, YOUR DOG OR YOUR CATS, YOR YOUR PIG, I YOUR DOG OR YOUR CATS, YOR YOUR PIG, I HAVE YOUR DOG OR YOUR CATS, YOR YOUR PIG, I HAVE SEEN OR YOUR PIG, I HAVE SEEN OR YOUR PIG, I HAVE SEENSOMEBODY OR YOUR PIG, I HAVE SEENSOMEBODY WALK OR YOUR PIG, I HAVE SEENSOMEBODY WALK THEIR OR YOUR PIG, I HAVE SEENSOMEBODY WALK THEIR PIG SOMEBODY WALK THEIR PIG SOMEBODY WALK THEIR PIGTOO.

TOO.

TOO.

>>HOST: TOO.

>>HOST: [LAUGHTER] >>HOST: [LAUGHTER] >>HOST: [LAUGHTER]>>GUEST: >>HOST: [LAUGHTER]>>GUEST: YOU >>HOST: [LAUGHTER]>>GUEST: YOU CAN >>HOST: [LAUGHTER]>>GUEST: YOU CAN BRING >>GUEST: YOU CAN BRING >>GUEST: YOU CAN BRINGTHIS >>GUEST: YOU CAN BRINGTHIS WITH >>GUEST: YOU CAN BRINGTHIS WITH YOU, >>GUEST: YOU CAN BRINGTHIS WITH YOU, SPRAY >>GUEST: YOU CAN BRINGTHIS WITH YOU, SPRAY ON THIS WITH YOU, SPRAY ON THIS WITH YOU, SPRAY ONYOURSELF, THIS WITH YOU, SPRAY ONYOURSELF, SPRAY THIS WITH YOU, SPRAY ONYOURSELF, SPRAY IT(.

) THIS WITH YOU, SPRAY ONYOURSELF, SPRAY IT(.

) I YOURSELF, SPRAY IT(.

) I YOURSELF, SPRAY IT(.

) ILIVED YOURSELF, SPRAY IT(.

) ILIVED OUT YOURSELF, SPRAY IT(.

) ILIVED OUT IN YOURSELF, SPRAY IT(.

) ILIVED OUT IN LA YOURSELF, SPRAY IT(.

) ILIVED OUT IN LA FOR YOURSELF, SPRAY IT(.

) ILIVED OUT IN LA FOR A LIVED OUT IN LA FOR A LIVED OUT IN LA FOR AMINUTE LIVED OUT IN LA FOR AMINUTE SPRAY LIVED OUT IN LA FOR AMINUTE SPRAY THIS MINUTE SPRAY THIS MINUTE SPRAY THISEVERYWHERE, MINUTE SPRAY THISEVERYWHERE, SPRAY MINUTE SPRAY THISEVERYWHERE, SPRAY THIS MINUTE SPRAY THISEVERYWHERE, SPRAY THIS E EVERYWHERE, SPRAY THIS E EVERYWHERE, SPRAY THIS EON EVERYWHERE, SPRAY THIS EON YOUR EVERYWHERE, SPRAY THIS EON YOUR PET, EVERYWHERE, SPRAY THIS EON YOUR PET, OR EVERYWHERE, SPRAY THIS EON YOUR PET, OR IN EVERYWHERE, SPRAY THIS EON YOUR PET, OR IN YOUR ON YOUR PET, OR IN YOUR ON YOUR PET, OR IN YOURHOME.

HOME.

HOME.

>>HOST: HOME.

>>HOST: [LAUGHTER] >>HOST: [LAUGHTER] >>HOST: [LAUGHTER]>>GUEST: >>HOST: [LAUGHTER]>>GUEST: LET >>HOST: [LAUGHTER]>>GUEST: LET US >>HOST: [LAUGHTER]>>GUEST: LET US GO >>GUEST: LET US GO >>GUEST: LET US GOOUTSIDE >>GUEST: LET US GOOUTSIDE NOW >>GUEST: LET US GOOUTSIDE NOW BECAUSE >>GUEST: LET US GOOUTSIDE NOW BECAUSE WE OUTSIDE NOW BECAUSE WE OUTSIDE NOW BECAUSE WEHAVE OUTSIDE NOW BECAUSE WEHAVE BEEN OUTSIDE NOW BECAUSE WEHAVE BEEN WANTING OUTSIDE NOW BECAUSE WEHAVE BEEN WANTING TO OUTSIDE NOW BECAUSE WEHAVE BEEN WANTING TO GET HAVE BEEN WANTING TO GET HAVE BEEN WANTING TO GETOUTSIDE HAVE BEEN WANTING TO GETOUTSIDE NOW.

OUTSIDE NOW.

OUTSIDE NOW.

>>HOST: OUTSIDE NOW.

>>HOST: FOR OUTSIDE NOW.

>>HOST: FOR THOSE OUTSIDE NOW.

>>HOST: FOR THOSE OF OUTSIDE NOW.

>>HOST: FOR THOSE OF >> >>HOST: FOR THOSE OF >> >>HOST: FOR THOSE OF >>YOU >>HOST: FOR THOSE OF >>YOU GOING >>HOST: FOR THOSE OF >>YOU GOING FISHING, >>HOST: FOR THOSE OF >>YOU GOING FISHING, YOU >>HOST: FOR THOSE OF >>YOU GOING FISHING, YOU G YOU GOING FISHING, YOU G YOU GOING FISHING, YOU GHIKING YOU GOING FISHING, YOU GHIKING YOU'RE YOU GOING FISHING, YOU GHIKING YOU'RE GOING HIKING YOU'RE GOING HIKING YOU'RE GOINGBIKING, HIKING YOU'RE GOINGBIKING, THE HIKING YOU'RE GOINGBIKING, THE LITTLE HIKING YOU'RE GOINGBIKING, THE LITTLE KIDS BIKING, THE LITTLE KIDS BIKING, THE LITTLE KIDSARE BIKING, THE LITTLE KIDSARE PLAYING BIKING, THE LITTLE KIDSARE PLAYING IN BIKING, THE LITTLE KIDSARE PLAYING IN THE BIKING, THE LITTLE KIDSARE PLAYING IN THE ARE BIKING, THE LITTLE KIDSARE PLAYING IN THE ARE P ARE PLAYING IN THE ARE P ARE PLAYING IN THE ARE PLITTLE ARE PLAYING IN THE ARE PLITTLE LEAGUE ARE PLAYING IN THE ARE PLITTLE LEAGUE GAMES ARE PLAYING IN THE ARE PLITTLE LEAGUE GAMES AND LITTLE LEAGUE GAMES AND LITTLE LEAGUE GAMES ANDIN LITTLE LEAGUE GAMES ANDIN THIS LITTLE LEAGUE GAMES ANDIN THIS THE LITTLE LEAGUE GAMES ANDIN THIS THE BIG LITTLE LEAGUE GAMES ANDIN THIS THE BIG CATS IN THIS THE BIG CATS IN THIS THE BIG CATSBECAUSE IN THIS THE BIG CATSBECAUSE THEY'RE IN THIS THE BIG CATSBECAUSE THEY'RE TOO IN THIS THE BIG CATSBECAUSE THEY'RE TOO BUSY BECAUSE THEY'RE TOO BUSY BECAUSE THEY'RE TOO BUSYSWATTING BECAUSE THEY'RE TOO BUSYSWATTING AT BECAUSE THEY'RE TOO BUSYSWATTING AT THEIR BECAUSE THEY'RE TOO BUSYSWATTING AT THEIR NEXT.

SWATTING AT THEIR NEXT.

SWATTING AT THEIR NEXT.

--NECKS --NECKS --NECKSFOR --NECKSFOR THOSE --NECKSFOR THOSE OF --NECKSFOR THOSE OF YOU --NECKSFOR THOSE OF YOU WANT --NECKSFOR THOSE OF YOU WANT TO FOR THOSE OF YOU WANT TO FOR THOSE OF YOU WANT TOGO FOR THOSE OF YOU WANT TOGO FOR FOR THOSE OF YOU WANT TOGO FOR A FOR THOSE OF YOU WANT TOGO FOR A WALK FOR THOSE OF YOU WANT TOGO FOR A WALK NEEDLE GO FOR A WALK NEEDLE GO FOR A WALK NEEDLEWOULD GO FOR A WALK NEEDLEWOULD BE GO FOR A WALK NEEDLEWOULD BE SCRATCHING WOULD BE SCRATCHING WOULD BE SCRATCHINGYOURSELF WOULD BE SCRATCHINGYOURSELF OR WOULD BE SCRATCHINGYOURSELF OR WAVING WOULD BE SCRATCHINGYOURSELF OR WAVING YOURS YOURSELF OR WAVING YOURS YOURSELF OR WAVING YOURSTHINGS YOURSELF OR WAVING YOURSTHINGS OFF YOURSELF OR WAVING YOURSTHINGS OFF LIKE YOURSELF OR WAVING YOURSTHINGS OFF LIKE A YOURSELF OR WAVING YOURSTHINGS OFF LIKE A CRAZY THINGS OFF LIKE A CRAZY THINGS OFF LIKE A CRAZYPERSON, THINGS OFF LIKE A CRAZYPERSON, PER THINGS OFF LIKE A CRAZYPERSON, PER BUSY PERSON, PER BUSY PERSON, PER BUSYTRAVELING PERSON, PER BUSYTRAVELING OR PERSON, PER BUSYTRAVELING OR BEING TRAVELING OR BEING TRAVELING OR BEINGOUTDOORS TRAVELING OR BEINGOUTDOORS IT TRAVELING OR BEINGOUTDOORS IT IS TRAVELING OR BEINGOUTDOORS IT IS JUST TRAVELING OR BEINGOUTDOORS IT IS JUST NICE OUTDOORS IT IS JUST NICE OUTDOORS IT IS JUST NICETO OUTDOORS IT IS JUST NICETO KNOW OUTDOORS IT IS JUST NICETO KNOW NO OUTDOORS IT IS JUST NICETO KNOW NO BITING, OUTDOORS IT IS JUST NICETO KNOW NO BITING, NO TO KNOW NO BITING, NO TO KNOW NO BITING, NOSCRATCHING, TO KNOW NO BITING, NOSCRATCHING, NEW TO KNOW NO BITING, NOSCRATCHING, NEW CHEMICAL SCRATCHING, NEW CHEMICAL SCRATCHING, NEW CHEMICALSMELLS SCRATCHING, NEW CHEMICALSMELLS OR SCRATCHING, NEW CHEMICALSMELLS OR ODORS.

SCRATCHING, NEW CHEMICALSMELLS OR ODORS.

IS SCRATCHING, NEW CHEMICALSMELLS OR ODORS.

IS A SMELLS OR ODORS.

IS A SMELLS OR ODORS.

IS AGREAT SMELLS OR ODORS.

IS AGREAT PRODUCT, SMELLS OR ODORS.

IS AGREAT PRODUCT, IT SMELLS OR ODORS.

IS AGREAT PRODUCT, IT WORKS, GREAT PRODUCT, IT WORKS, GREAT PRODUCT, IT WORKS,AND GREAT PRODUCT, IT WORKS,AND IT GREAT PRODUCT, IT WORKS,AND IT IS GREAT PRODUCT, IT WORKS,AND IT IS A GREAT PRODUCT, IT WORKS,AND IT IS A SPECIAL GREAT PRODUCT, IT WORKS,AND IT IS A SPECIAL AND AND IT IS A SPECIAL AND AND IT IS A SPECIAL ANDOFFER AND IT IS A SPECIAL ANDOFFER ONLY AND IT IS A SPECIAL ANDOFFER ONLY FOR AND IT IS A SPECIAL ANDOFFER ONLY FOR YOU.

AND IT IS A SPECIAL ANDOFFER ONLY FOR YOU.

TH OFFER ONLY FOR YOU.

TH OFFER ONLY FOR YOU.

THABOUT OFFER ONLY FOR YOU.

THABOUT 600 OFFER ONLY FOR YOU.

THABOUT 600 SOLD, OFFER ONLY FOR YOU.

THABOUT 600 SOLD, AND OFFER ONLY FOR YOU.

THABOUT 600 SOLD, AND ABOU ABOUT 600 SOLD, AND ABOU ABOUT 600 SOLD, AND ABOUOTHER ABOUT 600 SOLD, AND ABOUOTHER 400 ABOUT 600 SOLD, AND ABOUOTHER 400 IN ABOUT 600 SOLD, AND ABOUOTHER 400 IN LINE, ABOUT 600 SOLD, AND ABOUOTHER 400 IN LINE, HALF OTHER 400 IN LINE, HALF OTHER 400 IN LINE, HALFARE OTHER 400 IN LINE, HALFARE GONE.

OTHER 400 IN LINE, HALFARE GONE.

THERE OTHER 400 IN LINE, HALFARE GONE.

THERE IS ARE GONE.

THERE IS ARE GONE.

THERE ISMAYBE ARE GONE.

THERE ISMAYBE ABOUT ARE GONE.

THERE ISMAYBE ABOUT 1200 ARE GONE.

THERE ISMAYBE ABOUT 1200 UNITS MAYBE ABOUT 1200 UNITS MAYBE ABOUT 1200 UNITSLEFT MAYBE ABOUT 1200 UNITSLEFT I MAYBE ABOUT 1200 UNITSLEFT I HIGHLY MAYBE ABOUT 1200 UNITSLEFT I HIGHLY RECOMMEND, LEFT I HIGHLY RECOMMEND, LEFT I HIGHLY RECOMMEND,GET LEFT I HIGHLY RECOMMEND,GET A LEFT I HIGHLY RECOMMEND,GET A SECOND LEFT I HIGHLY RECOMMEND,GET A SECOND SET LEFT I HIGHLY RECOMMEND,GET A SECOND SET FOR LEFT I HIGHLY RECOMMEND,GET A SECOND SET FOR GET GET A SECOND SET FOR GET GET A SECOND SET FOR GETYOUR GET A SECOND SET FOR GETYOUR SISTER, GET A SECOND SET FOR GETYOUR SISTER, FOR GET A SECOND SET FOR GETYOUR SISTER, FOR YOUR YOUR SISTER, FOR YOUR YOUR SISTER, FOR YOURBROTHER, YOUR SISTER, FOR YOURBROTHER, AND YOUR SISTER, FOR YOURBROTHER, AND HER YOUR SISTER, FOR YOURBROTHER, AND HER CHILDREN BROTHER, AND HER CHILDREN BROTHER, AND HER CHILDRENCHILDREN.

BROTHER, AND HER CHILDRENCHILDREN.

IF BROTHER, AND HER CHILDRENCHILDREN.

IF YOU BROTHER, AND HER CHILDRENCHILDREN.

IF YOU ARE CHILDREN.

IF YOU ARE CHILDREN.

IF YOU ARESOMEBODY CHILDREN.

IF YOU ARESOMEBODY WHO CHILDREN.

IF YOU ARESOMEBODY WHO IS CHILDREN.

IF YOU ARESOMEBODY WHO IS LIKE CHILDREN.

IF YOU ARESOMEBODY WHO IS LIKE ME SOMEBODY WHO IS LIKE ME SOMEBODY WHO IS LIKE METO SOMEBODY WHO IS LIKE METO BE SOMEBODY WHO IS LIKE METO BE A SOMEBODY WHO IS LIKE METO BE A BIG SOMEBODY WHO IS LIKE METO BE A BIG ADVOCATE SOMEBODY WHO IS LIKE METO BE A BIG ADVOCATE FOR TO BE A BIG ADVOCATE FOR TO BE A BIG ADVOCATE FORGETTING TO BE A BIG ADVOCATE FORGETTING CHEMICALS TO BE A BIG ADVOCATE FORGETTING CHEMICALS AWAY GETTING CHEMICALS AWAY GETTING CHEMICALS AWAYFROM GETTING CHEMICALS AWAYFROM YOUNGER GETTING CHEMICALS AWAYFROM YOUNGER FROM GETTING CHEMICALS AWAYFROM YOUNGER FROM YOUNGE FROM YOUNGER FROM YOUNGE FROM YOUNGER FROM YOUNGEGENERATIONS, FROM YOUNGER FROM YOUNGEGENERATIONS, IT FROM YOUNGER FROM YOUNGEGENERATIONS, IT IS FROM YOUNGER FROM YOUNGEGENERATIONS, IT IS A GENERATIONS, IT IS A GENERATIONS, IT IS AGREAT GENERATIONS, IT IS AGREAT TIME GENERATIONS, IT IS AGREAT TIME TO GENERATIONS, IT IS AGREAT TIME TO BUY GENERATIONS, IT IS AGREAT TIME TO BUY AND GENERATIONS, IT IS AGREAT TIME TO BUY AND IT GREAT TIME TO BUY AND IT GREAT TIME TO BUY AND ITIS GREAT TIME TO BUY AND ITIS SOMETHING GREAT TIME TO BUY AND ITIS SOMETHING THAT GREAT TIME TO BUY AND ITIS SOMETHING THAT WE GREAT TIME TO BUY AND ITIS SOMETHING THAT WE DO IS SOMETHING THAT WE DO IS SOMETHING THAT WE DONOT IS SOMETHING THAT WE DONOT HAVE IS SOMETHING THAT WE DONOT HAVE IN IS SOMETHING THAT WE DONOT HAVE IN STOCK IS SOMETHING THAT WE DONOT HAVE IN STOCK ALL IS SOMETHING THAT WE DONOT HAVE IN STOCK ALL OF NOT HAVE IN STOCK ALL OF NOT HAVE IN STOCK ALL OFTHE NOT HAVE IN STOCK ALL OFTHE TIME.

NOT HAVE IN STOCK ALL OFTHE TIME.

IT NOT HAVE IN STOCK ALL OFTHE TIME.

IT IS NOT HAVE IN STOCK ALL OFTHE TIME.

IT IS THE NOT HAVE IN STOCK ALL OFTHE TIME.

IT IS THE TI THE TIME.

IT IS THE TI THE TIME.

IT IS THE TIFRESHLY THE TIME.

IT IS THE TIFRESHLY BREWED THE TIME.

IT IS THE TIFRESHLY BREWED AND THE TIME.

IT IS THE TIFRESHLY BREWED AND MADE, FRESHLY BREWED AND MADE, FRESHLY BREWED AND MADE,IT FRESHLY BREWED AND MADE,IT IS FRESHLY BREWED AND MADE,IT IS NOT FRESHLY BREWED AND MADE,IT IS NOT A FRESHLY BREWED AND MADE,IT IS NOT A HUGE IT IS NOT A HUGE IT IS NOT A HUGECONGLOMERATE IT IS NOT A HUGECONGLOMERATE COMPANY.

IT IS NOT A HUGECONGLOMERATE COMPANY.

E CONGLOMERATE COMPANY.

E CONGLOMERATE COMPANY.

EHAVE CONGLOMERATE COMPANY.

EHAVE A CONGLOMERATE COMPANY.

EHAVE A LIMITED CONGLOMERATE COMPANY.

EHAVE A LIMITED TIME HAVE A LIMITED TIME HAVE A LIMITED TIMESUPPLIES HAVE A LIMITED TIMESUPPLIES AND HAVE A LIMITED TIMESUPPLIES AND ONE HAVE A LIMITED TIMESUPPLIES AND ONE TO HAVE A LIMITED TIMESUPPLIES AND ONE TO GO SUPPLIES AND ONE TO GO SUPPLIES AND ONE TO GOIN, SUPPLIES AND ONE TO GOIN, THEY SUPPLIES AND ONE TO GOIN, THEY GO SUPPLIES AND ONE TO GOIN, THEY GO OUT.

SUPPLIES AND ONE TO GOIN, THEY GO OUT.

THIS IN, THEY GO OUT.

THIS IN, THEY GO OUT.

THISIS IN, THEY GO OUT.

THISIS THE IN, THEY GO OUT.

THISIS THE FIRST IN, THEY GO OUT.

THISIS THE FIRST TIME IN, THEY GO OUT.

THISIS THE FIRST TIME THIS IS THE FIRST TIME THIS IS THE FIRST TIME THISYEAR IS THE FIRST TIME THISYEAR THAT IS THE FIRST TIME THISYEAR THAT WE IS THE FIRST TIME THISYEAR THAT WE HAVE IS THE FIRST TIME THISYEAR THAT WE HAVE ARE IS THE FIRST TIME THISYEAR THAT WE HAVE ARE 2 YEAR THAT WE HAVE ARE 2 YEAR THAT WE HAVE ARE 2GALLONS YEAR THAT WE HAVE ARE 2GALLONS OF YEAR THAT WE HAVE ARE 2GALLONS OF PRICE YEAR THAT WE HAVE ARE 2GALLONS OF PRICE OFFER GALLONS OF PRICE OFFER GALLONS OF PRICE OFFERAND GALLONS OF PRICE OFFERAND WITH GALLONS OF PRICE OFFERAND WITH THE GALLONS OF PRICE OFFERAND WITH THE WAY GALLONS OF PRICE OFFERAND WITH THE WAY THAT GALLONS OF PRICE OFFERAND WITH THE WAY THAT IT AND WITH THE WAY THAT IT AND WITH THE WAY THAT ITIS AND WITH THE WAY THAT ITIS GOING AND WITH THE WAY THAT ITIS GOING IT AND WITH THE WAY THAT ITIS GOING IT WILL AND WITH THE WAY THAT ITIS GOING IT WILL BE AND WITH THE WAY THAT ITIS GOING IT WILL BE YOUR IS GOING IT WILL BE YOUR IS GOING IT WILL BE YOURONLY IS GOING IT WILL BE YOURONLY CHANCE IS GOING IT WILL BE YOURONLY CHANCE TO IS GOING IT WILL BE YOURONLY CHANCE TO SHOP IS GOING IT WILL BE YOURONLY CHANCE TO SHOP FOR ONLY CHANCE TO SHOP FOR ONLY CHANCE TO SHOP FORTODAY.

TODAY.

TODAY.

>>GUEST: TODAY.

>>GUEST: OK TODAY.

>>GUEST: OK HOW TODAY.

>>GUEST: OK HOW MANY TODAY.

>>GUEST: OK HOW MANY OF >>GUEST: OK HOW MANY OF >>GUEST: OK HOW MANY OFYOU >>GUEST: OK HOW MANY OFYOU LIKE >>GUEST: OK HOW MANY OFYOU LIKE TO >>GUEST: OK HOW MANY OFYOU LIKE TO GOLF >>GUEST: OK HOW MANY OFYOU LIKE TO GOLF AND >>GUEST: OK HOW MANY OFYOU LIKE TO GOLF AND YOU YOU LIKE TO GOLF AND YOU YOU LIKE TO GOLF AND YOUPLAY YOU LIKE TO GOLF AND YOUPLAY TENNIS? YOU LIKE TO GOLF AND YOUPLAY TENNIS? OR YOU LIKE TO GOLF AND YOUPLAY TENNIS? OR EVEN PLAY TENNIS? OR EVEN PLAY TENNIS? OR EVENBIKING, PLAY TENNIS? OR EVENBIKING, WHATEVER PLAY TENNIS? OR EVENBIKING, WHATEVER IT PLAY TENNIS? OR EVENBIKING, WHATEVER IT IS.

BIKING, WHATEVER IT IS.

BIKING, WHATEVER IT IS.

THIS BIKING, WHATEVER IT IS.

THIS IS BIKING, WHATEVER IT IS.

THIS IS WHAT BIKING, WHATEVER IT IS.

THIS IS WHAT I BIKING, WHATEVER IT IS.

THIS IS WHAT I LIKE BIKING, WHATEVER IT IS.

THIS IS WHAT I LIKE TO THIS IS WHAT I LIKE TO THIS IS WHAT I LIKE TODO, THIS IS WHAT I LIKE TODO, I THIS IS WHAT I LIKE TODO, I WILL THIS IS WHAT I LIKE TODO, I WILL TAKE THIS IS WHAT I LIKE TODO, I WILL TAKE A THIS IS WHAT I LIKE TODO, I WILL TAKE A VISOR DO, I WILL TAKE A VISOR DO, I WILL TAKE A VISORAND DO, I WILL TAKE A VISORAND I DO, I WILL TAKE A VISORAND I SPRAY DO, I WILL TAKE A VISORAND I SPRAY DOWN DO, I WILL TAKE A VISORAND I SPRAY DOWN MY DO, I WILL TAKE A VISORAND I SPRAY DOWN MY AND AND I SPRAY DOWN MY AND AND I SPRAY DOWN MY ANDVISOR AND I SPRAY DOWN MY ANDVISOR THAT AND I SPRAY DOWN MY ANDVISOR THAT WHEN AND I SPRAY DOWN MY ANDVISOR THAT WHEN YOU AND I SPRAY DOWN MY ANDVISOR THAT WHEN YOU ARE VISOR THAT WHEN YOU ARE VISOR THAT WHEN YOU AREGOLFING VISOR THAT WHEN YOU AREGOLFING YOU VISOR THAT WHEN YOU AREGOLFING YOU KNOW VISOR THAT WHEN YOU AREGOLFING YOU KNOW THERE VISOR THAT WHEN YOU AREGOLFING YOU KNOW THERE G GOLFING YOU KNOW THERE G GOLFING YOU KNOW THERE GIS GOLFING YOU KNOW THERE GIS NOTHING GOLFING YOU KNOW THERE GIS NOTHING WORSE GOLFING YOU KNOW THERE GIS NOTHING WORSE THAN IS NOTHING WORSE THAN IS NOTHING WORSE THANTHOSE IS NOTHING WORSE THANTHOSE MOSQUITOES, IS NOTHING WORSE THANTHOSE MOSQUITOES, THOSE THOSE MOSQUITOES, THOSE THOSE MOSQUITOES, THOSENO THOSE MOSQUITOES, THOSENO SEE-UM'S, THOSE MOSQUITOES, THOSENO SEE-UM'S, , THOSE MOSQUITOES, THOSENO SEE-UM'S, , THOSE NO SEE-UM'S, , THOSE NO SEE-UM'S, , THOSEGNATS, NO SEE-UM'S, , THOSEGNATS, YOU NO SEE-UM'S, , THOSEGNATS, YOU ALSO NO SEE-UM'S, , THOSEGNATS, YOU ALSO NOTICE GNATS, YOU ALSO NOTICE GNATS, YOU ALSO NOTICETHAT GNATS, YOU ALSO NOTICETHAT YOU GNATS, YOU ALSO NOTICETHAT YOU WILL GNATS, YOU ALSO NOTICETHAT YOU WILL BE GNATS, YOU ALSO NOTICETHAT YOU WILL BE IN GNATS, YOU ALSO NOTICETHAT YOU WILL BE IN MY THAT YOU WILL BE IN MY THAT YOU WILL BE IN MYHANDS, THAT YOU WILL BE IN MYHANDS, AND THAT YOU WILL BE IN MYHANDS, AND I THAT YOU WILL BE IN MYHANDS, AND I JUST THAT YOU WILL BE IN MYHANDS, AND I JUST HAD THAT YOU WILL BE IN MYHANDS, AND I JUST HAD IT HANDS, AND I JUST HAD IT HANDS, AND I JUST HAD ITON HANDS, AND I JUST HAD ITON MY HANDS, AND I JUST HAD ITON MY HAIR.

HANDS, AND I JUST HAD ITON MY HAIR.

THAT HANDS, AND I JUST HAD ITON MY HAIR.

THAT WAY ON MY HAIR.

THAT WAY ON MY HAIR.

THAT WAYTHAT ON MY HAIR.

THAT WAYTHAT CEDAR ON MY HAIR.

THAT WAYTHAT CEDAR OIL, ON MY HAIR.

THAT WAYTHAT CEDAR OIL, IS ON MY HAIR.

THAT WAYTHAT CEDAR OIL, IS GOING THAT CEDAR OIL, IS GOING THAT CEDAR OIL, IS GOINGTO THAT CEDAR OIL, IS GOINGTO KEEP THAT CEDAR OIL, IS GOINGTO KEEP ALL THAT CEDAR OIL, IS GOINGTO KEEP ALL OF THAT CEDAR OIL, IS GOINGTO KEEP ALL OF THOSE TO KEEP ALL OF THOSE TO KEEP ALL OF THOSEINSECTS TO KEEP ALL OF THOSEINSECTS AWAY TO KEEP ALL OF THOSEINSECTS AWAY FROM TO KEEP ALL OF THOSEINSECTS AWAY FROM ME.

INSECTS AWAY FROM ME.

INSECTS AWAY FROM ME.

ALWAYS INSECTS AWAY FROM ME.

ALWAYS FOR INSECTS AWAY FROM ME.

ALWAYS FOR YOUR INSECTS AWAY FROM ME.

ALWAYS FOR YOUR ANKLES, ALWAYS FOR YOUR ANKLES, ALWAYS FOR YOUR ANKLES,ESPECIALLY ALWAYS FOR YOUR ANKLES,ESPECIALLY IF ALWAYS FOR YOUR ANKLES,ESPECIALLY IF YOU'RE ESPECIALLY IF YOU'RE ESPECIALLY IF YOU'REGOING ESPECIALLY IF YOU'REGOING HIKING.

ESPECIALLY IF YOU'REGOING HIKING.

IT'S GOING HIKING.

IT'S GOING HIKING.

IT'SGREAT GOING HIKING.

IT'SGREAT BECAUSE GOING HIKING.

IT'SGREAT BECAUSE ABYSMAL GREAT BECAUSE ABYSMAL GREAT BECAUSE ABYSMALTRAVEL GREAT BECAUSE ABYSMALTRAVEL BOTTLE, GREAT BECAUSE ABYSMALTRAVEL BOTTLE, YOU GREAT BECAUSE ABYSMALTRAVEL BOTTLE, YOU CAN TRAVEL BOTTLE, YOU CAN TRAVEL BOTTLE, YOU CANTAKE TRAVEL BOTTLE, YOU CANTAKE IT TRAVEL BOTTLE, YOU CANTAKE IT WITH TRAVEL BOTTLE, YOU CANTAKE IT WITH YOU TRAVEL BOTTLE, YOU CANTAKE IT WITH YOU HIKING, TAKE IT WITH YOU HIKING, TAKE IT WITH YOU HIKING,YOU TAKE IT WITH YOU HIKING,YOU CAN TAKE IT WITH YOU HIKING,YOU CAN TAKE TAKE IT WITH YOU HIKING,YOU CAN TAKE IT TAKE IT WITH YOU HIKING,YOU CAN TAKE IT WITH TAKE IT WITH YOU HIKING,YOU CAN TAKE IT WITH YOU YOU CAN TAKE IT WITH YOU YOU CAN TAKE IT WITH YOUON YOU CAN TAKE IT WITH YOUON THE YOU CAN TAKE IT WITH YOUON THE PLANE.

YOU CAN TAKE IT WITH YOUON THE PLANE.

THOSE YOU CAN TAKE IT WITH YOUON THE PLANE.

THOSE OF ON THE PLANE.

THOSE OF ON THE PLANE.

THOSE OFYOU ON THE PLANE.

THOSE OFYOU WHO ON THE PLANE.

THOSE OFYOU WHO LIKE ON THE PLANE.

THOSE OFYOU WHO LIKE TO ON THE PLANE.

THOSE OFYOU WHO LIKE TO GO YOU WHO LIKE TO GO YOU WHO LIKE TO GOFISHING, YOU WHO LIKE TO GOFISHING, LITTLE YOU WHO LIKE TO GOFISHING, LITTLE LEAGUE, FISHING, LITTLE LEAGUE, FISHING, LITTLE LEAGUE,MOMS, FISHING, LITTLE LEAGUE,MOMS, DADS, FISHING, LITTLE LEAGUE,MOMS, DADS, PUT FISHING, LITTLE LEAGUE,MOMS, DADS, PUT THIS FISHING, LITTLE LEAGUE,MOMS, DADS, PUT THIS IN MOMS, DADS, PUT THIS IN MOMS, DADS, PUT THIS INYOUR MOMS, DADS, PUT THIS INYOUR SATCHEL.

MOMS, DADS, PUT THIS INYOUR SATCHEL.

REALLY YOUR SATCHEL.

REALLY YOUR SATCHEL.

REALLYYOU YOUR SATCHEL.

REALLYYOU ARE YOUR SATCHEL.

REALLYYOU ARE WOULD YOUR SATCHEL.

REALLYYOU ARE WOULD BE YOUR SATCHEL.

REALLYYOU ARE WOULD BE LAYING YOU ARE WOULD BE LAYING YOU ARE WOULD BE LAYINGON YOU ARE WOULD BE LAYINGON THE YOU ARE WOULD BE LAYINGON THE GROUND YOU ARE WOULD BE LAYINGON THE GROUND WE YOU ARE WOULD BE LAYINGON THE GROUND WE GO ON THE GROUND WE GO ON THE GROUND WE GOPICNICKING, ON THE GROUND WE GOPICNICKING, DISAPPOINTED PICNICKING, DISAPPOINTED PICNICKING, DISAPPOINTEDBE PICNICKING, DISAPPOINTEDBE YOUR PICNICKING, DISAPPOINTEDBE YOUR BEST PICNICKING, DISAPPOINTEDBE YOUR BEST FRIEND.

BE YOUR BEST FRIEND.

BE YOUR BEST FRIEND.

>>HOST: BE YOUR BEST FRIEND.

>>HOST: THIS BE YOUR BEST FRIEND.

>>HOST: THIS IS BE YOUR BEST FRIEND.

>>HOST: THIS IS YOUR >>HOST: THIS IS YOUR >>HOST: THIS IS YOURFOURTH >>HOST: THIS IS YOURFOURTH OF >>HOST: THIS IS YOURFOURTH OF JULY(.

) FOURTH OF JULY(.

) FOURTH OF JULY(.

)>>GUEST: FOURTH OF JULY(.

)>>GUEST: REALLY FOURTH OF JULY(.

)>>GUEST: REALLY IS.

>>GUEST: REALLY IS.

>>GUEST: REALLY IS.

>>HOST: >>GUEST: REALLY IS.

>>HOST: WORTH >>GUEST: REALLY IS.

>>HOST: WORTH A >>GUEST: REALLY IS.

>>HOST: WORTH A JULY >>HOST: WORTH A JULY >>HOST: WORTH A JULYNIGHT >>HOST: WORTH A JULYNIGHT IN >>HOST: WORTH A JULYNIGHT IN SHINING >>HOST: WORTH A JULYNIGHT IN SHINING ARMOR.

NIGHT IN SHINING ARMOR.

NIGHT IN SHINING ARMOR.

>>GUEST: NIGHT IN SHINING ARMOR.

>>GUEST: YOU NIGHT IN SHINING ARMOR.

>>GUEST: YOU BROUGHT NIGHT IN SHINING ARMOR.

>>GUEST: YOU BROUGHT >> >>GUEST: YOU BROUGHT >> >>GUEST: YOU BROUGHT >>THE >>GUEST: YOU BROUGHT >>THE PEACH >>GUEST: YOU BROUGHT >>THE PEACH PIE >>GUEST: YOU BROUGHT >>THE PEACH PIE THE >>GUEST: YOU BROUGHT >>THE PEACH PIE THE TOO THE PEACH PIE THE TOO THE PEACH PIE THE TOOBAD THE PEACH PIE THE TOOBAD BECAUSE THE PEACH PIE THE TOOBAD BECAUSE WE THE PEACH PIE THE TOOBAD BECAUSE WE BEING BAD BECAUSE WE BEING BAD BECAUSE WE BEINGENOUGH BAD BECAUSE WE BEINGENOUGH AND BAD BECAUSE WE BEINGENOUGH AND YOU BAD BECAUSE WE BEINGENOUGH AND YOU CAN BAD BECAUSE WE BEINGENOUGH AND YOU CAN WEAR BAD BECAUSE WE BEINGENOUGH AND YOU CAN WEAR A ENOUGH AND YOU CAN WEAR A ENOUGH AND YOU CAN WEAR ADRESS ENOUGH AND YOU CAN WEAR ADRESS IN ENOUGH AND YOU CAN WEAR ADRESS IN THE ENOUGH AND YOU CAN WEAR ADRESS IN THE SUMMER.

DRESS IN THE SUMMER.

DRESS IN THE SUMMER.

YOGA DRESS IN THE SUMMER.

YOGA TEACHER DRESS IN THE SUMMER.

YOGA TEACHER WORTHINGTON YOGA TEACHER WORTHINGTON YOGA TEACHER WORTHINGTONAUTO YOGA TEACHER WORTHINGTONAUTO CLOSE YOGA TEACHER WORTHINGTONAUTO CLOSE AND YOGA TEACHER WORTHINGTONAUTO CLOSE AND THAT YOGA TEACHER WORTHINGTONAUTO CLOSE AND THAT HE AUTO CLOSE AND THAT HE AUTO CLOSE AND THAT HESPENT AUTO CLOSE AND THAT HESPENT 21 AUTO CLOSE AND THAT HESPENT 21 DAYS? SPENT 21 DAYS? SPENT 21 DAYS?>>HOST: SPENT 21 DAYS?>>HOST: I SPENT 21 DAYS?>>HOST: I HAVE.

>>HOST: I HAVE.

>>HOST: I HAVE.

>>GUEST: >>HOST: I HAVE.

>>GUEST: HELLO, >>HOST: I HAVE.

>>GUEST: HELLO, THIS >>HOST: I HAVE.

>>GUEST: HELLO, THIS > >>GUEST: HELLO, THIS > >>GUEST: HELLO, THIS >IS >>GUEST: HELLO, THIS >IS THE >>GUEST: HELLO, THIS >IS THE CONDUCT.

IS THE CONDUCT.

IS THE CONDUCT.

>>HOST: IS THE CONDUCT.

>>HOST: LYNDA IS THE CONDUCT.

>>HOST: LYNDA LYDAY IS THE CONDUCT.

>>HOST: LYNDA LYDAY OUR >>HOST: LYNDA LYDAY OUR >>HOST: LYNDA LYDAY OURLIVE >>HOST: LYNDA LYDAY OURLIVE YOUR >>HOST: LYNDA LYDAY OURLIVE YOUR LIFE >>HOST: LYNDA LYDAY OURLIVE YOUR LIFE FOR >>HOST: LYNDA LYDAY OURLIVE YOUR LIFE FOR A >>HOST: LYNDA LYDAY OURLIVE YOUR LIFE FOR A LIV LIVE YOUR LIFE FOR A LIV LIVE YOUR LIFE FOR A LIVDAY, LIVE YOUR LIFE FOR A LIVDAY, WATCHING LIVE YOUR LIFE FOR A LIVDAY, WATCHING PEOPLE DAY, WATCHING PEOPLE DAY, WATCHING PEOPLENAKED DAY, WATCHING PEOPLENAKED ON DAY, WATCHING PEOPLENAKED ON TV DAY, WATCHING PEOPLENAKED ON TV AND DAY, WATCHING PEOPLENAKED ON TV AND WATCHING NAKED ON TV AND WATCHING NAKED ON TV AND WATCHINGPIGSKIN NAKED ON TV AND WATCHINGPIGSKIN WALKED NAKED ON TV AND WATCHINGPIGSKIN WALKED AROUND.

PIGSKIN WALKED AROUND.

PIGSKIN WALKED AROUND.

[LAUGHTER] [LAUGHTER] [LAUGHTER]>>GUEST: [LAUGHTER]>>GUEST: WITH [LAUGHTER]>>GUEST: WITH IT [LAUGHTER]>>GUEST: WITH IT IS [LAUGHTER]>>GUEST: WITH IT IS A >>GUEST: WITH IT IS A >>GUEST: WITH IT IS AFUN >>GUEST: WITH IT IS AFUN LIFE! FUN LIFE! FUN LIFE!>>HOST: FUN LIFE!>>HOST: --PIGS FUN LIFE!>>HOST: --PIGS BACK FUN LIFE!>>HOST: --PIGS BACK GET >>HOST: --PIGS BACK GET >>HOST: --PIGS BACK GETBY >>HOST: --PIGS BACK GETBY THE >>HOST: --PIGS BACK GETBY THE WAY >>HOST: --PIGS BACK GETBY THE WAY IT'S >>HOST: --PIGS BACK GETBY THE WAY IT'S WORKED BY THE WAY IT'S WORKED BY THE WAY IT'S WORKEDEFFECTIVELY BY THE WAY IT'S WORKEDEFFECTIVELY BERTIN BY THE WAY IT'S WORKEDEFFECTIVELY BERTIN OF EFFECTIVELY BERTIN OF EFFECTIVELY BERTIN OFPEOPLE EFFECTIVELY BERTIN OFPEOPLE WHO EFFECTIVELY BERTIN OFPEOPLE WHO WORK EFFECTIVELY BERTIN OFPEOPLE WHO WORK FOR EFFECTIVELY BERTIN OFPEOPLE WHO WORK FOR PEOP PEOPLE WHO WORK FOR PEOP PEOPLE WHO WORK FOR PEOPHOTEL PEOPLE WHO WORK FOR PEOPHOTEL ROOMS PEOPLE WHO WORK FOR PEOPHOTEL ROOMS AND PEOPLE WHO WORK FOR PEOPHOTEL ROOMS AND THERE PEOPLE WHO WORK FOR PEOPHOTEL ROOMS AND THERE HO HOTEL ROOMS AND THERE HO HOTEL ROOMS AND THERE HOARE HOTEL ROOMS AND THERE HOARE BUGS HOTEL ROOMS AND THERE HOARE BUGS IN HOTEL ROOMS AND THERE HOARE BUGS IN THE HOTEL ROOMS AND THERE HOARE BUGS IN THE PLACE ARE BUGS IN THE PLACE ARE BUGS IN THE PLACETHAT ARE BUGS IN THE PLACETHAT YOU ARE BUGS IN THE PLACETHAT YOU SLEEP, ARE BUGS IN THE PLACETHAT YOU SLEEP, IT'S THAT YOU SLEEP, IT'S THAT YOU SLEEP, IT'SWORTH THAT YOU SLEEP, IT'SWORTH FOR THAT YOU SLEEP, IT'SWORTH FOR TONS THAT YOU SLEEP, IT'SWORTH FOR TONS OF THAT YOU SLEEP, IT'SWORTH FOR TONS OF PEOPLE WORTH FOR TONS OF PEOPLE WORTH FOR TONS OF PEOPLEWITH WORTH FOR TONS OF PEOPLEWITH YOUR WORTH FOR TONS OF PEOPLEWITH YOUR PROBLEMS WORTH FOR TONS OF PEOPLEWITH YOUR PROBLEMS WITH WITH YOUR PROBLEMS WITH WITH YOUR PROBLEMS WITHTHE WITH YOUR PROBLEMS WITHTHE FLYING WITH YOUR PROBLEMS WITHTHE FLYING BUGS WITH YOUR PROBLEMS WITHTHE FLYING BUGS AND THE FLYING BUGS AND THE FLYING BUGS ANDACROSS THE FLYING BUGS ANDCLOSET THE FLYING BUGS ANDCLOSET THAT THE FLYING BUGS ANDCLOSET THAT ARE THE FLYING BUGS ANDCLOSET THAT ARE EATING CLOSET THAT ARE EATING CLOSET THAT ARE EATINGAWAY, CLOSET THAT ARE EATINGAWAY, WE CLOSET THAT ARE EATINGAWAY, WE MAY CLOSET THAT ARE EATINGAWAY, WE MAY CLOSET CLOSET THAT ARE EATINGAWAY, WE MAY CLOSET OUT AWAY, WE MAY CLOSET OUT AWAY, WE MAY CLOSET OUTOF AWAY, WE MAY CLOSET OUTOF CEDAR AWAY, WE MAY CLOSET OUTOF CEDAR TO AWAY, WE MAY CLOSET OUTOF CEDAR TO KEEP AWAY, WE MAY CLOSET OUTOF CEDAR TO KEEP THE AWAY, WE MAY CLOSET OUTOF CEDAR TO KEEP THE OF OF CEDAR TO KEEP THE OF OF CEDAR TO KEEP THE OFMOBS OF CEDAR TO KEEP THE OFMOBS FOR OF CEDAR TO KEEP THE OFMOBS FOR MEETING OF CEDAR TO KEEP THE OFMOBS FOR MEETING YOUR MOBS FOR MEETING YOUR MOBS FOR MEETING YOURSWEATERS, MOBS FOR MEETING YOURSWEATERS, THIS MOBS FOR MEETING YOURSWEATERS, THIS IS MOBS FOR MEETING YOURSWEATERS, THIS IS CEDAR SWEATERS, THIS IS CEDAR SWEATERS, THIS IS CEDAROIL, SWEATERS, THIS IS CEDAROIL, IS SWEATERS, THIS IS CEDAROIL, IS A SWEATERS, THIS IS CEDAROIL, IS A GENIUS SWEATERS, THIS IS CEDAROIL, IS A GENIUS IDEA! SWEATERS, THIS IS CEDAROIL, IS A GENIUS IDEA! T OIL, IS A GENIUS IDEA! T OIL, IS A GENIUS IDEA! TWORKS, OIL, IS A GENIUS IDEA! TWORKS, IT OIL, IS A GENIUS IDEA! TWORKS, IT DOES OIL, IS A GENIUS IDEA! TWORKS, IT DOES NOT OIL, IS A GENIUS IDEA! TWORKS, IT DOES NOT WORKS WORKS, IT DOES NOT WORKS WORKS, IT DOES NOT WORKSSMELL, WORKS, IT DOES NOT WORKSSMELL, IS WORKS, IT DOES NOT WORKSSMELL, IS CERTAINLY WORKS, IT DOES NOT WORKSSMELL, IS CERTAINLY DOES SMELL, IS CERTAINLY DOES SMELL, IS CERTAINLY DOESNOT SMELL, IS CERTAINLY DOESNOT SMELL SMELL, IS CERTAINLY DOESNOT SMELL LIKE SMELL, IS CERTAINLY DOESNOT SMELL LIKE THOSE NOT SMELL LIKE THOSE NOT SMELL LIKE THOSEAWFUL NOT SMELL LIKE THOSEAWFUL OFF NOT SMELL LIKE THOSEAWFUL OFF SPRAY NOT SMELL LIKE THOSEAWFUL OFF SPRAY THAT NOT SMELL LIKE THOSEAWFUL OFF SPRAY THAT YOU AWFUL OFF SPRAY THAT YOU AWFUL OFF SPRAY THAT YOUARE AWFUL OFF SPRAY THAT YOUARE BUYING AWFUL OFF SPRAY THAT YOUARE BUYING AT AWFUL OFF SPRAY THAT YOUARE BUYING AT THE AWFUL OFF SPRAY THAT YOUARE BUYING AT THE ARE AWFUL OFF SPRAY THAT YOUARE BUYING AT THE ARE BU ARE BUYING AT THE ARE BU ARE BUYING AT THE ARE BUGROCERY ARE BUYING AT THE ARE BUGROCERY STORE.

ARE BUYING AT THE ARE BUGROCERY STORE.

--MOTHS GROCERY STORE.

--MOTHS GROCERY STORE.

--MOTHSIN GROCERY STORE.

--MOTHSIN HIS GROCERY STORE.

--MOTHSIN HIS FAVOR, GROCERY STORE.

--MOTHSIN HIS FAVOR, IT GROCERY STORE.

--MOTHSIN HIS FAVOR, IT IS GROCERY STORE.

--MOTHSIN HIS FAVOR, IT IS MORE IN HIS FAVOR, IT IS MORE IN HIS FAVOR, IT IS MORENATURAL, IN HIS FAVOR, IT IS MORENATURAL, FOR IN HIS FAVOR, IT IS MORENATURAL, FOR YOU, IN HIS FAVOR, IT IS MORENATURAL, FOR YOU, FOR NATURAL, FOR YOU, FOR NATURAL, FOR YOU, FORYOUR NATURAL, FOR YOU, FORYOUR FOR NATURAL, FOR YOU, FORYOUR FOR BABIES, NATURAL, FOR YOU, FORYOUR FOR BABIES, AND NATURAL, FOR YOU, FORYOUR FOR BABIES, AND FOR YOUR FOR BABIES, AND FOR YOUR FOR BABIES, AND FORYOUR YOUR FOR BABIES, AND FORYOUR HUMAN YOUR FOR BABIES, AND FORYOUR HUMAN BABIES, YOUR FOR BABIES, AND FORYOUR HUMAN BABIES, FOR YOUR HUMAN BABIES, FOR YOUR HUMAN BABIES, FORYOUR YOUR HUMAN BABIES, FORYOUR FREE YOUR HUMAN BABIES, FORYOUR FREE NURTURER, YOUR HUMAN BABIES, FORYOUR FREE NURTURER, FOR YOUR FREE NURTURER, FOR YOUR FREE NURTURER, FORYOUR YOUR FREE NURTURER, FORYOUR LUGGAGE, YOUR FREE NURTURER, FORYOUR LUGGAGE, YOU YOUR FREE NURTURER, FORYOUR LUGGAGE, YOU KNOW YOUR FREE NURTURER, FORYOUR LUGGAGE, YOU KNOW Y YOUR LUGGAGE, YOU KNOW Y YOUR LUGGAGE, YOU KNOW YIF YOUR LUGGAGE, YOU KNOW YIF THE YOUR LUGGAGE, YOU KNOW YIF THE GENIUS YOUR LUGGAGE, YOU KNOW YIF THE GENIUS IDEA YOUR LUGGAGE, YOU KNOW YIF THE GENIUS IDEA TO YOUR LUGGAGE, YOU KNOW YIF THE GENIUS IDEA TO IF IF THE GENIUS IDEA TO IF IF THE GENIUS IDEA TO IFPUT IF THE GENIUS IDEA TO IFPUT ON IF THE GENIUS IDEA TO IFPUT ON THE IF THE GENIUS IDEA TO IFPUT ON THE VISOR IF THE GENIUS IDEA TO IFPUT ON THE VISOR BEFORE PUT ON THE VISOR BEFORE PUT ON THE VISOR BEFOREYOU PUT ON THE VISOR BEFOREYOU GO PUT ON THE VISOR BEFOREYOU GO OUT PUT ON THE VISOR BEFOREYOU GO OUT TO PUT ON THE VISOR BEFOREYOU GO OUT TO BE PUT ON THE VISOR BEFOREYOU GO OUT TO BE A PUT ON THE VISOR BEFOREYOU GO OUT TO BE A BIT YOU GO OUT TO BE A BIT YOU GO OUT TO BE A BITBUGGY YOU GO OUT TO BE A BITBUGGY ECONOMY YOU GO OUT TO BE A BITBUGGY ECONOMY SPRAY YOU GO OUT TO BE A BITBUGGY ECONOMY SPRAY SOME BUGGY ECONOMY SPRAY SOME BUGGY ECONOMY SPRAY SOMEON BUGGY ECONOMY SPRAY SOMEON THE BUGGY ECONOMY SPRAY SOMEON THE IS BUGGY ECONOMY SPRAY SOMEON THE IS HAPPY BUGGY ECONOMY SPRAY SOMEON THE IS HAPPY FOR BUGGY ECONOMY SPRAY SOMEON THE IS HAPPY FOR YOU ON THE IS HAPPY FOR YOU ON THE IS HAPPY FOR YOUOUT ON THE IS HAPPY FOR YOUOUT TO ON THE IS HAPPY FOR YOUOUT TO THE ON THE IS HAPPY FOR YOUOUT TO THE BASEBALL ON THE IS HAPPY FOR YOUOUT TO THE BASEBALL GAME ON THE IS HAPPY FOR YOUOUT TO THE BASEBALL GAME.

OUT TO THE BASEBALL GAME.

OUT TO THE BASEBALL GAME.

THAT OUT TO THE BASEBALL GAME.

THAT THANK OUT TO THE BASEBALL GAME.

THAT THANK YOU OUT TO THE BASEBALL GAME.

THAT THANK YOU SPRAY THAT THANK YOU SPRAY THAT THANK YOU SPRAYBOTTLE THAT THANK YOU SPRAYBOTTLE THAT THAT THANK YOU SPRAYBOTTLE THAT LYNDA THAT THANK YOU SPRAYBOTTLE THAT LYNDA LYDAY BOTTLE THAT LYNDA LYDAY BOTTLE THAT LYNDA LYDAYIS BOTTLE THAT LYNDA LYDAYIS USING BOTTLE THAT LYNDA LYDAYIS USING RIGHT BOTTLE THAT LYNDA LYDAYIS USING RIGHT NOW, BOTTLE THAT LYNDA LYDAYIS USING RIGHT NOW, YOU IS USING RIGHT NOW, YOU IS USING RIGHT NOW, YOUCAN IS USING RIGHT NOW, YOUCAN FILL IS USING RIGHT NOW, YOUCAN FILL IT IS USING RIGHT NOW, YOUCAN FILL IT 8 IS USING RIGHT NOW, YOUCAN FILL IT 8 TIMES IS USING RIGHT NOW, YOUCAN FILL IT 8 TIMES OVER CAN FILL IT 8 TIMES OVER CAN FILL IT 8 TIMES OVERWITH CAN FILL IT 8 TIMES OVERWITH THE CAN FILL IT 8 TIMES OVERWITH THE CONCENTRATE CAN FILL IT 8 TIMES OVERWITH THE CONCENTRATE YOU WITH THE CONCENTRATE YOU WITH THE CONCENTRATE YOUARE WITH THE CONCENTRATE YOUARE BUYING WITH THE CONCENTRATE YOUARE BUYING TODAY.

ARE BUYING TODAY.

ARE BUYING TODAY.

>>GUEST: ARE BUYING TODAY.

>>GUEST: YOUR ARE BUYING TODAY.

>>GUEST: YOUR STEAMY >>GUEST: YOUR STEAMY >>GUEST: YOUR STEAMYSPRAY >>GUEST: YOUR STEAMYSPRAY MY >>GUEST: YOUR STEAMYSPRAY MY LUGGAGE, >>GUEST: YOUR STEAMYSPRAY MY LUGGAGE, THE SPRAY MY LUGGAGE, THE SPRAY MY LUGGAGE, THEREASON SPRAY MY LUGGAGE, THEREASON I SPRAY MY LUGGAGE, THEREASON I AM SPRAY MY LUGGAGE, THEREASON I AM DOING SPRAY MY LUGGAGE, THEREASON I AM DOING THAT SPRAY MY LUGGAGE, THEREASON I AM DOING THAT R REASON I AM DOING THAT R REASON I AM DOING THAT RIS REASON I AM DOING THAT RIS BECAUSE REASON I AM DOING THAT RIS BECAUSE WHEN REASON I AM DOING THAT RIS BECAUSE WHEN I REASON I AM DOING THAT RIS BECAUSE WHEN I GO REASON I AM DOING THAT RIS BECAUSE WHEN I GO ON IS BECAUSE WHEN I GO ON IS BECAUSE WHEN I GO ONA IS BECAUSE WHEN I GO ONA TRIP IS BECAUSE WHEN I GO ONA TRIP AND IS BECAUSE WHEN I GO ONA TRIP AND ESPECIALLY IS BECAUSE WHEN I GO ONA TRIP AND ESPECIALLY A A TRIP AND ESPECIALLY A A TRIP AND ESPECIALLY ATRIP A TRIP AND ESPECIALLY ATRIP TO A TRIP AND ESPECIALLY ATRIP TO MEDIA A TRIP AND ESPECIALLY ATRIP TO MEDIA OUTSIDE A TRIP AND ESPECIALLY ATRIP TO MEDIA OUTSIDE OF TRIP TO MEDIA OUTSIDE OF TRIP TO MEDIA OUTSIDE OFTHE TRIP TO MEDIA OUTSIDE OFTHE COUNTRY, TRIP TO MEDIA OUTSIDE OFTHE COUNTRY, AND TRIP TO MEDIA OUTSIDE OFTHE COUNTRY, AND WERE TRIP TO MEDIA OUTSIDE OFTHE COUNTRY, AND WERE TH THE COUNTRY, AND WERE TH THE COUNTRY, AND WERE THNOW THE COUNTRY, AND WERE THNOW IT THE COUNTRY, AND WERE THNOW IT DOESN'T THE COUNTRY, AND WERE THNOW IT DOESN'T MATTER NOW IT DOESN'T MATTER NOW IT DOESN'T MATTERBUGS, NOW IT DOESN'T MATTERBUGS, THEY NOW IT DOESN'T MATTERBUGS, THEY DON'T BUGS, THEY DON'T BUGS, THEY DON'TDISCRIMINATE.

DISCRIMINATE.

DISCRIMINATE.

>>HOST: DISCRIMINATE.

>>HOST: THEY DISCRIMINATE.

>>HOST: THEY DON'T DISCRIMINATE.

>>HOST: THEY DON'T NEED >>HOST: THEY DON'T NEED >>HOST: THEY DON'T NEEDPASSPORTS? PASSPORTS? PASSPORTS?>>GUEST: PASSPORTS?>>GUEST: I PASSPORTS?>>GUEST: I WILL PASSPORTS?>>GUEST: I WILL OPEN PASSPORTS?>>GUEST: I WILL OPEN > >>GUEST: I WILL OPEN > >>GUEST: I WILL OPEN >UP >>GUEST: I WILL OPEN >UP MY >>GUEST: I WILL OPEN >UP MY LUGGAGE >>GUEST: I WILL OPEN >UP MY LUGGAGE AND >>GUEST: I WILL OPEN >UP MY LUGGAGE AND I >>GUEST: I WILL OPEN >UP MY LUGGAGE AND I WILL UP MY LUGGAGE AND I WILL UP MY LUGGAGE AND I WILLSPRAY UP MY LUGGAGE AND I WILLSPRAY INSIDE.

UP MY LUGGAGE AND I WILLSPRAY INSIDE.

I UP MY LUGGAGE AND I WILLSPRAY INSIDE.

I BRING SPRAY INSIDE.

I BRING SPRAY INSIDE.

I BRINGTHE SPRAY INSIDE.

I BRINGTHE TRAVEL SPRAY INSIDE.

I BRINGTHE TRAVEL SIZE SPRAY INSIDE.

I BRINGTHE TRAVEL SIZE ON SPRAY INSIDE.

I BRINGTHE TRAVEL SIZE ON THE THE TRAVEL SIZE ON THE THE TRAVEL SIZE ON THEPLANE, THE TRAVEL SIZE ON THEPLANE, BECAUSE THE TRAVEL SIZE ON THEPLANE, BECAUSE IF THE TRAVEL SIZE ON THEPLANE, BECAUSE IF THIS PLANE, BECAUSE IF THIS PLANE, BECAUSE IF THISGETS PLANE, BECAUSE IF THISGETS LOST, PLANE, BECAUSE IF THISGETS LOST, I PLANE, BECAUSE IF THISGETS LOST, I WANT PLANE, BECAUSE IF THISGETS LOST, I WANT TO PLANE, BECAUSE IF THISGETS LOST, I WANT TO BE GETS LOST, I WANT TO BE GETS LOST, I WANT TO BEABLE GETS LOST, I WANT TO BEABLE TO GETS LOST, I WANT TO BEABLE TO SPRAY GETS LOST, I WANT TO BEABLE TO SPRAY MY GETS LOST, I WANT TO BEABLE TO SPRAY MY ABLE GETS LOST, I WANT TO BEABLE TO SPRAY MY ABLE TO ABLE TO SPRAY MY ABLE TO ABLE TO SPRAY MY ABLE TOBEDDING, ABLE TO SPRAY MY ABLE TOBEDDING, I ABLE TO SPRAY MY ABLE TOBEDDING, I WENT ABLE TO SPRAY MY ABLE TOBEDDING, I WENT TO ABLE TO SPRAY MY ABLE TOBEDDING, I WENT TO SPRAY BEDDING, I WENT TO SPRAY BEDDING, I WENT TO SPRAYAROUND BEDDING, I WENT TO SPRAYAROUND MY BEDDING, I WENT TO SPRAYAROUND MY HOTEL BEDDING, I WENT TO SPRAYAROUND MY HOTEL ROOM.

AROUND MY HOTEL ROOM.

AROUND MY HOTEL ROOM.

BECAUSE AROUND MY HOTEL ROOM.

BECAUSE WHEN AROUND MY HOTEL ROOM.

BECAUSE WHEN I AROUND MY HOTEL ROOM.

BECAUSE WHEN I GO AROUND MY HOTEL ROOM.

BECAUSE WHEN I GO AWAY, BECAUSE WHEN I GO AWAY, BECAUSE WHEN I GO AWAY,I BECAUSE WHEN I GO AWAY,I WANT BECAUSE WHEN I GO AWAY,I WANT TO BECAUSE WHEN I GO AWAY,I WANT TO BRING BECAUSE WHEN I GO AWAY,I WANT TO BRING A I WANT TO BRING A I WANT TO BRING ASOUVENIR I WANT TO BRING ASOUVENIR BACK, I WANT TO BRING ASOUVENIR BACK, NOT I WANT TO BRING ASOUVENIR BACK, NOT A I WANT TO BRING ASOUVENIR BACK, NOT A BUG SOUVENIR BACK, NOT A BUG SOUVENIR BACK, NOT A BUGBACK.

BACK.

BACK.

>>HOST: BACK.

>>HOST: [LAUGHTER] >>HOST: [LAUGHTER] >>HOST: [LAUGHTER]>>GUEST: >>HOST: [LAUGHTER]>>GUEST: LET >>HOST: [LAUGHTER]>>GUEST: LET US >>HOST: [LAUGHTER]>>GUEST: LET US FACE >>HOST: [LAUGHTER]>>GUEST: LET US FACE >> >>GUEST: LET US FACE >> >>GUEST: LET US FACE >>IT, >>GUEST: LET US FACE >>IT, YOU >>GUEST: LET US FACE >>IT, YOU GET >>GUEST: LET US FACE >>IT, YOU GET ONE >>GUEST: LET US FACE >>IT, YOU GET ONE OF >>GUEST: LET US FACE >>IT, YOU GET ONE OF THOSE IT, YOU GET ONE OF THOSE IT, YOU GET ONE OF THOSEBUGS IT, YOU GET ONE OF THOSEBUGS THAT IT, YOU GET ONE OF THOSEBUGS THAT COME IT, YOU GET ONE OF THOSEBUGS THAT COME BACK IT, YOU GET ONE OF THOSEBUGS THAT COME BACK AND BUGS THAT COME BACK AND BUGS THAT COME BACK ANDHE BUGS THAT COME BACK ANDHE CAN BUGS THAT COME BACK ANDHE CAN INFEST BUGS THAT COME BACK ANDHE CAN INFEST YOUR BUGS THAT COME BACK ANDHE CAN INFEST YOUR HOME.

HE CAN INFEST YOUR HOME.

>>HOST: >>HOST: I >>HOST: I WILL >>HOST: I WILL SPRAY >>HOST: I WILL SPRAY >> >>HOST: I WILL SPRAY >>THE >>HOST: I WILL SPRAY >>THE INSIDE >>HOST: I WILL SPRAY >>THE INSIDE BEFORE >>HOST: I WILL SPRAY >>THE INSIDE BEFORE I >>HOST: I WILL SPRAY >>THE INSIDE BEFORE I GO THE INSIDE BEFORE I GO THE INSIDE BEFORE I GOAND THE INSIDE BEFORE I GOAND BEFORE THE INSIDE BEFORE I GOAND BEFORE I THE INSIDE BEFORE I GOAND BEFORE I LEAVE THE INSIDE BEFORE I GOAND BEFORE I LEAVE WITH AND BEFORE I LEAVE WITH AND BEFORE I LEAVE WITHCALLS AND BEFORE I LEAVE WITHCALLS COMING AND BEFORE I LEAVE WITHCALLS COMING IN AND BEFORE I LEAVE WITHCALLS COMING IN OTHERS CALLS COMING IN OTHERS CALLS COMING IN OTHERSABOUT CALLS COMING IN OTHERSABOUT 700 CALLS COMING IN OTHERSABOUT 700 AND CALLS COMING IN OTHERSABOUT 700 AND $.

70 CALLS COMING IN OTHERSABOUT 700 AND $.

70 LEFT.

ABOUT 700 AND $.

70 LEFT.

ABOUT 700 AND $.

70 LEFT.

--77- --77- --77---770 --770 --770IF --770IF YOU'RE --770IF YOU'RE SOMEBODY --770IF YOU'RE SOMEBODY LIKE IF YOU'RE SOMEBODY LIKE IF YOU'RE SOMEBODY LIKEA IF YOU'RE SOMEBODY LIKEA CAMP IF YOU'RE SOMEBODY LIKEA CAMP COUNSELOR, IF YOU'RE SOMEBODY LIKEA CAMP COUNSELOR, GET IF YOU'RE SOMEBODY LIKEA CAMP COUNSELOR, GET A A CAMP COUNSELOR, GET A A CAMP COUNSELOR, GET ACOUPLE A CAMP COUNSELOR, GET ACOUPLE OF A CAMP COUNSELOR, GET ACOUPLE OF THESE, A CAMP COUNSELOR, GET ACOUPLE OF THESE, IT'S A CAMP COUNSELOR, GET ACOUPLE OF THESE, IT'S CO COUPLE OF THESE, IT'S CO COUPLE OF THESE, IT'S COWHY COUPLE OF THESE, IT'S COWHY WENT COUPLE OF THESE, IT'S COWHY WENT TO COUPLE OF THESE, IT'S COWHY WENT TO THIS COUPLE OF THESE, IT'S COWHY WENT TO THIS OVER COUPLE OF THESE, IT'S COWHY WENT TO THIS OVER AN WHY WENT TO THIS OVER AN WHY WENT TO THIS OVER ANOVERNIGHT WHY WENT TO THIS OVER ANOVERNIGHT CAMP WHY WENT TO THIS OVER ANOVERNIGHT CAMP EVERY OVERNIGHT CAMP EVERY OVERNIGHT CAMP EVERYSUMMER OVERNIGHT CAMP EVERYSUMMER AND OVERNIGHT CAMP EVERYSUMMER AND NOW OVERNIGHT CAMP EVERYSUMMER AND NOW MY OVERNIGHT CAMP EVERYSUMMER AND NOW MY SUMMER SUMMER AND NOW MY SUMMER SUMMER AND NOW MY SUMMERFRIENDS SUMMER AND NOW MY SUMMERFRIENDS OWN SUMMER AND NOW MY SUMMERFRIENDS OWN THE SUMMER AND NOW MY SUMMERFRIENDS OWN THE CAMP.

FRIENDS OWN THE CAMP.

FRIENDS OWN THE CAMP.

>>GUEST: FRIENDS OWN THE CAMP.

>>GUEST: NEAT.

>>GUEST: NEAT.

>>GUEST: NEAT.

>>HOST: >>GUEST: NEAT.

>>HOST: BEAR >>GUEST: NEAT.

>>HOST: BEAR CAMP >>HOST: BEAR CAMP >>HOST: BEAR CAMPCOUNSELORS >>HOST: BEAR CAMPCOUNSELORS HERE, >>HOST: BEAR CAMPCOUNSELORS HERE, AND COUNSELORS HERE, AND COUNSELORS HERE, ANDGENERATIONAL COUNSELORS HERE, ANDGENERATIONAL TRADITION, GENERATIONAL TRADITION, GENERATIONAL TRADITION,IF GENERATIONAL TRADITION,IF CANTERBURY GENERATIONAL TRADITION,IF CANTERBURY LANE GENERATIONAL TRADITION,IF CANTERBURY LANE IN GENERATIONAL TRADITION,IF CANTERBURY LANE IN IF IF CANTERBURY LANE IN IF IF CANTERBURY LANE IN IFTHE IF CANTERBURY LANE IN IFTHE MOUNDS IF CANTERBURY LANE IN IFTHE MOUNDS OF IF CANTERBURY LANE IN IFTHE MOUNDS OF WISCONSIN.

THE MOUNDS OF WISCONSIN.

THE MOUNDS OF WISCONSIN.

IT THE MOUNDS OF WISCONSIN.

IT WAS THE MOUNDS OF WISCONSIN.

IT WAS A THE MOUNDS OF WISCONSIN.

IT WAS A TRADITION THE MOUNDS OF WISCONSIN.

IT WAS A TRADITION FOR THE MOUNDS OF WISCONSIN.

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Lake Isabella

Pest Control With Ortho Home Defense


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Arvin Ant Exterminator

Pest control in Arvin for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Tick Control

Arvin Pest Control For Rodents

This article is about social insects. For other uses, see Termite (disambiguation).

Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea. Termites were once classified in a separate order from cockroaches, but recent phylogenetic studies indicate that they evolved from close ancestors of cockroaches during the Jurassic or Triassic. However, the first termites possibly emerged during the Permian or even the Carboniferous. About 3,106 species are currently described, with a few hundred more left to be described. Although these insects are often called "white ants", they are not ants.

Like ants and some bees and wasps from the separate order Hymenoptera, termites divide labour among castes consisting of sterile male and female "workers" and "soldiers". All colonies have fertile males called "kings" and one or more fertile females called "queens". Termites mostly feed on dead plant material and cellulose, generally in the form of wood, leaf litter, soil, or animal dung. Termites are major detritivores, particularly in the subtropical and tropical regions, and their recycling of wood and plant matter is of considerable ecological importance.

Termites are among the most successful groups of insects on Earth, colonising most landmasses except for Antarctica. Their colonies range in size from a few hundred individuals to enormous societies with several million individuals. Termite queens have the longest lifespan of any insect in the world, with some queens reportedly living up to 30 to 50 years. Unlike ants, which undergo a complete metamorphosis, each individual termite goes through an incomplete metamorphosis that proceeds through egg, nymph, and adult stages. Colonies are described as superorganisms because the termites form part of a self-regulating entity: the colony itself.[1]

Termites are a delicacy in the diet of some human cultures and are used in many traditional medicines. Several hundred species are economically significant as pests that can cause serious damage to buildings, crops, or plantation forests. Some species, such as the West Indian drywood termite (Cryptotermes brevis), are regarded as invasive species.

The infraorder name Isoptera is derived from the Greek words iso (equal) and ptera (winged), which refers to the nearly equal size of the fore and hind wings.[2] "Termite" derives from the Latin and Late Latin word termes ("woodworm, white ant"), altered by the influence of Latin terere ("to rub, wear, erode") from the earlier word tarmes. Termite nests were commonly known as terminarium or termitaria.[3][4] In early English, termites were known as "wood ants" or "white ants".[3] The modern term was first used in 1781.[5]

The external appearance of the giant northern termite Mastotermes darwiniensis is suggestive of the close relationship between termites and cockroaches.

DNA analysis from 16S rRNA sequences[6] has supported a hypothesis, originally suggested by Cleveland and colleagues in 1934, that these insects are most closely related to wood-eating cockroaches (genus Cryptocercus, the woodroach). This earlier conclusion had been based on the similarity of the symbiotic gut flagellates in the wood-eating cockroaches to those in certain species of termites regarded as living fossils.[7] In the 1960s additional evidence supporting that hypothesis emerged when F. A. McKittrick noted similar morphological characteristics between some termites and Cryptocercus nymphs.[8] These similarities have led some authors to propose that termites be reclassified as a single family, the Termitidae, within the order Blattodea, which contains cockroaches.[9][10] Other researchers advocate the more conservative measure of retaining the termites as the Termitoidae, an epifamily within the cockroach order, which preserves the classification of termites at family level and below.[11]

The oldest unambiguous termite fossils date to the early Cretaceous, but given the diversity of Cretaceous termites and early fossil records showing mutualism between microorganisms and these insects, they likely originated earlier in the Jurassic or Triassic.[12][13][14] Further evidence of a Jurassic origin is the assumption that the extinct Fruitafossor consumed termites, judging from its morphological similarity to modern termite-eating mammals.[15] The oldest termite nest discovered is believed to be from the Upper Cretaceous in West Texas, where the oldest known faecal pellets were also discovered.[16]

Claims that termites emerged earlier have faced controversy. For example, F. M. Weesner indicated that the Mastotermitidae termites may go back to the Late Permian, 251 million years ago,[17] and fossil wings that have a close resemblance to the wings of Mastotermes of the Mastotermitidae, the most primitive living termite, have been discovered in the Permian layers in Kansas.[18] It is even possible that the first termites emerged during the Carboniferous.[19] Termites are thought to be the descendants of the genus Cryptocercus.[9] The folded wings of the fossil wood roach Pycnoblattina, arranged in a convex pattern between segments 1a and 2a, resemble those seen in Mastotermes, the only living insect with the same pattern.[18] Krishna et al., though, consider that all of the Paleozoic and Triassic insects tentatively classified as termites are in fact unrelated to termites and should be excluded from the Isoptera.[20] Termites were the first social insects to evolve a caste system, evolving more than 100 million years ago.[21]

Termites have long been accepted to be closely related to cockroaches and mantids, and they are classified in the same superorder (Dictyoptera).[22][23] Strong evidence suggests termites are highly specialised wood-eating cockroaches.[24] The cockroach genus Cryptocercus shares the strongest phylogenetical similarity with termites and is considered to be a sister-group to termites.[25][26] Termites and Cryptocercus share similar morphological and social features: for example, most cockroaches do not exhibit social characteristics, but Cryptocercus takes care of its young and exhibits other social behaviour such as trophallaxis and allogrooming.[27] The primitive giant northern termite (Mastotermes darwiniensis) exhibits numerous cockroach-like characteristics that are not shared with other termites, such as laying its eggs in rafts and having anal lobes on the wings.[28] Cryptocercidae and Isoptera are united in the clade Xylophagodea.[29] Although termites are sometimes called "white ants", they are actually not ants. Ants belong to the family Formicidae within the order Hymenoptera. The similarity of their social structure to that of termites is attributed to convergent evolution.[30]

As of 2013, about 3,106 living and fossil termite species are recognised, classified in 12 families. The infraorder Isoptera is divided into the following clade and family groups, showing the subfamilies in their respective classification:[20]

Termites are found on all continents except Antarctica. The diversity of termite species is low in North America and Europe (10 species known in Europe and 50 in North America), but is high in South America, where over 400 species are known.[31] Of the 3,000 termite species currently classified, 1,000 are found in Africa, where mounds are extremely abundant in certain regions. Approximately 1.1 million active termite mounds can be found in the northern Kruger National Park alone.[32] In Asia, there are 435 species of termites, which are mainly distributed in China. Within China, termite species are restricted to mild tropical and subtropical habitats south of the Yangtze River.[31] In Australia, all ecological groups of termites (dampwood, drywood, subterranean) are endemic to the country, with over 360 classified species.[31]

Due to their soft cuticles, termites do not inhabit cool or cold habitats.[33] There are three ecological groups of termites: dampwood, drywood and subterranean. Dampwood termites are found only in coniferous forests, and drywood termites are found in hardwood forests; subterranean termites live in widely diverse areas.[31] One species in the drywood group is the West Indian drywood termite (Cryptotermes brevis), which is an invasive species in Australia.[34]

Close-up view of a worker's head

Termites are usually small, measuring between 4 to 15 millimetres (0.16 to 0.59 in) in length.[31] The largest of all extant termites are the queens of the species Macrotermes bellicosus, measuring up to over 10 centimetres (4 in) in length.[35] Another giant termite, the extinct Gyatermes styriensis, flourished in Austria during the Miocene and had a wingspan of 76 millimetres (3.0 in) and a body length of 25 millimetres (0.98 in).[36][note 1]

Most worker and soldier termites are completely blind as they do not have a pair of eyes. However, some species, such as Hodotermes mossambicus, have compound eyes which they use for orientation and to distinguish sunlight from moonlight.[37] The alates have eyes along with lateral ocelli. Lateral ocelli, however, are not found in all termites.[38][39] Like other insects, termites have a small tongue-shaped labrum and a clypeus; the clypeus is divided into a postclypeus and anteclypeus. Termite antennae have a number of functions such as the sensing of touch, taste, odours (including pheromones), heat and vibration. The three basic segments of a termite antenna include a scape, a pedicel (typically shorter than the scape), and the flagellum (all segments beyond the scape and pedicel).[39] The mouth parts contain a maxillae, a labium, and a set of mandibles. The maxillae and labium have palps that help termites sense food and handling.[39]

Consistent with all insects, the anatomy of the termite thorax consists of three segments: the prothorax, the mesothorax and the metathorax.[39] Each segment contains a pair of legs. On alates, the wings are located at the mesothorax and metathorax. The mesothorax and metathorax have well-developed exoskeletal plates; the prothorax has smaller plates.[40]

Diagram showing a wing, along with the clypeus and leg

Termites have a ten-segmented abdomen with two plates, the tergites and the sternites.[41] The tenth abdominal segment has a pair of short cerci.[42] There are ten tergites, of which nine are wide and one is elongated.[43] The reproductive organs are similar to those in cockroaches but are more simplified. For example, the intromittent organ is not present in male alates, and the sperm is either immotile or aflagellate. However, Mastotermitidae termites have multiflagellate sperm with limited motility.[44] The genitals in females are also simplified. Unlike in other termites, Mastotermitidae females have an ovipositor, a feature strikingly similar to that in female cockroaches.[45]

The non-reproductive castes of termites are wingless and rely exclusively on their six legs for locomotion. The alates fly only for a brief amount of time, so they also rely on their legs.[41] The appearance of the legs is similar in each caste, but the soldiers have larger and heavier legs. The structure of the legs is consistent with other insects: the parts of a leg include a coxa, trochanter, femur, tibia and the tarsus.[41] The number of tibial spurs on an individual's leg varies. Some species of termite have an arolium, located between the claws, which is present in species that climb on smooth surfaces but is absent in most termites.[46]

Unlike in ants, the hind-wings and fore-wings are of equal length.[2] Most of the time, the alates are poor flyers; their technique is to launch themselves in the air and fly in a random direction.[47] Studies show that in comparison to larger termites, smaller termites cannot fly long distances. When a termite is in flight, its wings remain at a right angle, and when the termite is at rest, its wings remain parallel to the body.[48]

Caste system of termites
A — King
B — Queen
C — Secondary queen
D — Tertiary queen
E — Soldiers
F — Worker

Worker termites undertake the most labour within the colony, being responsible for foraging, food storage, and brood and nest maintenance.[49][50] Workers are tasked with the digestion of cellulose in food and are thus the most likely caste to be found in infested wood. The process of worker termites feeding other nestmates is known as trophallaxis. Trophallaxis is an effective nutritional tactic to convert and recycle nitrogenous components.[51] It frees the parents from feeding all but the first generation of offspring, allowing for the group to grow much larger and ensuring that the necessary gut symbionts are transferred from one generation to another. Some termite species do not have a true worker caste, instead relying on nymphs that perform the same work without differentiating as a separate caste.[50]

The soldier caste has anatomical and behavioural specialisations, and their sole purpose is to defend the colony.[52] Many soldiers have large heads with highly modified powerful jaws so enlarged they cannot feed themselves. Instead, like juveniles, they are fed by workers.[52][53]Fontanelles, simple holes in the forehead that exude defensive secretions, are a feature of the family Rhinotermitidae.[54] Many species are readily identified using the characteristics of the soldiers' larger and darker head and large mandibles.[50][52] Among certain termites, soldiers may use their globular (phragmotic) heads to block their narrow tunnels.[55] Different sorts of soldiers include minor and major soldiers, and nasutes, which have a horn-like nozzle frontal projection (a nasus).[50] These unique soldiers are able to spray noxious, sticky secretions containing diterpenes at their enemies.[56]Nitrogen fixation plays an important role in nasute nutrition.[57]

The reproductive caste of a mature colony includes a fertile female and male, known as the queen and king.[58] The queen of the colony is responsible for egg production for the colony. Unlike in ants, the king mates with her for life.[59] In some species, the abdomen of the queen swells up dramatically to increase fecundity, a characteristic known as physogastrism.[49][58] Depending on the species, the queen starts producing reproductive winged alates at a certain time of the year, and huge swarms emerge from the colony when nuptial flight begins. These swarms attract a wide variety of predators.[58]

A young termite nymph. Nymphs first moult into workers, but others may further moult to become soldiers or alates.

Termites are often compared with the social Hymenoptera (ants and various species of bees and wasps), but their differing evolutionary origins result in major differences in life cycle. In the eusocial Hymenoptera, the workers are exclusively female, males (drones) are haploid and develop from unfertilised eggs, while females (both workers and the queen) are diploid and develop from fertilised eggs. In contrast, worker termites, which constitute the majority in a colony, are diploid individuals of both sexes and develop from fertilised eggs. Depending on species, male and female workers may have different roles in a termite colony.[60]

The life cycle of a termite begins with an egg, but is different from that of a bee or ant in that it goes through a developmental process called incomplete metamorphosis, with egg, nymph and adult stages.[61] Nymphs resemble small adults, and go through a series of moults as they grow. In some species, eggs go through four moulting stages and nymphs go through three.[62] Nymphs first moult into workers, and then some workers go through further moulting and become soldiers or alates; workers become alates only by moulting into alate nymphs.[63]

The development of nymphs into adults can take months; the time period depends on food availability, temperature, and the general population of the colony. Since nymphs are unable to feed themselves, workers must feed them, but workers also take part in the social life of the colony and have certain other tasks to accomplish such as foraging, building or maintaining the nest or tending to the queen.[50][64] Pheromones regulate the caste system in termite colonies, preventing all but a very few of the termites from becoming fertile queens.[65]

Alates swarming during nuptial flight after rain

Termite alates only leave the colony when a nuptial flight takes place. Alate males and females pair up together and then land in search of a suitable place for a colony.[66] A termite king and queen do not mate until they find such a spot. When they do, they excavate a chamber big enough for both, close up the entrance and proceed to mate.[66] After mating, the pair never go outside and spend the rest of their lives in the nest. Nuptial flight time varies in each species. For example, alates in certain species emerge during the day in summer while others emerge during the winter.[67] The nuptial flight may also begin at dusk, when the alates swarm around areas with lots of lights. The time when nuptial flight begins depends on the environmental conditions, the time of day, moisture, wind speed and precipitation.[67] The number of termites in a colony also varies, with the larger species typically having 100–1,000 individuals. However, some termite colonies, including those with large individuals, can number in the millions.[36]

The queen only lays 10–20 eggs in the very early stages of the colony, but lays as many as 1,000 a day when the colony is several years old.[50] At maturity, a primary queen has a great capacity to lay eggs. In some species, the mature queen has a greatly distended abdomen and may produce 40,000 eggs a day.[68] The two mature ovaries may have some 2,000 ovarioles each.[69] The abdomen increases the queen's body length to several times more than before mating and reduces her ability to move freely; attendant workers provide assistance.

Play media Egg grooming behaviour of Reticulitermes speratus workers in a nursery cell

The king grows only slightly larger after initial mating and continues to mate with the queen for life (a termite queen can live between 30  to 50 years); this is very different from ant colonies, in which a queen mates once with the male(s) and stores the gametes for life, as the male ants die shortly after mating.[59][64] If a queen is absent, a termite king produces pheromones which encourage the development of replacement termite queens.[70] As the queen and king are monogamous, sperm competition does not occur.[71]

Termites going through incomplete metamorphosis on the path to becoming alates form a subcaste in certain species of termite, functioning as potential supplementary reproductives. These supplementary reproductives only mature into primary reproductives upon the death of a king or queen, or when the primary reproductives are separated from the colony.[63][72] Supplementaries have the ability to replace a dead primary reproductive, and there may also be more than a single supplementary within a colony.[50] Some queens have the ability to switch from sexual reproduction to asexual reproduction. Studies show that while termite queens mate with the king to produce colony workers, the queens reproduce their replacements (neotenic queens) parthenogenetically.[73][74]

Termite faecal pellets

Termites are detritivores, consuming dead plants at any level of decomposition. They also play a vital role in the ecosystem by recycling waste material such as dead wood, faeces and plants.[75][76][77] Many species eat cellulose, having a specialised midgut that breaks down the fibre.[78] Termites are considered to be a major source (11%) of atmospheric methane, one of the prime greenhouse gases, produced from the breakdown of cellulose.[79] Termites rely primarily upon symbiotic protozoa (metamonads) and other microbes such as flagellate protists in their guts to digest the cellulose for them, allowing them to absorb the end products for their own use.[80][81] Gut protozoa, such as Trichonympha, in turn, rely on symbiotic bacteria embedded on their surfaces to produce some of the necessary digestive enzymes. Most higher termites, especially in the family Termitidae, can produce their own cellulase enzymes, but they rely primarily upon the bacteria. The flagellates have been lost in Termitidae.[82][83][84] Scientists' understanding of the relationship between the termite digestive tract and the microbial endosymbionts is still rudimentary; what is true in all termite species, however, is that the workers feed the other members of the colony with substances derived from the digestion of plant material, either from the mouth or anus.[51] Judging from closely related bacterial species, it is strongly presumed that the termites' and cockroach's gut microbiota derives from their dictyopteran ancestors.[85]

Certain species such as Gnathamitermes tubiformans have seasonal food habits. For example, they may preferentially consume Red three-awn (Aristida longiseta) during the summer, Buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides) from May to August, and blue grama Bouteloua gracilis during spring, summer and autumn. Colonies of G. tubiformans consume less food in spring than they do during autumn when their feeding activity is high.[86]

Various woods differ in their susceptibility to termite attack; the differences are attributed to such factors as moisture content, hardness, and resin and lignin content. In one study, the drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis strongly preferred poplar and maple woods to other woods that were generally rejected by the termite colony. These preferences may in part have represented conditioned or learned behaviour.[87]

Some species of termite practice fungiculture. They maintain a "garden" of specialised fungi of genus Termitomyces, which are nourished by the excrement of the insects. When the fungi are eaten, their spores pass undamaged through the intestines of the termites to complete the cycle by germinating in the fresh faecal pellets.[88][89] Molecular evidence suggests that the family Macrotermitinae developed agriculture about 31 million years ago. It is assumed that more than 90 percent of dry wood in the semiarid savannah ecosystems of Africa and Asia are reprocessed by these termites. Originally living in the rainforest, fungus farming allowed them to colonise the African savannah and other new environments, eventually expanding into Asia.[90]

Depending on their feeding habits, termites are placed into two groups: the lower termites and higher termites. The lower termites predominately feed on wood. As wood is difficult to digest, termites prefer to consume fungus-infected wood because it is easier to digest and the fungi are high in protein. Meanwhile, the higher termites consume a wide variety of materials, including faeces, humus, grass, leaves and roots.[91] The gut in the lower termites contains many species of bacteria along with protozoa, while the higher termites only have a few species of bacteria with no protozoa.[92]

Crab spider with a captured alate

Termites are consumed by a wide variety of predators. One termite species alone, Hodotermes mossambicus, was found in the stomach contents of 65 birds and 19 mammals.[93]ant,[94][95]arthropods, reptiles, and amphibians such as bees, centipedes, cockroaches, crickets, dragonflies, frogs,[96]lizards,[97]scorpions, spiders,[98] and toads consume these insects, while 2 spiders in the family Ammoxenidae are specialist termite predators.[99][100][101] Other predators include aardvarks, aardwolves, anteaters, bats, bears, bilbies, many birds, echidnas, foxes, galagos, numbats, mice and pangolins.[99][102][103][104] The aardwolf is an insectivorous mammal that primarily feeds on termites; it locates its food by sound and also by detecting the scent secreted by the soldiers; a single aardwolf is capable of consuming thousands of termites in a single night by using its long, sticky tongue.[105][106]Sloth bears break open mounds to consume the nestmates, while chimpanzees have developed tools to "fish" termites from their nest. Wear pattern analysis of bone tools used by the early hominin Paranthropus robustus suggests that they used these tools to dig into termite mounds.[107]

A Matabele ant (Megaponera analis) kills a Macrotermes bellicosus termite soldier during a raid.

Among all predators, ants are the greatest enemy to termites.[94][95] Some ant genera are specialist predators of termites. For example, Megaponera is a strictly termite-eating (termitophagous) genus that perform raiding activities, some lasting several hours.[108][109]Paltothyreus tarsatus is another termite-raiding species, with each individual stacking as many termites as possible in its mandibles before returning home, all the while recruiting additional nestmates to the raiding site through chemical trails.[94] The Malaysian basicerotine ants Eurhopalothrix heliscata uses a different strategy of termite hunting by pressing themselves into tight spaces, as they hunt through rotting wood housing termite colonies. Once inside, the ants seize their prey by using their short but sharp mandibles.[94]Tetramorium uelense is a specialised predator species that feeds on small termites. A scout recruits 10–30 workers to an area where termites are present, killing them by immobilising them with their stinger.[110]Centromyrmex and Iridomyrmex colonies sometimes nest in termite mounds, and so the termites are preyed on by these ants. No evidence for any kind of relationship (other than a predatory one) is known.[111][112] Other ants, including Acanthostichus, Camponotus, Crematogaster, Cylindromyrmex, Leptogenys, Odontomachus, Ophthalmopone, Pachycondyla, Rhytidoponera, Solenopsis and Wasmannia, also prey on termites.[102][94][113] In contrast to all these ant species, and despite their enormous diversity of prey, Dorylus ants rarely consume termites.[114]

Ants are not the only invertebrates that perform raids. Many sphecoid wasps and several species including Polybia Lepeletier and Angiopolybia Araujo are known to raid termite mounds during the termites' nuptial flight.[115]

Termites are less likely to be attacked by parasites than bees, wasps and ants, as they are usually well protected in their mounds.[116][117] Nevertheless, termites are infected by a variety of parasites. Some of these include dipteran flies,[118]Pyemotes mites, and a large number of nematode parasites. Most nematode parasites are in the order Rhabditida;[119] others are in the genus Mermis, Diplogaster aerivora and Harteria gallinarum.[120] Under imminent threat of an attack by parasites, a colony may migrate to a new location.[121] Fungi pathogens such as Aspergillus nomius and Metarhizium anisopliae are, however, major threats to a termite colony as they are not host-specific and may infect large portions of the colony;[122][123] transmission usually occurs via direct physical contact.[124]M. anispliae is known to weaken the termite immune system. Infection with A. nomius only occurs when a colony is under great stress.[123]Inquilinism between two termite species does not occur in the termite world.[125]

Termites are infected by viruses including Entomopoxvirinae and the Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus.[126][127]

Because the worker and soldier castes lack wings and thus never fly, and the reproductives use their wings for just a brief amount of time, termites predominantly rely upon their legs to move about.[41]

Foraging behaviour depends on the type of termite. For example, certain species feed on the wood structures they inhabit, and others harvest food that is near the nest.[128] Most workers are rarely found out in the open, and do not forage unprotected; they rely on sheeting and runways to protect them from predators.[49] Subterranean termites construct tunnels and galleries to look for food, and workers who manage to find food sources recruit additional nestmates by depositing a phagostimulant pheromone that attracts workers.[129] Foraging workers use semiochemicals to communicate with each other,[130] and workers who begin to forage outside of their nest release trail pheromones from their sternal glands.[131] In one species, Nasutitermes costalis, there are three phases in a foraging expedition: first, soldiers scout an area. When they find a food source, they communicate to other soldiers and a small force of workers starts to emerge. In the second phase, workers appear in large numbers at the site. The third phase is marked by a decrease in the number of soldiers present and an increase in the number of workers.[132] Isolated termite workers may engage in Lévy flight behaviour as an optimised strategy for finding their nestmates or foraging for food.[133]

Competition between two colonies always results in agonistic behaviour towards each other, resulting in fights. These fights can cause mortality on both sides and, in some cases, the gain or loss of territory.[134][135] "Cemetery pits" may be present, where the bodies of dead termites are buried.[136]

Studies show that when termites encounter each other in foraging areas, some of the termites deliberately block passages to prevent other termites from entering.[130][137] Dead termites from other colonies found in exploratory tunnels leads to the isolation of the area and thus the need to construct new tunnels.[138] Conflict between two competitors does not always occur. For example, though they might block each other's passages, colonies of Macrotermes bellicosus and Macrotermes subhyalinus are not always aggressive towards each other.[139] Suicide cramming is known in Coptotermes formosanus. Since C. formosanus colonies may get into physical conflict, some termites squeeze tightly into foraging tunnels and die, successfully blocking the tunnel and ending all agonistic activities.[140]

Among the reproductive caste, neotenic queens may compete with each other to become the dominant queen when there are no primary reproductives. This struggle among the queens leads to the elimination of all but a single queen, which, with the king, takes over the colony.[141]

Ants and termites may compete with each other for nesting space. In particular, ants that prey on termites usually have a negative impact on arboreal nesting species.[142]

Hordes of Nasutitermes on a march for food, following, and leaving, trail pheromones

Most termites are blind, so communication primarily occurs through chemical, mechanical and pheromonal cues.[38][130] These methods of communication are used in a variety of activities, including foraging, locating reproductives, construction of nests, recognition of nestmates, nuptial flight, locating and fighting enemies, and defending the nests.[38][130] The most common way of communicating is through antennation.[130] A number of pheromones are known, including contact pheromones (which are transmitted when workers are engaged in trophallaxis or grooming) and alarm, trail and sex pheromones. The alarm pheromone and other defensive chemicals are secreted from the frontal gland. Trail pheromones are secreted from the sternal gland, and sex pheromones derive from two glandular sources: the sternal and tergal glands.[38] When termites go out to look for food, they forage in columns along the ground through vegetation. A trail can be identified by the faecal deposits or runways that are covered by objects. Workers leave pheromones on these trails, which are detected by other nestmates through olfactory receptors.[53] Termites can also communicate through mechanical cues, vibrations, and physical contact.[53][130] These signals are frequently used for alarm communication or for evaluating a food source.[130][143]

When termites construct their nests, they use predominantly indirect communication. No single termite would be in charge of any particular construction project. Individual termites react rather than think, but at a group level, they exhibit a sort of collective cognition. Specific structures or other objects such as pellets of soil or pillars cause termites to start building. The termite adds these objects onto existing structures, and such behaviour encourages building behaviour in other workers. The result is a self-organised process whereby the information that directs termite activity results from changes in the environment rather than from direct contact among individuals.[130]

Termites can distinguish nestmates and non-nestmates through chemical communication and gut symbionts: chemicals consisting of hydrocarbons released from the cuticle allow the recognition of alien termite species.[144][145] Each colony has its own distinct odour. This odour is a result of genetic and environmental factors such as the termites' diet and the composition of the bacteria within the termites' intestines.[146]

See also: Insect defences Termites rush to a damaged area of the nest.

Termites rely on alarm communication to defend a colony.[130] Alarm pheromones can be released when the nest has been breached or is being attacked by enemies or potential pathogens. Termites always avoid nestmates infected with Metarhizium anisopliae spores, through vibrational signals released by infected nestmates.[147] Other methods of defence include intense jerking and secretion of fluids from the frontal gland and defecating faeces containing alarm pheromones.[130][148]

In some species, some soldiers block tunnels to prevent their enemies from entering the nest, and they may deliberately rupture themselves as an act of defence.[149] In cases where the intrusion is coming from a breach that is larger than the soldier's head, defence requires a special formations where soldiers form a phalanx-like formation around the breach and bite at intruders.[150] If an invasion carried out by Megaponera analis is successful, an entire colony may be destroyed, although this scenario is rare.[150]

To termites, any breach of their tunnels or nests is a cause for alarm. When termites detect a potential breach, the soldiers usually bang their heads, apparently to attract other soldiers for defence and to recruit additional workers to repair any breach.[53] Additionally, an alarmed termite bumps into other termites which causes them to be alarmed and to leave pheromone trails to the disturbed area, which is also a way to recruit extra workers.[53]

Nasute termite soldiers on rotten wood

The pantropical subfamily Nasutitermitinae has a specialised caste of soldiers, known as nasutes, that have the ability to exude noxious liquids through a horn-like frontal projection that they use for defence.[151] Nasutes have lost their mandibles through the course of evolution and must be fed by workers.[56] A wide variety of monoterpene hydrocarbon solvents have been identified in the liquids that nasutes secrete.[152]

Soldiers of the species Globitermes sulphureus commit suicide by autothysis – rupturing a large gland just beneath the surface of their cuticles. The thick, yellow fluid in the gland becomes very sticky on contact with the air, entangling ants or other insects which are trying to invade the nest.[153][154] Another termite, Neocapriterme taracua, also engages in suicidal defence. Workers physically unable to use their mandibles while in a fight form a pouch full of chemicals, then deliberately rupture themselves, releasing toxic chemicals that paralyse and kill their enemies.[155] The soldiers of the neotropical termite family Serritermitidae have a defence strategy which involves front gland autothysis, with the body rupturing between the head and abdomen. When soldiers guarding nest entrances are attacked by intruders, they engage in autothysis, creating a block that denies entry to any attacker.[156]

Workers use several different strategies to deal with their dead, including burying, cannibalism, and avoiding a corpse altogether.[157][158][159] To avoid pathogens, termites occasionally engage in necrophoresis, in which a nestmate carries away a corpse from the colony to dispose of it elsewhere.[160] Which strategy is used depends on the nature of the corpse a worker is dealing with (i.e. the age of the carcass).[160]

Rhizanthella gardneri is the only orchid known to be pollinated by termites.

A species of fungus is known to mimic termite eggs, successfully avoiding its natural predators. These small brown balls, known as "termite balls", rarely kill the eggs, and in some cases the workers tend to them.[161] This fungus mimics these eggs by producing a cellulose-digesting enzyme known as glucosidases.[162] A unique mimicking behaviour exists between various species of Trichopsenius beetles and certain termite species within Reticulitermes. The beetles share the same cuticle hydrocarbons as the termites and even biosynthesize them. This chemical mimicry allows the beetles to integrate themselves within the termite colonies.[163] The developed appendages on the physogastric abdomen of Austrospirachtha mimetes allows the beetle to mimic a termite worker.[164]

Some species of ant are known to capture termites to use as a fresh food source later on, rather than killing them. For example, Formica nigra captures termites, and those who try to escape are immediately seized and driven underground.[165] Certain species of ants in the subfamily Ponerinae conduct these raids although other ant species go in alone to steal the eggs or nymphs.[142] Ants such as Megaponera analis attack the outside the mounds and Dorylinae ants attack underground.[142][166] Despite this, some termites and ants can coexist peacefully. Some species of termite, including Nasutitermes corniger, form associations with certain ant species to keep away predatory ant species.[167] The earliest known association between Azteca ants and Nasutitermes termites date back to the Oligocene to Miocene period.[168]

An ant raiding party collecting Pseudocanthotermes militaris termites after a successful raid

54 species of ants are known to inhabit Nasutitermes mounds, both occupied and abandoned ones.[169] One reason many ants live in Nasutitermes mounds is due to the termites' frequent occurrence in their geographical range; another is to protect themselves from floods.[169][170]Iridomyrmex also inhabits termite mounds although no evidence for any kind of relationship (other than a predatory one) is known.[111] In rare cases, certain species of termites live inside active ant colonies.[171] Some invertebrate organisms such as beetles, caterpillars, flies and millipedes are termitophiles and dwell inside termite colonies (they are unable to survive independently).[53] As a result, certain beetles and flies have evolved with their hosts. They have developed a gland that secrete a substance that attracts the workers by licking them. Mounds may also provide shelter and warmth to birds, lizards, snakes and scorpions.[53]

Termites are known to carry pollen and regularly visit flowers,[172] so are regarded as potential pollinators for a number of flowering plants.[173] One flower in particular, Rhizanthella gardneri, is regularly pollinated by foraging workers, and it is perhaps the only Orchidaceae flower in the world to be pollinated by termites.[172]

Many plants have developed effective defences against termites. However, seedlings are vulnerable to termite attacks and need additional protection, as their defence mechanisms only develop when they have passed the seedling stage.[174] Defence is typically achieved by secreting antifeedant chemicals into the woody cell walls.[175] This reduces the ability of termites to efficiently digest the cellulose. A commercial product, "Blockaid", has been developed in Australia that uses a range of plant extracts to create a paint-on nontoxic termite barrier for buildings.[175] An extract of a species of Australian figwort, Eremophila, has been shown to repel termites;[176] tests have shown that termites are strongly repelled by the toxic material to the extent that they will starve rather than consume the food. When kept close to the extract, they become disoriented and eventually die.[176]

Termite populations can be substantially impacted by environmental changes including those caused by human intervention. A Brazilian study investigated the termite assemblages of three sites of Caatinga under different levels of anthropogenic disturbance in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil were sampled using 65 x 2 m transects.[177] A total of 26 species of termites were present in the three sites, and 196 encounters were recorded in the transects. The termite assemblages were considerably different among sites, with a conspicuous reduction in both diversity and abundance with increased disturbance, related to the reduction of tree density and soil cover, and with the intensity of trampling by cattle and goats. The wood-feeders were the most severely affected feeding group.

An arboreal termite nest in Mexico

A termite nest can be considered as being composed of two parts, the inanimate and the animate. The animate is all of the termites living inside the colony, and the inanimate part is the structure itself, which is constructed by the termites.[178] Nests can be broadly separated into three main categories: subterranean (completely below ground), epigeal (protruding above the soil surface), and arboreal (built above ground, but always connected to the ground via shelter tubes).[179] Epigeal nests (mounds) protrude from the earth with ground contact and are made out of earth and mud.[180] A nest has many functions such as providing a protected living space and providing shelter against predators. Most termites construct underground colonies rather than multifunctional nests and mounds.[181] Primitive termites of today nest in wooden structures such as logs, stumps and the dead parts of trees, as did termites millions of years ago.[179]

To build their nests, termites primarily use faeces, which have many desirable properties as a construction material.[182] Other building materials include partly digested plant material, used in carton nests (arboreal nests built from faecal elements and wood), and soil, used in subterranean nest and mound construction. Not all nests are visible, as many nests in tropical forests are located underground.[181] Species in the subfamily Apicotermitinae are good examples of subterranean nest builders, as they only dwell inside tunnels.[182] Other termites live in wood, and tunnels are constructed as they feed on the wood. Nests and mounds protect the termites' soft bodies against desiccation, light, pathogens and parasites, as well as providing a fortification against predators.[183] Nests made out of carton are particularly weak, and so the inhabitants use counter-attack strategies against invading predators.[184]

Arboreal carton nests of mangrove swamp-dwelling Nasutitermes are enriched in lignin and depleted in cellulose and xylans. This change is caused by bacterial decay in the gut of the termites: they use their faeces as a carton building material. Arboreal termites nests can account for as much as 2% of above ground carbon storage in Puerto Rican mangrove swamps. These Nasutitermes nests are mainly composed of partially biodegraded wood material from the stems and branches of mangrove trees, namely, Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) and Laguncularia racemose (white mangrove).[185]

Some species build complex nests called polycalic nests; this habitat is called polycalism. Polycalic species of termites form multiple nests, or calies, connected by subterranean chambers.[102] The termite genera Apicotermes and Trinervitermes are known to have polycalic species.[186] Polycalic nests appear to be less frequent in mound-building species although polycalic arboreal nests have been observed in a few species of Nasutitermes.[186]

Main article: Mound-building termites

Nests are considered mounds if they protrude from the earth's surface.[182] A mound provides termites the same protection as a nest but is stronger.[184] Mounds located in areas with torrential and continuous rainfall are at risk of mound erosion due to their clay-rich construction. Those made from carton can provide protection from the rain, and in fact can withstand high precipitation.[182] Certain areas in mounds are used as strong points in case of a breach. For example, Cubitermes colonies build narrow tunnels used as strong points, as the diameter of the tunnels is small enough for soldiers to block.[187] A highly protected chamber, known as the "queens cell", houses the queen and king and is used as a last line of defence.[184]

Species in the genus Macrotermes arguably build the most complex structures in the insect world, constructing enormous mounds.[182] These mounds are among the largest in the world, reaching a height of 8 to 9 metres (26 to 29 feet), and consist of chimneys, pinnacles and ridges.[53] Another termite species, Amitermes meridionalis, can build nests 3 to 4 metres (9 to 13 feet) high and 2.5 metres (8 feet) wide. The tallest mound ever recorded was 12.8 metres (42 ft) long found in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.[188]

The sculptured mounds sometimes have elaborate and distinctive forms, such as those of the compass termite (Amitermes meridionalis and A. laurensis), which builds tall, wedge-shaped mounds with the long axis oriented approximately north–south, which gives them their common name.[189][190] This orientation has been experimentally shown to assist thermoregulation. The north-south orientation causes the internal temperature of a mound to increase rapidly during the morning while avoiding overheating from the midday sun. The temperature then remains at a plateau for the rest of the day until the evening.[191]

Nasutiterminae shelter tubes on a tree trunk provide cover for the trail from nest to forest floor.

Termites construct shelter tubes, also known as earthen tubes or mud tubes, that start from the ground. These shelter tubes can be found on walls and other structures.[192] Constructed by termites during the night, a time of higher humidity, these tubes provide protection to termites from potential predators, especially ants.[193] Shelter tubes also provide high humidity and darkness and allow workers to collect food sources that cannot be accessed in any other way.[192] These passageways are made from soil and faeces and are normally brown in colour. The size of these shelter tubes depends on the amount of food sources that are available. They range from less than 1 cm to several cm in width, but may extend dozens of metres in length.[193]

Termite damage on external structure

Owing to their wood-eating habits, many termite species can do great damage to unprotected buildings and other wooden structures.[194] Their habit of remaining concealed often results in their presence being undetected until the timbers are severely damaged, leaving a thin layer of a wall that protects them from the environment.[195] Of the 3,106 species known, only 183 species cause damage; 83 species cause significant damage to wooden structures.[194] In North America, nine subterranean species are pests; in Australia, 16 species have an economic impact; in the Indian subcontinent 26 species are considered pests, and in tropical Africa, 24. In Central America and the West Indies, there are 17 pest species.[194] Among the termite genera, Coptotermes has the highest number of pest species of any genus, with 28 species known to cause damage.[194] Less than 10% of drywood termites are pests, but they infect wooden structures and furniture in tropical, subtropical and other regions. Dampwood termites only attack lumber material exposed to rainfall or soil.[194]

Drywood termites thrive in warm climates, and human activities can enable them to invade homes since they can be transported through contaminated goods, containers and ships.[194] Colonies of termites have been seen thriving in warm buildings located in cold regions.[196] Some termites are considered invasive species. Cryptotermes brevis, the most widely introduced invasive termite species in the world, has been introduced to all the islands in the West Indies and to Australia.[34][194]

Termite damage in wooden house stumps

In addition to causing damage to buildings, termites can also damage food crops.[197] Termites may attack trees whose resistance to damage is low but generally ignore fast-growing plants. Most attacks occur at harvest time; crops and trees are attacked during the dry season.[197]

The damage caused by termites costs the southwestern United States approximately $1.5 billion each year in wood structure damage, but the true cost of damage worldwide cannot be determined.[194][198] Drywood termites are responsible for a large proportion of the damage caused by termites.[199]

To better control the population of termites, various methods have been developed to track termite movements.[198] One early method involved distributing termite bait laced with immunoglobulin G (IgG) marker proteins from rabbits or chickens. Termites collected from the field could be tested for the rabbit-IgG markers using a rabbit-IgG-specific assay. More recently developed, less expensive alternatives include tracking the termites using egg white, cow milk, or soy milk proteins, which can be sprayed on termites in the field. Termites bearing these proteins can be traced using a protein-specific ELISA test.[198]

See also: Entomophagy Mozambican boys from the Yawo tribe collecting flying termites These flying alates were collected as they came out of their nests in the ground during the early days of the rainy season.

43 termite species are used as food by humans or are fed to livestock.[200] These insects are particularly important in less developed countries where malnutrition is common, as the protein from termites can help improve the human diet. Termites are consumed in many regions globally, but this practice has only become popular in developed nations in recent years.[200]

Termites are consumed by people in many different cultures around the world. In Africa, the alates are an important factor in the diets of native populations.[201] Tribes have different ways of collecting or cultivating insects; sometimes tribes collect soldiers from several species. Though harder to acquire, queens are regarded as a delicacy.[202] Termite alates are high in nutrition with adequate levels of fat and protein. They are regarded as pleasant in taste, having a nut-like flavour after they are cooked.[201]

Alates are collected when the rainy season begins. During a nuptial flight, they are typically seen around lights to which they are attracted, and so nets are set up on lamps and captured alates are later collected. The wings are removed through a technique that is similar to winnowing. The best result comes when they are lightly roasted on a hot plate or fried until crisp. Oil is not required as their bodies usually contain sufficient amounts of oil. Termites are typically eaten when livestock is lean and tribal crops have not yet developed or produced any food, or if food stocks from a previous growing season are limited.[201]

In addition to Africa, termites are consumed in local or tribal areas in Asia and North and South America. In Australia, Indigenous Australians are aware that termites are edible but do not consume them even in times of scarcity; there are few explanations as to why.[201][202] Termite mounds are the main sources of soil consumption (geophagy) in many countries including Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe and South Africa.[203][204][205][206] Researchers have suggested that termites are suitable candidates for human consumption and space agriculture, as they are high in protein and can be used to convert inedible waste to consumable products for humans.[207]

Scientists have developed a more affordable method of tracing the movement of termites using traceable proteins.[198]

Termites can be major agricultural pests, particularly in East Africa and North Asia, where crop losses can be severe (3–100% in crop loss in Africa).[208] Counterbalancing this is the greatly improved water infiltration where termite tunnels in the soil allow rainwater to soak in deeply, which helps reduce runoff and consequent soil erosion through bioturbation.[209] In South America, cultivated plants such as eucalyptus, upland rice and sugarcane can be severely damaged by termite infestations, with attacks on leaves, roots and woody tissue. Termites can also attack other plants, including cassava, coffee, cotton, fruit trees, maize, peanuts, soybeans and vegetables.[23] Mounds can disrupt farming activities, making it difficult for farmers to operate farming machinery; however, despite farmers' dislike of the mounds, it is often the case that no net loss of production occurs.[23] Termites can be beneficial to agriculture, such as by boosting crop yields and enriching the soil. Termites and ants can re-colonise untilled land that contains crop stubble, which colonies use for nourishment when they establish their nests. The presence of nests in fields enables larger amounts of rainwater to soak into the ground and increases the amount of nitrogen in the soil, both essential for the growth of crops.[210]

See also: Renewable energy, Termite-inspired robots, and Sustainable architecture

The termite gut has inspired various research efforts aimed at replacing fossil fuels with cleaner, renewable energy sources.[211] Termites are efficient bioreactors, capable of producing two litres of hydrogen from a single sheet of paper.[212] Approximately 200 species of microbes live inside the termite hindgut, releasing the hydrogen that was trapped inside wood and plants that they digest.[211][213] Through the action of unidentified enzymes in the termite gut, lignocellulose polymers are broken down into sugars and are transformed into hydrogen. The bacteria within the gut turns the sugar and hydrogen into cellulose acetate, an acetate ester of cellulose on which termites rely for energy.[211]Community DNA sequencing of the microbes in the termite hindgut has been employed to provide a better understanding of the metabolic pathway.[211] Genetic engineering may enable hydrogen to be generated in bioreactors from woody biomass.[211]

The development of autonomous robots capable of constructing intricate structures without human assistance has been inspired by the complex mounds that termites build.[214] These robots work independently and can move by themselves on a tracked grid, capable of climbing and lifting up bricks. Such robots may be useful for future projects on Mars, or for building levees to prevent flooding.[215]

Termites use sophisticated means to control the temperatures of their mounds. As discussed above, the shape and orientation of the mounds of the Australian compass termite stabilises their internal temperatures during the day. As the towers heat up, the solar chimney effect (stack effect) creates an updraft of air within the mound.[216] Wind blowing across the tops of the towers enhances the circulation of air through the mounds, which also include side vents in their construction. The solar chimney effect has been in use for centuries in the Middle East and Near East for passive cooling, as well as in Europe by the Romans.[217] It is only relatively recently, however, that climate responsive construction techniques have become incorporated into modern architecture. Especially in Africa, the stack effect has become a popular means to achieve natural ventilation and passive cooling in modern buildings.[216]

The pink-hued Eastgate Centre

The Eastgate Centre is a shopping centre and office block in central Harare, Zimbabwe, whose architect, Mick Pearce, used passive cooling inspired by that used by the local termites.[218] It was the first major building exploiting termite-inspired cooling techniques to attract international attention. Other such buildings include the Learning Resource Center at the Catholic University of Eastern Africa and the Council House 2 building in Melbourne, Australia.[216]

Few zoos hold termites, due to the difficulty in keeping them captive and to the reluctance of authorities to permit potential pests. One of the few that do, the Zoo Basel in Switzerland, has two thriving Macrotermes bellicosus populations – resulting in an event very rare in captivity: the mass migrations of young flying termites. This happened in September 2008, when thousands of male termites left their mound each night, died, and covered the floors and water pits of the house holding their exhibit.[219]

African tribes in several countries have termites as totems, and for this reason tribe members are forbidden to eat the reproductive alates.[220] Termites are widely used in traditional popular medicine; they are used as treatments for diseases and other conditions such as asthma, bronchitis, hoarseness, influenza, sinusitis, tonsillitis and whooping cough.[200] In Nigeria, Macrotermes nigeriensis is used for spiritual protection and to treat wounds and sick pregnant women. In Southeast Asia, termites are used in ritual practices. In Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand, termite mounds are commonly worshiped among the populace.[221] Abandoned mounds are viewed as structures created by spirits, believing a local guardian dwells within the mound; this is known as Keramat and Datok Kong. In urban areas, local residents construct red-painted shrines over mounds that have been abandoned, where they pray for good health, protection and luck.[221]

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  215. ^ Gibney, E. (2014). "Termite-inspired robots build castles". Nature. doi:10.1038/nature.2014.14713. 
  216. ^ a b c "Termites Green Architecture in the Tropics". The Architect. Architectural Association of Kenya. Retrieved 17 October 2015. 
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  221. ^ a b Neoh, K.B. (2013). "Termites and human society in Southeast Asia" (PDF). The Newsletter. 30 (66): 1–2. 
Rat Infestation

Pest Control for Mice - Getting Rid Of Mice

Rodents such as mice and rats can be a serious nuisance to any homeowner. However, by using effective rodent control methods, there are ways to prevent an infestation from happening in the first place or to get rid of undesirable rodents on your property for good.

A professional pest control company can help you by providing reliable solutions for rodent control. One of the first things that would need to be done is to inspect your property, in order to check for any places that rodents may be coming from.

In urban environments, pests such as rats and mice will typically enter buildings to look for food, a place to build their nests and to get shelter from cold temperatures outside. A pest control firm can then recommend ways for you to prevent these animals from getting inside.

If you have already seen rodents inside your property, it is of utmost importance to act quickly in order to eradicate the infestation at once and to prevent it from reoccurring again in the future. As rats and mice are able to reproduce quickly, contacting a rodent control specialist immediately.

Rodent control specialists can develop an effective action plan for you, depending on the size of your property and on the severity of the infestation. They have access to professional grade equipment and products in order to get rid of mice and rats quickly and efficiently. These experts have many years of experience in rodent control and will happily assist you in getting rid of an infestation at once.

Arvin

Metro Pest Control Companies Seeing Increase In Carpenter Ants


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Tehachapi Rat Infestation

Pest control in Tehachapi for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Wasp Exterminator

Tehachapi Pest Control For Rodents

Terminix International Company, L.P. is one of the largest pest control companies in the world, operating in 47 states in the United States and 22 countries around the world. It is a subsidiary of ServiceMaster Global Holdings, Inc.[1]

In 1927, E. L. Bruce, owner of the E. L. Bruce Company in Memphis, Tennessee, wanted to find a way to protect the hardwood floors they manufactured from damage by termites and founded the Bruce Terminix Research Laboratory. In 1932, senior chemist Frank Lyons created the first termiticide, an insecticide specifically designed to kill termites. The company began to franchise under the name Bruce Terminix. In 1955, Terminix was the first company to offer a termite protection contract, with annual inspections and a guarantee. In 1957, franchisees began offering residential and commercial pest control services.[2]

In 1968, the E. L. Bruce Company, including Bruce Terminix, was sold to Cook Industries. The company began looking to expand its business both inside and outside of the United States and purchased a pest control company in Mexico. Terminix partnered with Sears, Roebuck and Company to offer pest control services under the Sears Termite and Pest Control name. In 1972, the company changed their name to Terminix International to highlight their expanded operations.[3]

ServiceMaster, a global holding company, purchased Terminix from Cook Industries in 1986.[1] It continued to acquire pest control companies, including former franchisees, to become the largest pest control company in the world by 1990. The company expanded into Europe in 1994 with the acquisition of Peter Cox PLC, a pest-control and wood-preservation business in Britain.[1] In 2001, Terminix purchased its former partner, Sears Termite and Pest Control.[3] In 2007, ServiceMaster moved its main offices from Downers Grove, Illinois to the site of Terminix's headquarters in Memphis, Tennessee.

Over the first three months of 2009, Terminix acquired nine pest management companies across seven states.[4] In December 2012, Terminix closed six acquisitions adding over $10 million in revenue.[5] In 2013, Terminix acquired two Canadian pest control companies, Magical Pest Control, based in Toronto, and Vancouver-based Care Pest & Wildlife Control.[6] During the first five months of 2014, Terminix acquired eight pest and wildlife control companies in ten states.[7] Terminix's parent company, ServiceMaster, held its IPO in June 2014.[8][9] In November 2015, Terminix acquired the Utah-based company, Alterra Pest Control.[10]

Terminix works with residential and commercial customers for pest control services including termite, mosquito and bed bug treatments, as well as insulation options.[2][11]

Terminix released the environmentally safe mosquito bait Attractive Targeted Sugar Bait in 2014. The garlic oil makes mosquitoes sick and kills 90 percent of the mosquitoes within three weeks. [12][13][14] The company also produces AllClear mosquito repellant, which is an all natural mix of essential oils.[citation needed]

In May 2008, termite inspectors in California sued ServiceMaster and its Terminix unit for failure to pay overtime, rest breaks, and other work-required expenses. Terminix held that termite inspectors were outside sales employees.[15][16] In June 2011, the U.S. District Court held that termite inspections are not sales activities.[17] The case was filed as a class action,[18] and class action case was denied, while Individual claims were allowed.[19][20]

In March 2016, Terminix settled with the United States Department of Justice over illegal use of banned pesticides in the United States Virgin Islands and the poisoning of a family vacationing there.[21] The family of four was poisoned when the unit below their rented villa was fumigated with the highly toxic methyl bromide, which has been banned from indoor use in the United States since 1984.

In 1971, Stan Freberg won Clio Awards for three of his radio commercials for Terminix, entitled "Vintage Floorboards," "Interview," and "Blue Tennis Shoes."[22]

In 1983, the movie "Mr. Mom" featured a reference to Terminix technicians.[23]

In 2010, Tim Heidecker and Eric Wareheim claimed at Comic-Con that they had partnered with Terminix for an upcoming release of their movie "Blues Brothers 2012". In this film, the Blues Brothers would take the roles of Terminix technicians.[24]

In June 2015, Terminix provided Attractive Targeted Sugar Bait around the clubhouse and golf course of TPC Southwind for the FedEx St. Jude Classic tournament.[25] That same month, Terminix released "Mosquitonado," a movie trailer parody during National Mosquito Control Awareness Week. The trailer featured Sharknado star Tara Reid.[26][27]

Rat Infestation

6 Reasons to Have Monthly Pest Control Service

Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea, which also includes termites. About 30 cockroach species out of 4,600 are associated with human habitats. About four species are well known as pests.

The cockroaches are an ancient group, dating back at least as far as the Carboniferous period, some 320 million years ago. Those early ancestors however lacked the internal ovipositors of modern roaches. Cockroaches are somewhat generalized insects without special adaptations like the sucking mouthparts of aphids and other true bugs; they have chewing mouthparts and are likely among the most primitive of living neopteran insects. They are common and hardy insects, and can tolerate a wide range of environments from Arctic cold to tropical heat. Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger than temperate species, and, contrary to popular belief, extinct cockroach relatives and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species.

Some species, such as the gregarious German cockroach, have an elaborate social structure involving common shelter, social dependence, information transfer and kin recognition. Cockroaches have appeared in human culture since classical antiquity. They are popularly depicted as dirty pests, though the great majority of species are inoffensive and live in a wide range of habitats around the world.

A 40- to 50-million-year-old cockroach in Baltic amber (Eocene)

Cockroaches are members of the order Blattodea, which includes the termites, a group of insects once thought to be separate from cockroaches. Currently, 4,600 species and over 460 genera are described worldwide.[1][2] The name "cockroach" comes from the Spanish word for cockroach, cucaracha, transformed by 1620s English folk etymology into "cock" and "roach".[3] The scientific name derives from the Latin blatta, "an insect that shuns the light", which in classical Latin was applied not only to cockroaches, but also to mantids.[4][5]

Historically, the name Blattaria was used largely interchangeably with the name Blattodea, but whilst the former name was used to refer to 'true' cockroaches exclusively, the latter also includes the termites. The current catalogue of world cockroach species uses the name Blattodea for the group.[1] Another name, Blattoptera, is also sometimes used.[6] The earliest cockroach-like fossils ("blattopterans" or "roachids") are from the Carboniferous period 320 million years ago, as are fossil roachoid nymphs.[7][8][9]

Since the 19th century, scientists believed that cockroaches were an ancient group of insects that had a Devonian origin, according to one hypothesis.[10] Fossil roachoids that lived during that time differ from modern cockroaches in having long external ovipositors and are the ancestors of mantises, as well as modern blattodeans. As the body, hind wings and mouthparts are not preserved in fossils frequently, the relationship of these roachoids and modern cockroaches remains disputed. The first fossils of modern cockroaches with internal ovipositors appeared in the early Cretaceous. A recent phylogenetic analysis suggests that cockroaches originated at least in the Jurassic.[10]

The evolutionary relationships of the Blattodea (cockroaches and termites) shown in the cladogram are based on Eggleton, Beccaloni & Inward (2007).[11] The cockroach families Lamproblattidae and Tryonicidae are not shown but are placed within the superfamily Blattoidea. The cockroach families Corydiidae and Ectobiidae were previously known as the Polyphagidae and Blattellidae.[12]

Termites were previously regarded as a separate order Isoptera to cockroaches. However, recent genetic evidence strongly suggests that they evolved directly from 'true' cockroaches, and many authors now place them as an "epifamily" of Blattodea.[11] This evidence supported a hypothesis suggested in 1934 that termites are closely related to the wood-eating cockroaches (genus Cryptocercus). This hypothesis was originally based on similarity of the symbiotic gut flagellates in termites regarded as living fossils and wood-eating cockroaches.[13] Additional evidence emerged when F. A. McKittrick (1965) noted similar morphological characteristics between some termites and cockroach nymphs.[14] The similarities among these cockroaches and termites have led some scientists to reclassify termites as a single family, the Termitidae, within the order Blattodea.[11][15] Other scientists have taken a more conservative approach, proposing to retain the termites as the Termitoidea, an epifamily within the order. Such measure preserves the classification of termites at family level and below.[16]

Domino cockroach Therea petiveriana, normally found in India

Most species of cockroach are about the size of a thumbnail, but several species are bigger. The world's heaviest cockroach is the Australian giant burrowing cockroach Macropanesthia rhinoceros, which can reach 9 cm (3.5 in) in length and weigh more than 30 g (1.1 oz).[17] Comparable in size is the Central American giant cockroach Blaberus giganteus, which grows to a similar length.[18] The longest cockroach species is Megaloblatta longipennis, which can reach 97 mm (3.8 in) in length and 45 mm (1.8 in) across.[19] A Central and South American species, Megaloblatta blaberoides, has the largest wingspan of up to 185 mm (7.3 in).[20]

Head of Periplaneta americana

Cockroaches are generalized insects, with few special adaptations, and may be among the most primitive living neopteran insects. They have a relatively small head and a broad, flattened body, and most species are reddish-brown to dark brown. They have large compound eyes, two ocelli, and long, flexible antennae. The mouthparts are on the underside of the head and include generalized chewing mandibles, salivary glands and various touch and taste receptors.[21]

The body is divided into a thorax of three segments and a ten-segmented abdomen. The external surface has a tough exoskeleton which contains calcium carbonate and protects the inner organs and provides attachment to muscles. It is coated with wax to repel water. The wings are attached to the second and third thoracic segments. The tegmina, or first pair of wings, are tough and protective, lying as a shield on top of the membranous hind wings, which are used in flight. All four wings have branching longitudinal veins, and multiple cross-veins.[22]

The three pairs of legs are sturdy, with large coxae and five claws each.[22] They are attached to each of the three thoracic segments. The front legs are the shortest and the hind legs the longest, providing the main propulsive power when the insect runs.[21] The spines on the legs were earlier considered to be sensory, but observations of the insect's gait on sand and wire meshes have demonstrated that they help in locomotion on difficult terrain. The structures have been used as inspiration for robotic legs.[23][24]

The abdomen has ten segments, each with a pair of spiracles for respiration. Segment ten bears a pair of cerci, a pair of anal styles, the anus and the external genitalia. Males have an aedeagus through which they secrete sperm during copulation and females have spermathecae for storing sperm and an ovipositor through which the ootheca is laid.[21]

Cockroaches are abundant throughout the world and live in a wide range of environments, especially in the tropics and subtropics.[25] Cockroaches can withstand extremely cold temperatures, allowing them to live in the Arctic. Some species are capable of surviving temperatures of −188 °F (−122 °C) by manufacturing an antifreeze made out of glycerol.[26] In North America, 50 species separated into five families are found throughout the continent.[25] 450 species are found in Australia.[27] Only about four widespread species are commonly regarded as pests.[28][29]

Cockroaches occupy a wide range of habitats. Many live in leaf litter, among the stems of matted vegetation, in rotting wood, in holes in stumps, in cavities under bark, under log piles and among debris. Some live in arid regions and have developed mechanisms to survive without access to water sources. Others are aquatic, living near the surface of water bodies, including bromeliad phytotelmata, and diving to forage for food. Most of these respire by piercing the water surface with the tip of the abdomen which acts as a snorkel, but some carry a bubble of air under their thoracic shield when they submerge. Others live in the forest canopy where they may be one of the main types of invertebrate present. Here they may hide during the day in crevices, among dead leaves, in bird and insect nests or among epiphytes, emerging at night to feed.[30]

A cockroach soon after ecdysis

Cockroaches are social insects; a large number of species are either gregarious or inclined to aggregate, and a slightly smaller number exhibit parental care.[31] It used to be thought that cockroaches aggregated because they were reacting to environmental cues, but it is now believed that pheromones are involved in these behaviors. Some species secrete these in their feces with gut microbial symbionts being involved, while others use glands located on their mandibles. Pheromones produced by the cuticle may enable cockroaches to distinguish between different populations of cockroach by odor. The behaviors involved have only been studied in a few species, but German cockroaches leave fecal trails with an odor gradient.[31] Other cockroaches follow such trails to discover sources of food and water, and where other cockroaches are hiding. Thus, cockroaches have emergent behavior, in which group or swarm behavior emerges from a simple set of individual interactions.[32]

Daily rhythms may also be regulated by a complex set of hormonal controls of which only a small subset have been understood. In 2005, the role of one of these proteins, pigment dispersing factor (PDF), was isolated and found to be a key mediator in the circadian rhythms of the cockroach.[33]

Pest species adapt readily to a variety of environments, but prefer warm conditions found within buildings. Many tropical species prefer even warmer environments. Cockroaches are mainly nocturnal[34] and run away when exposed to light. An exception to this is the Asian cockroach, which flies mostly at night but is attracted to brightly-lit surfaces and pale colors.[35]

Gregarious cockroaches display collective decision-making when choosing food sources. When a sufficient number of individuals (a "quorum") exploits a food source, this signals to newcomer cockroaches that they should stay there longer rather than leave for elsewhere.[36] Other mathematical models have been developed to explain aggregation dynamics and conspecific recognition.[37][38]

Group-based decision-making is responsible for complex behaviors such as resource allocation. In a study where 50 cockroaches were placed in a dish with three shelters with a capacity for 40 insects in each, the insects arranged themselves in two shelters with 25 insects in each, leaving the third shelter empty. When the capacity of the shelters was increased to more than 50 insects per shelter, all of the cockroaches arranged themselves in one shelter. Cooperation and competition are balanced in cockroach group decision-making behavior.[32]

Cockroaches appear to use just two pieces of information to decide where to go, namely how dark it is and how many other cockroaches there are. A study used specially-scented roach-sized robots that appear to the roaches as real to demonstrate that once there are enough insects in a place to form a critical mass, the roaches accepted the collective decision on where to hide, even if this was an unusually light place.[39]

Gregarious German cockroaches show different behavior when reared in isolation from when reared in a group. In one study, isolated cockroaches were less likely to leave their shelters and explore, spent less time eating, interacted less with conspecifics when exposed to them, and took longer to recognize receptive females. Because these changes occurred in many contexts, the authors suggested them as constituting a behavioral syndrome. These effects might have been due either to reduced metabolic and developmental rates in isolated individuals or the fact that the isolated individuals hadn't had a training period to learn about what others were like via their antennae.[40]

Individual American cockroaches appear to have consistently different "personalities" regarding how they seek shelter. In addition, group personality is not simply the sum of individual choices, but reflects conformity and collective decision-making.[41][42]

The gregarious German and American cockroaches have elaborate social structure, chemical signalling, and "social herd" characteristics. Lihoreau and his fellow researchers stated:[32]

Some species make a hissing noise while other cockroaches make a chirping noise. The Madagascar hissing cockroach produces its sound through the modified spiracles on the fourth abdominal segment. Several different hisses are produced, including disturbance sounds, produced by adults and larger nymphs, and aggressive, courtship and copulatory sounds produced by adult males.[43]Henschoutedenia epilamproides has a stridulatory organ between its thorax and abdomen, but the purpose of the sound produced is unclear.[44]

Several Australian species practice acoustic and vibration behavior as an aspect of courtship. They have been observed producing hisses and whistles from air forced through the spiracles. Furthermore, in the presence of a potential mate, some cockroaches tap the substrate in a rhythmic, repetitive manner. Acoustic signals may be of greater prevalence amongst perching species, particularly those that live on low vegetation in Australia's tropics.[45]

Cockroaches are generally omnivorous; the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), for example, feeds on a great variety of foodstuffs including bread, fruit, leather, starch in book bindings, paper, glue, skin flakes, hair, dead insects and soiled clothing.[46] Many species of cockroach harbor symbiotic protozoans and bacteria in their gut which are able to digest cellulose. In many species, these symbionts may be essential if the insect is to utilize cellulose; however, some species secrete cellulase in their saliva, and the wood-eating cockroach, Panesthia cribrata, is able to survive indefinitely on a diet of crystallized cellulose while being free of micro-organisms.[47]

The similarity of these symbionts in the genus Cryptocercus to those in termites are such that these cockroaches have been suggested to be more closely related to termites than to other cockroaches,[48] and current research strongly supports this hypothesis about their relationships.[49] All species studied so far carry the obligate mutualistic endosymbiont bacterium Blattabacterium, with the exception of Nocticola australiensise, an Australian cave-dwelling species without eyes, pigment or wings, which recent genetic studies indicate is a very primitive cockroach.[50][51] It had previously been thought that all five families of cockroach were descended from a common ancestor that was infected with B. cuenoti. It may be that N. australiensise subsequently lost its symbionts, or alternatively this hypothesis will need to be re-examined.[51]

Like other insects, cockroaches breathe through a system of tubes called tracheae which are attached to openings called spiracles on all body segments. When the carbon dioxide level in the insect rises high enough, valves on the spiracles open and carbon dioxide diffuses out and oxygen diffuses in. The tracheal system branches repeatedly, the finest tracheoles bringing air directly to each cell, allowing gaseous exchange to take place.[52]

While cockroaches do not have lungs as do vertebrates, and can continue to respire if their heads are removed, in some very large species, the body musculature may contract rhythmically to forcibly move air in and out of the spiracles; this may be considered a form of breathing.[52]

Cockroaches use pheromones to attract mates, and the males practice courtship rituals, such as posturing and stridulation. Like many insects, cockroaches mate facing away from each other with their genitalia in contact, and copulation can be prolonged. A few species are known to be parthenogenetic, reproducing without the need for males.[22]

Female cockroaches are sometimes seen carrying egg cases on the end of their abdomens; the German cockroach holds about 30 to 40 long, thin eggs in a case called an ootheca. She drops the capsule prior to hatching, though live births do occur in rare instances. The egg capsule may take more than five hours to lay and is initially bright white in color. The eggs are hatched from the combined pressure of the hatchlings gulping air. The hatchlings are initially bright white nymphs and continue inflating themselves with air, becoming harder and darker within about four hours. Their transient white stage while hatching and later while molting has led to claims of albino cockroaches.[22] Development from eggs to adults takes three to four months. Cockroaches live up to a year, and the female may produce up to eight egg cases in a lifetime; in favorable conditions, she can produce 300 to 400 offspring. Other species of cockroaches, however, can produce far more eggs; in some cases a female needs to be impregnated only once to be able to lay eggs for the rest of her life.[22]

The female usually attaches the egg case to a substrate, inserts it into a suitably protective crevice, or carries it about until just before the eggs hatch. Some species, however, are ovoviviparous, keeping the eggs inside their body, with or without an egg case, until they hatch. At least one genus, Diploptera, is fully viviparous.[22]

Cockroaches have incomplete metamorphosis, meaning that the nymphs are generally similar to the adults, except for undeveloped wings and genitalia. Development is generally slow, and may take a few months to over a year. The adults are also long-lived, and have survived for as much as four years in the laboratory.[22]

Cockroaches are among the hardiest insects. Some species are capable of remaining active for a month without food and are able to survive on limited resources, such as the glue from the back of postage stamps.[53] Some can go without air for 45 minutes. Japanese cockroach (Periplaneta japonica) nymphs, which hibernate in cold winters, survived twelve hours at −5 °C to −8 °C in laboratory experiments.[54]

Experiments on decapitated specimens of several species of cockroach found a variety of behavioral functionality remained, including shock avoidance and escape behavior, although many insects other than cockroaches are also able to survive decapitation, and popular claims of the longevity of headless cockroaches do not appear to be based on published research.[55][56] The severed head is able to survive and wave its antennae for several hours, or longer when refrigerated and given nutrients.[56]

It is popularly suggested that cockroaches will "inherit the earth" if humanity destroys itself in a nuclear war. Cockroaches do indeed have a much higher radiation resistance than vertebrates, with the lethal dose perhaps six to 15 times that for humans. However, they are not exceptionally radiation-resistant compared to other insects, such as the fruit fly.[57]

The cockroach's ability to withstand radiation better than human beings can be explained through the cell cycle. Cells are most vulnerable to the effects of radiation when they are dividing. A cockroach's cells divide only once each time it molts, which is weekly at most in a juvenile roach. Since not all cockroaches would be molting at the same time, many would be unaffected by an acute burst of radiation, but lingering radioactive fallout would still be harmful.[52]

Cockroaches in research: Periplaneta americana in an electrophysiology experiment

Because of their ease of rearing and resilience, cockroaches have been used as insect models in the laboratory, particularly in the fields of neurobiology, reproductive physiology and social behavior.[31]

The cockroach is a convenient insect to study as it is large and simple to raise in a laboratory environment. This makes it suitable both for research and for school and undergraduate biology studies. It can be used in experiments on topics such as learning, sexual pheromones, spatial orientation, aggression, activity rhythms and the biological clock, and behavioral ecology.[58]

The Blattodea include some thirty species of cockroaches associated with humans; these species are atypical of the thousands of species in the order.[59] They feed on human and pet food and can leave an offensive odor.[60] They can passively transport pathogenic microbes on their body surfaces, particularly in environments such as hospitals.[61][62] Cockroaches are linked with allergic reactions in humans.[63][64] One of the proteins that trigger allergic reactions is tropomyosin.[65] These allergens are also linked with asthma.[66] About 60% of asthma patients in Chicago are also sensitive to cockroach allergens. Studies similar to this have been done globally and all the results are similar. Cockroaches can live for a few days up to a month without food, so just because no cockroaches are visible in a home does not mean they are not there. Approximately 20-48% of homes with no visible sign of cockroaches have detectable cockroach allergens in dust.[67]

Many remedies have been tried in the search for control of the major pest species of cockroaches, which are resilient and fast-breeding. Household chemicals like sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) have been suggested, without evidence for their effectiveness.[68] Garden herbs including bay, catnip, mint, cucumber, and garlic have been proposed as repellents.[69] Poisoned bait containing hydramethylnon or fipronil, and boric acid powder is effective on adults.[70] Baits with egg killers are also quite effective at reducing the cockroach population. Alternatively, insecticides containing deltamethrin or pyrethrin are very effective.[70] In Singapore and Malaysia, taxi drivers use pandan leaves to repel cockroaches in their vehicles.[71]

Few parasites and predators are effective for biological control of cockroaches. Parasitoidal wasps such as Ampulex wasps sting nerve ganglia in the cockroach's thorax, temporarily paralyzing the victim, allowing the wasp to deliver a second sting into the cockroach's brain. The wasp clips the antennae with its mandibles and drinks some hemolymph before dragging the prey to a burrow, where an egg is laid on it. The wasp larva feeds on the subdued living cockroach.[72]

Cockroaches can be trapped in a deep, smooth-walled jar baited with food inside, placed so that cockroaches can reach the opening, for example with a ramp of card or twigs on the outside. An inch or so of water or stale beer (by itself a cockroach attractant) in the jar can be used to drown any insects thus captured. The method works well with the American cockroach, but less so with the German cockroach.[73]

See also: Entomophagy

Although considered disgusting in Western culture, cockroaches are eaten in many places around the world.[74][75] Whereas household pest cockroaches may carry bacteria and viruses, cockroaches bred under laboratory conditions can be used to prepare nutritious food.[76] Common household cockroaches can be decontaminated by being isolated and fed a diet of apple and lettuce.[74]

In Mexico and Thailand, the heads and legs are removed, and the remainder may be boiled, sauted, grilled, dried or diced.[74]

In China, cockroaches have become popular as medicine and cockroach farming is rising. The cockroaches are fried twice in a wok of hot oil, which makes them crispy with soft innards that are like cottage cheese.[77][78] Fried cockroaches are ground and sold as pills for stomach, heart and liver diseases.[79]

A cockroach recipe from Formosa (Taiwan) specifies salting and frying cockroaches after removing the head and entrails.[80]

In 1905, Henri Coupin wrote a French book Les bizarreries des races humaines, which mentions a cockroach paste recipe used by the English and the Irish people. After being simmered in vinegar and dried in the sun, the cockroaches' heads and intestines are removed, and they are boiled with butter, salt and pepper, made into a paste, and spread on bread. But there is no other evidence of this recipe. The only confirmed edible use of cockroaches by the British is the use of Periplaneta americana feces in homeopathic medicine.[80]

According to International Union of Crystallography journal, the "milk" produced by the Pacific beetle cockroach (Diploptera punctata) is one of the most nutritious foods on earth.[81]

See also: Depopulation of cockroaches in post-Soviet states

While a small minority of cockroaches are associated with human habitats and viewed as repugnant by many people, a few species are of conservation concern. The Lord Howe Island wood-feeding cockroach (Panesthia lata) is listed as endangered by the New South Wales Scientific Committee, but the cockroach may be extinct on Lord Howe Island itself. The introduction of rats, the spread of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) and fires are possible reasons for their scarcity.[82] Two species are currently listed as endangered and critically endangered by the IUCN Red List, Delosia ornata and Nocticola gerlachi.[83][84] Both cockroaches have a restricted distribution and are threatened by habitat loss and rising sea levels. Only 600 Delosia ornata adults and 300 nymphs are known to exist, and these are threatened by a hotel development. No action has been taken to save the two cockroach species, but protecting their natural habitats may prevent their extinction. In the former Soviet Union, cockroach populations have been declining at an alarming rate; this may be exaggerated, or the phenomenon may be temporary or cyclic.[85]

Main article: Cockroaches in popular culture Madagascar hissing cockroaches kept as pets

Cockroaches were known and considered repellent but useful in medicines in Classical times. An insect named in Greek "σίλφη" ("Silphe") has been identified with the cockroach. It is mentioned by Aristotle, saying that it sheds its skin; it is described as foul-smelling in Aristophanes' play Peace; Euenus called it a pest of book collections, being "page-eating, destructive, black-bodied" in his Analect. Virgil named the cockroach "Lucifuga" ("one that avoids light"). Pliny the Elder recorded the use of "Blatta" in various medicines; he describes the insect as disgusting, and as seeking out dark corners to avoid the light.[86][87]Dioscorides recorded the use of the "Silphe", ground up with oil, as a remedy for earache.[87]

Lafcadio Hearn (1850–1904) asserted that "For tetanus cockroach tea is given. I do not know how many cockroaches go to make up the cup; but I find that faith in this remedy is strong among many of the American population of New Orleans. A poultice of boiled cockroaches is placed over the wound." He adds that cockroaches are eaten, fried with garlic, for indigestion.[88]

Several cockroach species, such as Blaptica dubia, are raised as food for insectivorous pets.[89] A few cockroach species are raised as pets, most commonly the giant Madagascar hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa.[90] Whilst the hissing cockroaches may be the most commonly kept species, there are many species that are kept by cockroach enthusiasts; there is even a specialist society: the Blattodea Culture Group (BCG), which was a thriving organisation for about 15 years although now appears to be dormant.[91] The BCG provided a source of literature for people interested in rearing cockroaches which was otherwise limited to either scientific papers, or general insect books, or books covering a variety of exotic pets; in the absence of an inclusive book one member published Introduction to Rearing Cockroaches which still appears to be the only book dedicated to rearing cockroaches.[92]

Cockroaches have been used for space tests. A cockroach given the name Nadezhda was sent into space by Russian scientists during Foton-M test, becoming the first terrestrial animal to "give birth" in space.[93]

Because of their long association with humans, cockroaches are frequently referred to in popular culture. In Western culture, cockroaches are often depicted as dirty pests.[94][95] In a 1750–1752 journal, Peter Osbeck noted that cockroaches were frequently seen and found their way to the bakeries, after the sailing ship Gothenburg ran aground and was destroyed by rocks.[96]

Donald Harington's satirical novel The Cockroaches of Stay More (Harcourt, 1989) imagines a community of "roosterroaches" in a mythical Ozark town where the insects are named after their human counterparts. Madonna has famously quoted, "I am a survivor. I am like a cockroach, you just can't get rid of me."[97] An urban legend maintains that cockroaches are immortal.[98]

Tehachapi

Controle de Pragas Explicado | Pest Control Explained | Control de Plagas Explicado


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Oildale Getting Rid Of Rats

Pest control in Oildale for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Killing Cockroaches

Oildale Pest Control For Rodents

THE FIRST INCREASE IN MORE THAN A DECADE.

THEY SAY IT IS NEEDED TO MAINTAIN THE QUALITY OF THE FACILITIES AND SERVICES.

WE HAVE MORE INFORMATION FOR YOU ON THOSE PRICES AT WCCO.

COM.

IN THE SUMMER MONTHS, IT IS A GIVEN.

YOU MIGHT SEE THE OCCASIONAL INSECTS CREEPING AROUND YOUR HOME.

THIS YEAR, ONE PEST IS TURNING UP MORE.

THERE IS A SIGNIFICANT INCREASE IN THE AMOUNT OF CALLS FOR CARPENTER ANTS.

RACHEL SLAVIK EXPLAINS WHY THEY'RE MORE LIKELY TO SHOW UP IN YOUR HOME THIS SUMMER.

Reporter: THE OCCASIONAL ANT MAY NOT SEEM LIKE THAT BIG OF A DEAL.

THEY WILL GET IN HERE AND CREATE A NEST SITE.

Reporter: PEST CONTROL EXPERTS LIKE SCOTT KNOW IT IS A SYMPTOM OF A MUCH LARGER PROBLEM.

THIS YEAR, THE TINY BLACK INSECT IS INVADING HOMES AT A SURPRISING RATE.

I'D SAY IT'S UP AT LEAST 100% OVER LAST YEAR.

I HAVE BEEN DOING THIS 17 YEARS AND HAVE NEVER SEEN A YEAR WITH THIS MANY ANT PROBLEMS.

Reporter: THE REASON? WATER HAS A DAMAGING EFFECT ON WOOD.

AND, THIS YEAR'S WET SPRING IS GIVING THIS SMALL PEST PLENTY OF OPPORTUNITY TO MOVE IN.

DAMAGED WOOD IS THE NUMBER ONE THING THAT THEY ARE ATTRACTED TO.

Reporter: IT CAN LEAD TO MASSIVE COLONIES WHICH CAN'T BE TREATED WITH OVER-THE-COUNTER PESTICIDES.

THEY HAVE MULTIPLE NEST SITES.

Reporter: IN THIS HOME, THE PRIMARY NEST SITS 100 FEET AWAY BUT ANTS CAN TRAVEL THE DISTANCE OF A FOOTBALL FIELD.

YOU CAN SEE THE DAMAGE TO THE WOOD.

THIS IS VERY TYPICAL OF WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE INSIDE.

THESE ARE NOCTURNAL INSECTS.

TONIGHT, WE WOULD SEE THEM BEING FULLY ACTIVE INSIDE OF HERE.

Reporter: FOR THIS INFESTATION, TREATMENT IS THE ONLY OPTION TO END THE INVITATION TO THOUSANDS OF UNWELCOME VISITORS.

Household Pests

The History of Pest Control

  (Redirected from Bird pest control) A top of broken glass provides an effective physical deterrent to birds considering resting on this wall.

Bird control is the generic name for methods to eliminate or deter pest birds from landing, roosting and nesting.

Bird control is important because pest birds can create health-related problems through their feces, including histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and psittacosis. Bird droppings may also cause damage to property and equipment. Birds also frequently steal from crops and fruit orchards.

Methods of bird control include physical deterrents, visual deterrents, sonic devices, trained birds of prey (falconry),[1] chemicals, contraceptives and active barriers, among others. Birds usually adapt quickly to most static bird control devices because the birds adapt after exposure to false threats. The avian control devices that are most effective either physically "block" the birds or "actively modify behavior" using a mild harmless shock.

Physical bird deterrents include such products as steel or plastic spike systems, bird netting, electrified wire systems, non-electrified wire systems, electrified track systems, slope barriers, mechanical spiders, chemical foggers and more. Sharp bird spikes can pierce and impale birds, while "blocking" and "shocking" methods do not harm birds. Unfortunately, blunt tip bird spikes may still impale birds on windy days. The safer shocking and blocking methods simply repel birds from an area with no harm. The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) recommends the use of bird netting, bird wire, contraceptives and low-current electric barriers. Many different bird control products are used widely throughout the U.S. and the world with low current shocking wire and strips, netting, and mesh being the most effective bird control methods. Companies recommended by the Human Society that create these kinds of products include Bird Barrier America.[2]

Chemical deterrents range from products for turf to avicides. There are taste aversion products for geese, and fogging agents used for birds. Many localities have restrictions on the use of chemicals and pesticides targeted at birds if they intend to kill them. Chemical deterrents that do not harm birds are widely used with limited results.

Sonic avian deterrents are used widely in large open areas although effectiveness is low. Sounds are audible, and include predator and distress calls of a variety of birds to discourage pest birds from coming into an area. Common locations for these devices include vineyards, reclamation plants, airports, and other open areas. Sophisticated digital sound reproduction combined with random time off intervals, and random sequences are designed to prevent habituation by birds, and increase long-term effectiveness. Studies have shown most avian species will adapt and ignore such devices within months of initial contact.

Other static sound methods with limited effectiveness that birds may adapt quickly to include ultrasonic devices designed for enclosed or semi-enclosed areas. In theory, ultrasonic waves will annoy birds to stop them from entering and remaining in areas such as warehouses, parking garages, and loading docks. These products are not harmful to birds, yet it is debatable if the birds can hear these frequencies at loud enough decibel levels as bird are believed to have similar hearing to humans.[3] Thus, studies have shown effectiveness is very low within months of initial contact when using ultrasonic sound generators to prevent birds from habitating an area.

If just being placed in situ and left, audible bird scarers can easily become ineffective bird control solutions, however when managed on an ongoing basis or used as part of a greater bird deterrent system, sound methods can deliver partial results for low level bird activity. Audible bird scarers are totally ineffective for nesting birds[4]

Wind driven scare devices include tapes, balloons, kites, and lightweight spinning turbines propelled by wind. These devices reflect sunlight and in limited uses scare birds that are new to an area. Typically, birds will quickly become acclimated to such devices as the birds learn the devices are not alive. The latest field testing of sonic colored noise shows the birds habituate after a few months even though the sounds are unnatural. This is because as one bird habituates other birds may learn the noise is meaningless and not a real threat. During nesting season sounds have proven almost totally ineffective to birds foraging for extra food no matter the sounds.

Normally, birds adapt within weeks of exposure to bird control devices that are not alive or an actual threat to their survival. Such bird control devices that birds habituate to within weeks include sound devices, mechanical devices, wind blown scare devices, and partial perch modifications. This makes such devices an unwise investment even though they are inexpensive because labor and safety costs are the primary factors in bird control installation. In contrast, birds cannot adapt to total "blocking" methods or mild electrical low current "shocking" stimuli that modifies behavior. This is why netting, mesh, and low current electrical barriers are tested to be the most effective avian control devices. High quality materials and long lasting systems have the greatest return on investment because bird problems are perpetual year after year.

In 2013, Dr. John Swaddle and Dr. Mark Hinders at the College of William and Mary created a new method of deterring birds and other animals using benign sounds projected by conventional and directional (parametric) speakers.[5] The initial objectives of the technology were to displace problematic birds from airfields to reduce bird strike risks, minimize agricultural losses due to pest bird foraging, displace nuisance birds that cause extensive repair and chronic clean-up costs, and reduce bird mortality from flying into man-made structures. The sounds, referred to as a “Sonic Net,” do not have to be loud and are a combination of wave forms - collectively called "colored" noise - forming non-constructive and constructive interference with how birds and other animals such as deer talk to each other. Technically, the Sonic Nets technology is not a bird scarer, but discourages birds from flying into or spending time in the target area. The impact to the birds is similar to talking in a crowded room, and since they cannot understand each other they go somewhere else. Early tests at an aviary and initial field trials at a landfill and airfield indicate that the technology is effective and that birds do not habituate to the sound. The provisional and full patents were filed in 2013 and 2014 respectively, and further research and commercialization of the technology are ongoing.

Bird Control Measures for Healthy Environment

Oildale

Pest Control - Dealing With A Squirrel Infestation


California Treatment For Bed Bugs