Pest control in Mojave for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.
Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.
Mojave Pest Control For Rodents(Redirected from Bird pest control) A top of broken glass provides an effective physical deterrent to birds considering resting on this wall.
Bird control is the generic name for methods to eliminate or deter pest birds from landing, roosting and nesting.
Bird control is important because pest birds can create health-related problems through their feces, including histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and psittacosis. Bird droppings may also cause damage to property and equipment. Birds also frequently steal from crops and fruit orchards.
Methods of bird control include physical deterrents, visual deterrents, sonic devices, trained birds of prey (falconry), chemicals, contraceptives and active barriers, among others. Birds usually adapt quickly to most static bird control devices because the birds adapt after exposure to false threats. The avian control devices that are most effective either physically "block" the birds or "actively modify behavior" using a mild harmless shock.
Physical bird deterrents include such products as steel or plastic spike systems, bird netting, electrified wire systems, non-electrified wire systems, electrified track systems, slope barriers, mechanical spiders, chemical foggers and more. Sharp bird spikes can pierce and impale birds, while "blocking" and "shocking" methods do not harm birds. Unfortunately, blunt tip bird spikes may still impale birds on windy days. The safer shocking and blocking methods simply repel birds from an area with no harm. The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) recommends the use of bird netting, bird wire, contraceptives and low-current electric barriers. Many different bird control products are used widely throughout the U.S. and the world with low current shocking wire and strips, netting, and mesh being the most effective bird control methods. Companies recommended by the Human Society that create these kinds of products include Bird Barrier America.
Chemical deterrents range from products for turf to avicides. There are taste aversion products for geese, and fogging agents used for birds. Many localities have restrictions on the use of chemicals and pesticides targeted at birds if they intend to kill them. Chemical deterrents that do not harm birds are widely used with limited results.
Sonic avian deterrents are used widely in large open areas although effectiveness is low. Sounds are audible, and include predator and distress calls of a variety of birds to discourage pest birds from coming into an area. Common locations for these devices include vineyards, reclamation plants, airports, and other open areas. Sophisticated digital sound reproduction combined with random time off intervals, and random sequences are designed to prevent habituation by birds, and increase long-term effectiveness. Studies have shown most avian species will adapt and ignore such devices within months of initial contact.
Other static sound methods with limited effectiveness that birds may adapt quickly to include ultrasonic devices designed for enclosed or semi-enclosed areas. In theory, ultrasonic waves will annoy birds to stop them from entering and remaining in areas such as warehouses, parking garages, and loading docks. These products are not harmful to birds, yet it is debatable if the birds can hear these frequencies at loud enough decibel levels as bird are believed to have similar hearing to humans. Thus, studies have shown effectiveness is very low within months of initial contact when using ultrasonic sound generators to prevent birds from habitating an area.
If just being placed in situ and left, audible bird scarers can easily become ineffective bird control solutions, however when managed on an ongoing basis or used as part of a greater bird deterrent system, sound methods can deliver partial results for low level bird activity. Audible bird scarers are totally ineffective for nesting birds
Wind driven scare devices include tapes, balloons, kites, and lightweight spinning turbines propelled by wind. These devices reflect sunlight and in limited uses scare birds that are new to an area. Typically, birds will quickly become acclimated to such devices as the birds learn the devices are not alive. The latest field testing of sonic colored noise shows the birds habituate after a few months even though the sounds are unnatural. This is because as one bird habituates other birds may learn the noise is meaningless and not a real threat. During nesting season sounds have proven almost totally ineffective to birds foraging for extra food no matter the sounds.
Normally, birds adapt within weeks of exposure to bird control devices that are not alive or an actual threat to their survival. Such bird control devices that birds habituate to within weeks include sound devices, mechanical devices, wind blown scare devices, and partial perch modifications. This makes such devices an unwise investment even though they are inexpensive because labor and safety costs are the primary factors in bird control installation. In contrast, birds cannot adapt to total "blocking" methods or mild electrical low current "shocking" stimuli that modifies behavior. This is why netting, mesh, and low current electrical barriers are tested to be the most effective avian control devices. High quality materials and long lasting systems have the greatest return on investment because bird problems are perpetual year after year.
In 2013, Dr. John Swaddle and Dr. Mark Hinders at the College of William and Mary created a new method of deterring birds and other animals using benign sounds projected by conventional and directional (parametric) speakers. The initial objectives of the technology were to displace problematic birds from airfields to reduce bird strike risks, minimize agricultural losses due to pest bird foraging, displace nuisance birds that cause extensive repair and chronic clean-up costs, and reduce bird mortality from flying into man-made structures. The sounds, referred to as a “Sonic Net,” do not have to be loud and are a combination of wave forms - collectively called "colored" noise - forming non-constructive and constructive interference with how birds and other animals such as deer talk to each other. Technically, the Sonic Nets technology is not a bird scarer, but discourages birds from flying into or spending time in the target area. The impact to the birds is similar to talking in a crowded room, and since they cannot understand each other they go somewhere else. Early tests at an aviary and initial field trials at a landfill and airfield indicate that the technology is effective and that birds do not habituate to the sound. The provisional and full patents were filed in 2013 and 2014 respectively, and further research and commercialization of the technology are ongoing.
Bird Control Measures for Healthy Environment
Rats and Mice - A Scavenger Like None Other
The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a small species of cockroach, typically about 1.1 to 1.6 cm (0.43 to 0.63 in) long. In colour it varies from tan to almost black, and it has two dark, roughly parallel, streaks on the pronotum running anteroposteriorly from behind the head to the base of the wings. Although Blattella germanica has wings, it can barely fly, although it may glide when disturbed. Of the few species of cockroach that are domestic pests, it probably is the most widely troublesome example. It is very closely related to the Asian cockroach, and to the casual observer the two appear nearly identical and may be mistaken for each other. However, the Asian cockroach is attracted to light and can fly rather like a moth, while the German cockroach cannot.
Blattella germanica occurs widely in human buildings, but is particularly associated with restaurants, food processing facilities, hotels, and institutional establishments such as nursing homes. In cold climates, they occur only near human dwellings, because they cannot survive severe cold. However, even though they would soon die in the outdoors on their own, German cockroaches have been found as inquilines ("tenants") of human buildings as far north as Alert, Nunavut. Similarly, they have been found as far south as Southern Patagonia.
Previously thought to be a native of Europe, the German cockroach later was considered to have emerged from the region of Ethiopia in Northeast Africa, but more recent evidence suggests that it actually originated in Southeast Asia. Whatever the truth of the matter, the cockroach's sensitivity to cold might reflect its origin from such warm climates, and its spread as a domiciliary pest since ancient times has resulted from incidental human transport and shelter. The species now is cosmopolitan in distribution, occurring as a household pest on all continents except Antarctica, and on many major islands as well. It accordingly has been given various names in the cultures of many regions. For example, although it is widely known as the "German cockroach" in English-speaking countries, in Germany in turn, it is known as the Russian roach.
Though nocturnal, the German cockroach occasionally appears by day, especially if the population is crowded or has been disturbed. However, sightings are most frequent of an evening, when someone suddenly brings a light into a room deserted after dark, such as a kitchen where they have been scavenging. When excited or frightened, the species emits an unpleasant odor.
German cockroaches are omnivorous scavengers. They are attracted particularly to meats, starches, sugars, and fatty foods. Where a shortage of foodstuffs exists, they may eat household items such as soap, glue, and toothpaste. In famine conditions, they turn cannibalistic, chewing at each other's wings and legs.
The German cockroach reproduces faster than any other residential cockroach, growing from egg to reproductive adult in approximately 50 – 60 days. Once fertilized, a female German cockroach develops an ootheca in her abdomen. The abdomen swells as her eggs develop, until the translucent tip of the ootheca begins to protrude from the end of her abdomen, and by that time the eggs inside are fully sized. The ootheca, at first translucent, soon turns white and then within a few hours it turns pink, progressively darkening until, some 48 hours later, it attains the dark red-brown of the shell of a chestnut. The ootheca has a keel-like ridge along the line where the young emerge, and curls slightly towards that edge as it completes its maturation. A small percentage of the nymphs may hatch while the ootheca is still attached to the female, but the majority emerge some 24 hours after it has detached from the female's body. The newly hatched 3mm-long black nymphs then progress through six or seven instars before becoming sexually mature, but ecdysis is such a hazardous process that nearly half the nymphs die of natural causes before reaching adulthood. Molted skins and dead nymphs are soon eaten by living nymphs present at the time of molting.
The German cockroach is very successful at establishing an ecological niche in buildings, and is resilient in the face of many pest control measures. Reasons include:
German cockroaches are thigmotactic, meaning they prefer confined spaces, and they are small compared to other pest species, so they can hide within small cracks and crevices that are easy to overlook, thereby evading humans and their eradication efforts. Conversely, the seasoned pest controller is alert for cracks and crevices where it is likely to be profitable to place baits or spray surfaces.
To be effective, control measures must be comprehensive, sustained, and systematic; survival of just a few eggs is quite enough to regenerate a nearly exterminated pest population within a few generations, and recolonisation from surrounding populations often is very rapid, too.
Another problem in controlling German cockroaches is the nature of their population behaviour. Though they are not social and practise no organised maternal care, females carry oothecae of 18-50 eggs (average about 32) during incubation until just before hatching, instead of dropping them as most other species of cockroaches do. This protects the eggs from certain classes of predation. Then, after hatching, nymphs largely survive by consuming excretions and moults from adults, thereby establishing their own internal microbial populations and avoiding contact with most insecticidal surface treatments and baits. One effective control is insect growth regulators (IGRs, hydroprene, methoprene, etc.), which act by preventing molting, thus prevent maturation of the various instars. Caulking baseboards and around pipes may prevent the travel of adults from one apartment to another within a building.Female German cockroach with ootheca
As an adaptive consequence of pest control by poisoned sugar baits, a strain of German cockroaches has emerged that reacts to glucose as distastefully bitter. They refuse to eat sweetened baits, which presents an obstacle to their control, given that baits are an economical and effective means of control. It also is a dramatic illustration of adaptive selection; in the absence of poisoned sweet baits, attraction to sugars strongly promotes growth, energy, and reproduction; cockroaches that are not attracted to sugars take longer to grow and reproduce, whereas in the presence of poisoned sugared baits, sugar avoidance promotes reproduction.
- ^ Alan Weaving; Mike Picker; Griffiths, Charles Llewellyn (2003). Field Guide to Insects of South Africa. New Holland Publishers, Ltd. ISBN 1-86872-713-0.
- ^ John A. Jackman; Bastiaan M. Drees (1 March 1998). A Field Guide to Common Texas Insects. Taylor Trade Publishing. pp. 28–. ISBN 978-1-4616-2291-8.
- ^ William J. Bell; Louis M. Roth; Christine A. Nalepa (26 June 2007). Cockroaches: Ecology, Behavior, and Natural History. JHU Press. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-0-8018-8616-4.
- ^ a b Xavier Bonnefoy; Helge Kampen; Kevin Sweeney (2008). Public Health Significance of Urban Pests. World Health Organization. pp. 35–. ISBN 978-92-890-7188-8.
- ^ The insects and arachnids of Canada, part 14, The Grasshoppers, Crickets, and related insects of Canada and adjacent region
- ^ Faúndez, E. I. & M. A. Carvajal. 2011. Blattella germanica (Linnaeus, 1767) (Insecta: Blattaria) en la Región de Magallanes. Boletín de Biodiversidad de Chile, 5: 50-55.
- ^ Cory, EN; McConnell, HS (1917). Bulletin No. 8: Insects and Rodents Injurious to Stored Products. College Park, Maryland: Maryland State College of Agriculture Extension Service. p. 135.
- ^ Hill, Dennis S. (30 September 2002). Pests of Stored Foodstuffs and their Control. Springer. pp. 145–146. ISBN 978-1-4020-0735-4.
- ^ Eaton, Eric R.; Kaufman, Kenn (2007). Kaufman Field Guide to Insects of North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 62. ISBN 0-618-15310-1.
- ^ Berenbaum, May (1989). Ninety-nine Gnats, Nits, and Nibblers. University of Illinois Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-252-06027-4.
- ^ Gary R. Mullen; Lance A. Durden (27 September 2002). Medical and Veterinary Entomology. Academic Press. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-0-08-053607-1.
- ^ a b Rust, Michael K.; Owens, John M.; Reierson, Donald A. (30 November 1994). Understanding and Controlling the German Cockroach. Oxford University Press. pp. 388–. ISBN 978-0-19-534508-7.
- ^ a b Ebeling, Walter. "Urban entomology". Archived from the original on 17 July 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- ^ http://museumpests.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/German-Cockroach.pdf Museumpests.net Accessed July 15, 2015
- ^ Wada-Katsumata, A.; Silverman, J.; Schal, C. (2013). "Changes in Taste Neurons Support the Emergence of an Adaptive Behavior in Cockroaches". Science. 340 (6135): 972–5. PMID 23704571. doi:10.1126/science.1234854. (summary at BBC News)
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Robinson, William H. (14 April 2005). Urban Insects and Arachnids: A Handbook of Urban Entomology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 45–46, 51–54. ISBN 978-0-521-81253-5.
- ^ a b Bassett, W.H. (12 October 2012). Clay's Handbook of Environmental Health. Routledge. p. 317. ISBN 978-1-135-81033-7.