Mojave Pest Control Chemicals

Pest control in Mojave for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Pest Inspection

Mojave Pest Control For Rodents

  (Redirected from Bird pest control) A top of broken glass provides an effective physical deterrent to birds considering resting on this wall.

Bird control is the generic name for methods to eliminate or deter pest birds from landing, roosting and nesting.

Bird control is important because pest birds can create health-related problems through their feces, including histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and psittacosis. Bird droppings may also cause damage to property and equipment. Birds also frequently steal from crops and fruit orchards.

Methods of bird control include physical deterrents, visual deterrents, sonic devices, trained birds of prey (falconry),[1] chemicals, contraceptives and active barriers, among others. Birds usually adapt quickly to most static bird control devices because the birds adapt after exposure to false threats. The avian control devices that are most effective either physically "block" the birds or "actively modify behavior" using a mild harmless shock.

Physical bird deterrents include such products as steel or plastic spike systems, bird netting, electrified wire systems, non-electrified wire systems, electrified track systems, slope barriers, mechanical spiders, chemical foggers and more. Sharp bird spikes can pierce and impale birds, while "blocking" and "shocking" methods do not harm birds. Unfortunately, blunt tip bird spikes may still impale birds on windy days. The safer shocking and blocking methods simply repel birds from an area with no harm. The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) recommends the use of bird netting, bird wire, contraceptives and low-current electric barriers. Many different bird control products are used widely throughout the U.S. and the world with low current shocking wire and strips, netting, and mesh being the most effective bird control methods. Companies recommended by the Human Society that create these kinds of products include Bird Barrier America.[2]

Chemical deterrents range from products for turf to avicides. There are taste aversion products for geese, and fogging agents used for birds. Many localities have restrictions on the use of chemicals and pesticides targeted at birds if they intend to kill them. Chemical deterrents that do not harm birds are widely used with limited results.

Sonic avian deterrents are used widely in large open areas although effectiveness is low. Sounds are audible, and include predator and distress calls of a variety of birds to discourage pest birds from coming into an area. Common locations for these devices include vineyards, reclamation plants, airports, and other open areas. Sophisticated digital sound reproduction combined with random time off intervals, and random sequences are designed to prevent habituation by birds, and increase long-term effectiveness. Studies have shown most avian species will adapt and ignore such devices within months of initial contact.

Other static sound methods with limited effectiveness that birds may adapt quickly to include ultrasonic devices designed for enclosed or semi-enclosed areas. In theory, ultrasonic waves will annoy birds to stop them from entering and remaining in areas such as warehouses, parking garages, and loading docks. These products are not harmful to birds, yet it is debatable if the birds can hear these frequencies at loud enough decibel levels as bird are believed to have similar hearing to humans.[3] Thus, studies have shown effectiveness is very low within months of initial contact when using ultrasonic sound generators to prevent birds from habitating an area.

If just being placed in situ and left, audible bird scarers can easily become ineffective bird control solutions, however when managed on an ongoing basis or used as part of a greater bird deterrent system, sound methods can deliver partial results for low level bird activity. Audible bird scarers are totally ineffective for nesting birds[4]

Wind driven scare devices include tapes, balloons, kites, and lightweight spinning turbines propelled by wind. These devices reflect sunlight and in limited uses scare birds that are new to an area. Typically, birds will quickly become acclimated to such devices as the birds learn the devices are not alive. The latest field testing of sonic colored noise shows the birds habituate after a few months even though the sounds are unnatural. This is because as one bird habituates other birds may learn the noise is meaningless and not a real threat. During nesting season sounds have proven almost totally ineffective to birds foraging for extra food no matter the sounds.

Normally, birds adapt within weeks of exposure to bird control devices that are not alive or an actual threat to their survival. Such bird control devices that birds habituate to within weeks include sound devices, mechanical devices, wind blown scare devices, and partial perch modifications. This makes such devices an unwise investment even though they are inexpensive because labor and safety costs are the primary factors in bird control installation. In contrast, birds cannot adapt to total "blocking" methods or mild electrical low current "shocking" stimuli that modifies behavior. This is why netting, mesh, and low current electrical barriers are tested to be the most effective avian control devices. High quality materials and long lasting systems have the greatest return on investment because bird problems are perpetual year after year.

In 2013, Dr. John Swaddle and Dr. Mark Hinders at the College of William and Mary created a new method of deterring birds and other animals using benign sounds projected by conventional and directional (parametric) speakers.[5] The initial objectives of the technology were to displace problematic birds from airfields to reduce bird strike risks, minimize agricultural losses due to pest bird foraging, displace nuisance birds that cause extensive repair and chronic clean-up costs, and reduce bird mortality from flying into man-made structures. The sounds, referred to as a “Sonic Net,” do not have to be loud and are a combination of wave forms - collectively called "colored" noise - forming non-constructive and constructive interference with how birds and other animals such as deer talk to each other. Technically, the Sonic Nets technology is not a bird scarer, but discourages birds from flying into or spending time in the target area. The impact to the birds is similar to talking in a crowded room, and since they cannot understand each other they go somewhere else. Early tests at an aviary and initial field trials at a landfill and airfield indicate that the technology is effective and that birds do not habituate to the sound. The provisional and full patents were filed in 2013 and 2014 respectively, and further research and commercialization of the technology are ongoing.

Bird Control Measures for Healthy Environment

Pest Control Services

Rats and Mice - A Scavenger Like None Other

The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a small species of cockroach, typically about 1.1 to 1.6 cm (0.43 to 0.63 in)[1][2] long. In colour it varies from tan to almost black, and it has two dark, roughly parallel, streaks on the pronotum running anteroposteriorly from behind the head to the base of the wings. Although Blattella germanica has wings, it can barely fly, although it may glide when disturbed.[3] Of the few species of cockroach that are domestic pests, it probably is the most widely troublesome example.[4] It is very closely related to the Asian cockroach, and to the casual observer the two appear nearly identical and may be mistaken for each other. However, the Asian cockroach is attracted to light and can fly rather like a moth, while the German cockroach cannot.

Blattella germanica occurs widely in human buildings, but is particularly associated with restaurants, food processing facilities, hotels, and institutional establishments such as nursing homes. In cold climates, they occur only near human dwellings, because they cannot survive severe cold. However, even though they would soon die in the outdoors on their own, German cockroaches have been found as inquilines ("tenants") of human buildings as far north as Alert, Nunavut.[5] Similarly, they have been found as far south as Southern Patagonia.[6]

Previously thought to be a native of Europe, the German cockroach later was considered to have emerged from the region of Ethiopia in Northeast Africa,[7][8] but more recent evidence suggests that it actually originated in Southeast Asia.[4][9] Whatever the truth of the matter, the cockroach's sensitivity to cold might reflect its origin from such warm climates, and its spread as a domiciliary pest since ancient times has resulted from incidental human transport and shelter. The species now is cosmopolitan in distribution, occurring as a household pest on all continents except Antarctica, and on many major islands as well. It accordingly has been given various names in the cultures of many regions. For example, although it is widely known as the "German cockroach" in English-speaking countries, in Germany in turn, it is known as the Russian roach.[10]

Though nocturnal, the German cockroach occasionally appears by day, especially if the population is crowded or has been disturbed. However, sightings are most frequent of an evening, when someone suddenly brings a light into a room deserted after dark, such as a kitchen where they have been scavenging.[11] When excited or frightened, the species emits an unpleasant odor.

German cockroaches are omnivorous scavengers. They are attracted particularly to meats, starches, sugars, and fatty foods. Where a shortage of foodstuffs exists, they may eat household items such as soap, glue, and toothpaste. In famine conditions, they turn cannibalistic, chewing at each other's wings and legs.[12]

The German cockroach reproduces faster than any other residential cockroach,[13] growing from egg to reproductive adult in approximately 50 – 60 days.[14] Once fertilized, a female German cockroach develops an ootheca in her abdomen. The abdomen swells as her eggs develop, until the translucent tip of the ootheca begins to protrude from the end of her abdomen, and by that time the eggs inside are fully sized. The ootheca, at first translucent, soon turns white and then within a few hours it turns pink, progressively darkening until, some 48 hours later, it attains the dark red-brown of the shell of a chestnut. The ootheca has a keel-like ridge along the line where the young emerge, and curls slightly towards that edge as it completes its maturation. A small percentage of the nymphs may hatch while the ootheca is still attached to the female, but the majority emerge some 24 hours after it has detached from the female's body. The newly hatched 3mm-long black nymphs then progress through six or seven instars before becoming sexually mature, but ecdysis is such a hazardous process that nearly half the nymphs die of natural causes before reaching adulthood. Molted skins and dead nymphs are soon eaten by living nymphs present at the time of molting.[13]

The German cockroach is very successful at establishing an ecological niche in buildings, and is resilient in the face of many pest control measures. Reasons include:

German cockroaches are thigmotactic, meaning they prefer confined spaces, and they are small compared to other pest species, so they can hide within small cracks and crevices that are easy to overlook, thereby evading humans and their eradication efforts. Conversely, the seasoned pest controller is alert for cracks and crevices where it is likely to be profitable to place baits or spray surfaces.

To be effective, control measures must be comprehensive, sustained, and systematic; survival of just a few eggs is quite enough to regenerate a nearly exterminated pest population within a few generations, and recolonisation from surrounding populations often is very rapid, too.[12]

Another problem in controlling German cockroaches is the nature of their population behaviour. Though they are not social and practise no organised maternal care, females carry oothecae of 18-50 eggs (average about 32) during incubation until just before hatching, instead of dropping them as most other species of cockroaches do. This protects the eggs from certain classes of predation. Then, after hatching, nymphs largely survive by consuming excretions and moults from adults, thereby establishing their own internal microbial populations and avoiding contact with most insecticidal surface treatments and baits. One effective control is insect growth regulators (IGRs, hydroprene, methoprene, etc.), which act by preventing molting, thus prevent maturation of the various instars. Caulking baseboards and around pipes may prevent the travel of adults from one apartment to another within a building.

Female German cockroach with ootheca

As an adaptive consequence of pest control by poisoned sugar baits, a strain of German cockroaches has emerged that reacts to glucose as distastefully bitter. They refuse to eat sweetened baits, which presents an obstacle to their control, given that baits are an economical and effective means of control. It also is a dramatic illustration of adaptive selection; in the absence of poisoned sweet baits, attraction to sugars strongly promotes growth, energy, and reproduction; cockroaches that are not attracted to sugars take longer to grow and reproduce, whereas in the presence of poisoned sugared baits, sugar avoidance promotes reproduction.[15]


  1. ^ Alan Weaving; Mike Picker; Griffiths, Charles Llewellyn (2003). Field Guide to Insects of South Africa. New Holland Publishers, Ltd. ISBN 1-86872-713-0. 
  2. ^ John A. Jackman; Bastiaan M. Drees (1 March 1998). A Field Guide to Common Texas Insects. Taylor Trade Publishing. pp. 28–. ISBN 978-1-4616-2291-8. 
  3. ^ William J. Bell; Louis M. Roth; Christine A. Nalepa (26 June 2007). Cockroaches: Ecology, Behavior, and Natural History. JHU Press. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-0-8018-8616-4. 
  4. ^ a b Xavier Bonnefoy; Helge Kampen; Kevin Sweeney (2008). Public Health Significance of Urban Pests. World Health Organization. pp. 35–. ISBN 978-92-890-7188-8. 
  5. ^ The insects and arachnids of Canada, part 14, The Grasshoppers, Crickets, and related insects of Canada and adjacent region
  6. ^ Faúndez, E. I. & M. A. Carvajal. 2011. Blattella germanica (Linnaeus, 1767) (Insecta: Blattaria) en la Región de Magallanes. Boletín de Biodiversidad de Chile, 5: 50-55.
  7. ^ Cory, EN; McConnell, HS (1917). Bulletin No. 8: Insects and Rodents Injurious to Stored Products. College Park, Maryland: Maryland State College of Agriculture Extension Service. p. 135. 
  8. ^ Hill, Dennis S. (30 September 2002). Pests of Stored Foodstuffs and their Control. Springer. pp. 145–146. ISBN 978-1-4020-0735-4. 
  9. ^ Eaton, Eric R.; Kaufman, Kenn (2007). Kaufman Field Guide to Insects of North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 62. ISBN 0-618-15310-1. 
  10. ^ Berenbaum, May (1989). Ninety-nine Gnats, Nits, and Nibblers. University of Illinois Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-252-06027-4. 
  11. ^ Gary R. Mullen; Lance A. Durden (27 September 2002). Medical and Veterinary Entomology. Academic Press. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-0-08-053607-1. 
  12. ^ a b Rust, Michael K.; Owens, John M.; Reierson, Donald A. (30 November 1994). Understanding and Controlling the German Cockroach. Oxford University Press. pp. 388–. ISBN 978-0-19-534508-7. 
  13. ^ a b Ebeling, Walter. "Urban entomology". Archived from the original on 17 July 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013. 
  14. ^ http://museumpests.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/German-Cockroach.pdf Museumpests.net Accessed July 15, 2015
  15. ^ Wada-Katsumata, A.; Silverman, J.; Schal, C. (2013). "Changes in Taste Neurons Support the Emergence of an Adaptive Behavior in Cockroaches". Science. 340 (6135): 972–5. PMID 23704571. doi:10.1126/science.1234854.  (summary at BBC News)
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Robinson, William H. (14 April 2005). Urban Insects and Arachnids: A Handbook of Urban Entomology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 45–46, 51–54. ISBN 978-0-521-81253-5. 
  17. ^ a b Bassett, W.H. (12 October 2012). Clay's Handbook of Environmental Health. Routledge. p. 317. ISBN 978-1-135-81033-7. 

Mojave

Natural Home Remedies For Controlling Pest Insects & Bugs


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Tejon Pest Control Flies

Pest control in Tejon for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Ant Exterminator

Tejon Pest Control For Rodents

Exterminator may refer to:

Weekend Pest Control

Pest Control (Doctor Who)

Weed control is the botanical component of pest control, which attempts to stop weeds, especially noxious or injurious weeds, from competing with desired flora and fauna, this includes domesticated plants and livestock, and in natural settings, it includes stopping non local species competing with native, local, species, especially so in reserves and heritage areas.

Weed control is important in agriculture. Many strategies have been developed in order to contain these plants. Methods include hand cultivation with hoes, powered cultivation with cultivators, smothering with mulch, lethal wilting with high heat, burning, and chemical attack with herbicides (weed killers).

A plant is often termed a "weed" when it has one or more of the following characteristics:

The definition of a weed is completely context-dependent. To one person, one plant may be a weed, and to another person it may be a desirable plant. In one place, a plant may be viewed as a weed, whereas in another place, the same plant may be desirable.

Weeds compete with productive crops or pasture, ultimately converting productive land into unusable scrub. Weeds can be poisonous, distasteful, produce burrs, thorns or otherwise interfere with the use and management of desirable plants by contaminating harvests or interfering with livestock.

Weeds compete with crops for space, nutrients, water and light. Smaller, slower growing seedlings are more susceptible than those that are larger and more vigorous. Onions are one of the most vulnerable, because they are slow to germinate and produce slender, upright stems. By contrast broad beans produce large seedlings and suffer far fewer effects other than during periods of water shortage at the crucial time when the pods are filling out. Transplanted crops raised in sterile soil or potting compost gain a head start over germinating weeds.

Weeds also vary in their competitive abilities and according to conditions and season. Tall-growing vigorous weeds such as fat hen (Chenopodium album) can have the most pronounced effects on adjacent crops, although seedlings of fat hen that appear in late summer produce only small plants. Chickweed (Stellaria media), a low growing plant, can happily co-exist with a tall crop during the summer, but plants that have overwintered will grow rapidly in early spring and may swamp crops such as onions or spring greens.

The presence of weeds does not necessarily mean that they are damaging a crop, especially during the early growth stages when both weeds and crops can grow without interference. However, as growth proceeds they each begin to require greater amounts of water and nutrients. Estimates suggest that weed and crop can co-exist harmoniously for around three weeks before competition becomes significant. One study found that after competition had started, the final yield of onion bulbs was reduced at almost 4% per day.[1]

Perennial weeds with bulbils, such as lesser celandine and oxalis, or with persistent underground stems such as couch grass (Agropyron repens) or creeping buttercup (Ranunculus repens) store reserves of food, and are thus able to grow faster and with more vigour than their annual counterparts. Some perennials such as couch grass exude allelopathic chemicals that inhibit the growth of other nearby plants.

Weeds can also host pests and diseases that can spread to cultivated crops. Charlock and Shepherd's purse may carry clubroot, eelworm can be harboured by chickweed, fat hen and shepherd's purse, while the cucumber mosaic virus, which can devastate the cucurbit family, is carried by a range of different weeds including chickweed and groundsel.

Insect pests often do not attack weeds. However pests such as cutworms may first attack weeds then move on to cultivated crops.

Some plants are considered weeds by some farmers and crops by others. Charlock, a common weed in the southeastern US, are weeds according to row crop growers, but are valued by beekeepers, who seek out places where it blooms all winter, thus providing pollen for honeybees and other pollinators. Its bloom resists all but a very hard freeze, and recovers once the freeze ends.

Annual and biennial weeds such as chickweed, annual meadow grass, shepherd's purse, groundsel, fat hen, cleaver, speedwell and hairy bittercress propagate themselves by seeding. Many produce huge numbers of seed several times a season, some all year round. Groundsel can produce 1000 seed, and can continue right through a mild winter, whilst Scentless Mayweed produces over 30,000 seeds per plant. Not all of these will germinate at once, but over several seasons, lying dormant in the soil sometimes for years until exposed to light. Poppy seed can survive 80–100 years, dock 50 or more. There can be many thousands of seeds in a square foot or square metre of ground, thus and soil disturbance will produce a flush of fresh weed seedlings.

The most persistent perennials spread by underground creeping rhizomes that can regrow from a tiny fragment. These include couch grass, bindweed, ground elder, nettles, rosebay willow herb, Japanese knotweed, horsetail and bracken, as well as creeping thistle, whose tap roots can put out lateral roots. Other perennials put out runners that spread along the soil surface. As they creep they set down roots, enabling them to colonise bare ground with great rapidity. These include creeping buttercup and ground ivy. Yet another group of perennials propagate by stolons- stems that arch back into the ground to reroot. The most familiar of these is the bramble.

Weed control plans typically consist of many methods which are divided into biological, chemical, cultural, and physical/mechanical control.[2]

Pesticide-free thermic weed control with a weed burner on a potato field in Dithmarschen

In domestic gardens, methods of weed control include covering an area of ground with a material that creates a hostile environment for weed growth, known as a weed mat.

Several layers of wet newspaper prevent light from reaching plants beneath, which kills them. Daily saturating the newspaper with water plant decomposition. After several weeks, all germinating weed seeds are dead.

In the case of black plastic, the greenhouse effect kills the plants. Although the black plastic sheet is effective at preventing weeds that it covers, it is difficult to achieve complete coverage. Eradicating persistent perennials may require the sheets to be left in place for at least two seasons.

Some plants are said to produce root exudates that suppress herbaceous weeds. Tagetes minuta is claimed to be effective against couch and ground elder,[3] whilst a border of comfrey is also said to act as a barrier against the invasion of some weeds including couch. A 5–10 centimetres (2.0–3.9 in) layer of wood chip mulch prevents most weeds from sprouting.

Gravel can serve as an inorganic mulch.

Irrigation is sometimes used as a weed control measure such as in the case of paddy fields to kill any plant other than the water-tolerant rice crop.

Weeds are removed manually in large parts of India.

Many gardeners still remove weeds by manually pulling them out of the ground, making sure to include the roots that would otherwise allow them to resprout.

Hoeing off weed leaves and stems as soon as they appear can eventually weaken and kill perennials, although this will require persistence in the case of plants such as bindweed. Nettle infestations can be tackled by cutting back at least three times a year, repeated over a three-year period. Bramble can be dealt with in a similar way.

I highly successful mostly manual removal programme of weed control in natural bush land has been the control of sea spurge by Sea Spurge Remote Area Teams in Tasmania.[4]

Ploughing includes tilling of soil, intercultural ploughing and summer ploughing. Ploughing uproots weeds, causing them to die. In summer ploughing is done during deep summers. Summer ploughing also helps in killing pests.

Mechanical tilling can remove weeds around crop plants at various points in the growing process.

Several thermal methods can control weeds.

Flame weeders use a flame several centimeters away from the weeds to give them a sudden and severe heating. The goal of flame weeding is not necessarily burning the plant, but rather causing a lethal wilting by denaturing proteins in the weed. Similarly, hot air weeders can heat up the seeds to the point of destroying them. Flame weeders can be combined with techniques such as stale seedbeds (preparing and watering the seedbed early, then killing the nascent crop of weeds that springs up from it, then sowing the crop seeds) and preemergence flaming (doing a flame pass against weed seedlings after the sowing of the crop seeds but before those seedlings emerge from the soil—a span of time that can be days or weeks).

Hot foam (foamstream) causes the cell walls to rupture, killing the plant. Weed burners heat up soil quickly and destroy superficial parts of the plants. Weed seeds are often heat resistant and even react with an increase of growth on dry heat.

Since the 19th century soil steam sterilization has been used to clean weeds completely from soil. Several research results confirm the high effectiveness of humid heat against weeds and its seeds.[5]

Soil solarization in some circumstances is very effective at eliminating weeds while maintaining grass. Planted grass tends to have a higher heat/humidity tolerance than unwanted weeds.

In 1998, the Australian Herbicide Resistance Initiative (AHRI), debuted. gathered fifteen scientists and technical staff members to conduct field surveys, collect seeds, test for resistance and study the biochemical and genetic mechanisms of resistance. A collaboration with DuPont led to a mandatory herbicide labeling program, in which each mode of action is clearly identified by a letter of the alphabet.[6]

The key innovation of the AHRI approach has been to focus on weed seeds. Ryegrass seeds last only a few years in soil, so if farmers can prevent new seeds from arriving, the number of sprouts will shrink each year. Until the new approach farmers were unintentionally helping the seeds. Their combines loosen ryegrass seeds from their stalks and spread them over the fields. In the mid-1980s, a few farmers hitched covered trailers, called "chaff carts", behind their combines to catch the chaff and weed seeds. The collected material is then burned.[6]

An alternative is to concentrate the seeds into a half-meter-wide strip called a windrow and burn the windrows after the harvest, destroying the seeds. Since 2003, windrow burning has been adopted by about 70% of farmers in Western Australia.[6]

Yet another approach is the Harrington Seed Destructor, which is an adaptation of a coal pulverizing cage mill that uses steel bars whirling at up to 1500 rpm. It keeps all the organic material in the field and does not involve combustion, but kills 95% of seeds.[6]

Another manual technique is the ‘stale seed bed’, which involves cultivating the soil, then leaving it fallow for a week or so. When the initial weeds sprout, the grower lightly hoes them away before planting the desired crop. However, even a freshly cleared bed is susceptible to airborne seed from elsewhere, as well as seed carried by passing animals on their fur, or from imported manure.

Buried drip irrigation involves burying drip tape in the subsurface near the planting bed, thereby limiting weeds access to water while also allowing crops to obtain moisture. It is most effective during dry periods.[7]

Rotating crops with ones that kill weeds by choking them out, such as hemp,[8]Mucuna pruriens, and other crops, can be a very effective method of weed control. It is a way to avoid the use of herbicides, and to gain the benefits of crop rotation.

A biological weed control regiment can consist of biological control agents, bioherbicides, use of grazing animals, and protection of natural predators.[9]

Companies using goats to control and eradicate leafy spurge, knapweed, and other toxic weeds have sprouted across the American West.[10]

Weed control, circa 1930-40s A mechanical weed control device: the diagonal weeder

Organic weed control involves anything other than applying manufactured chemicals. Typically a combination of methods are used to achieve satisfactory control.

Sulfur in some circumstances is accepted within British Soil Association standards.

The above described methods of weed control use no or very limited chemical inputs. They are preferred by organic gardeners or organic farmers.

However weed control can also be achieved by the use of herbicides. Selective herbicides kill certain targets while leaving the desired crop relatively unharmed. Some of these act by interfering with the growth of the weed and are often based on plant hormones. Herbicides are generally classified as follows:

In agriculture large scale and systematic procedures are usually required, often by machines, such as large liquid herbicide 'floater' sprayers, or aerial application.

See also Bradley Method of Bush Regeneration, which uses ecological processes to do much of the work. Perennial weeds also propagate by seeding; the airborne seed of the dandelion and the rose-bay willow herb parachute far and wide. Dandelion and dock also put down deep tap roots, which, although they do not spread underground, are able to regrow from any remaining piece left in the ground.

One method of maintaining the effectiveness of individual strategies is to combine them with others that work in complete different ways. Thus seed targeting has been combined with herbicides. In Australia seed management has been effectively combined with trifluralin and clethodim.[6]

Resistance occurs when a target adapts to circumvent a particular control strategy. It affects not only weed control,but antibiotics, insect control and other domains. In agriculture is mostly considered in reference to pesticides, but can defeat other strategies, e.g., when a target species becomes more drought tolerant via selection pressure.

Herbicide resistance recently became a critical problem as many Australian sheep farmers switched to exclusively growing wheat in their pastures in the 1970s. In wheat fields, introduced varieties of ryegrass, while good for grazing sheep, are intense competitors with wheat. Ryegrasses produce so many seeds that, if left unchecked, they can completely choke a field. Herbicides provided excellent control, while reducing soil disrupting because of less need to plough. Within little more than a decade, ryegrass and other weeds began to develop resistance. Australian farmers evolved again and began diversifying their techniques.[6]

In 1983, patches of ryegrass had become immune to Hoegrass, a family of herbicides that inhibit an enzyme called acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase.[6]

Ryegrass populations were large, and had substantial genetic diversity, because farmers had planted many varieties. Ryegrass is cross-pollinated by wind, so genes shuffle frequently. Farmers sprayed inexpensive Hoegrass year after year, creating selection pressure, but were diluting the herbicide in order to save money, increasing plants survival. Hoegrass was mostly replaced by a group of herbicides that block acetolactate synthase, again helped by poor application practices. Ryegrass evolved a kind of "cross-resistance" that allowed it to rapidly break down a variety of herbicides. Australian farmers lost four classes of herbicides in only a few years. As of 2013 only two herbicide classes, called Photosystem II and long-chain fatty acid inhibitors, had become the last hope.[6]

Further information: Noxious weed

Tejon

Rats and Mice - A Scavenger Like None Other


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Buttonwillow Fly Control

Pest control in Buttonwillow for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Local Pest Control Companies

Buttonwillow Pest Control For Rodents

Educational material only, to be used as a font of information.

Do not use it as a reference for any other country, except the UK.

Each country has its own legislation about pest animals and the authorized ways to manage them may vary.

The pest control methods used by this channel follow all the regulations of the country they were made.

This channel DO NOT encourage: Animal abuse in any way; Illegal methods of pest control in any country; The use of airguns by non-authorized people or people without proper training.

Viewers discretion is advised.

WHY RATS/MICE ARE CONSIDERED PESTS IN THE UK? Rats and mice, carry more than 35 diseases that may affect humans, usually in saliva, urine, excrement, and fur.

They may cause structural damage, fires, holes in water and gas pipes.

They contaminate food sources and eat eggs and small birds.

BLACK DEATH, that killed about 75 million people in Europe in the Middle Age.

Transmitted by contaminated fleas of rodents like rats and Grey Squirrel.

WHY PIGEONS/DOVES ARE CONSIDERED PESTS IN THE UK?(Feral, Woodpigeon and Collared Doves) Because of health and safety hazard, damage to the production and property.

Infectious, respiratory and parasitic diseases, which can cause death.

And other 70 different types of diseases through the saliva, excrements, and feathers.

Besides that, they are the host of parasites of disease vectors, like mosquitoes, mites, fleas, and ticks.

Around airport areas, pigeons may cause accidents, colliding against airplanes.

They cause property damage, making nests and pooping in urban areas.

Feathers can cause malfunctioning by blocking pipes or clogging air conditioning units.

Their poop and dropping are acid and erode concrete and metal structures, likes bridges, buildings, and monuments, besides transmitting disease.

The costs associated with preventing damages, cleaning areas and maintaining structures and monuments are millions per year.

Besides eating a considerable part of the production – each pigeon can eat about 30% of its own weight per day, The pigeons contaminate part of the grain production and the cattle food with their poop.

Grain, cattle and milk farms, can lose up to £100,000 (US$120,000) per year, due to the infestation of pigeons, doves, and others.

This amount is multiplicated by each intestate farm.

WHY ARE GREY SQUIRREL CONSIDERED PESTS IN THE UK? Grey Squirrels, also called “Rat Trees” are an invader species in this country, since the end of 1870’s.

Extremely active and territorialist, these animals are omnivorous and even cannibals.

They can destroy the nest of native and protected birds, eating their eggs and chicks.

The environmental loss is immeasurable.

Grey Squirrels are highly competitive for food sources.

This fact contributes to the imbalance between this species and the Red Squirrel, which is native to the UK.

Besides, Grey Squirrel carry a highly contagious disease which is mortal to the Red Squirrel.

The “POX” as the disease is called, do not affect the Greys, However, it causes cancers, ulcers, tremors, lethargy, and finally death in the Reds.

Grey Squirrels also contribute to killing native species of trees and other plants.

Sometimes, the trees are centenarian.

This is caused by the habit of bark stripping trees, which might cause the death of the tree, due to fungal infections and lack of nutrients.

WHY ARE RABBITS CONSIDERED PESTS IN THE UK? Despite the “cute” look, Rabbits are an endemic pest in rural areas in the UK.

Their current population is above 60 million in this country.

Annually, the loss overcomes £100 million (US$120 million).

In terms of annual yield, a loss of 1% per rabbit per hectare of wheat is the average.

Besides de damage to roads, structures, and soil contamination.

Rabbits are such a problem in the UK that they are the only type of pest, which the citizen (landowner) has a legal duty to remove the animals from the area, subject to a fine.

WHY ARE CORVIDS CONSIDERED PESTS IN THE UK? These birds are aggressive and territorialist.

They may attack people and other animals, depending on the proximity of their colony or nests.

In rural areas, these birds are very harmful, if in huge numbers.

They may ruin plantations and contaminate cattle food and cause diseases.

In lower numbers, they still can affect local ecosystem, killing small wild birds, destroying their nests, eating eggs and chicks.

WHY ARE GULLS CONSIDERED PESTS IN THE UK? The population of Lesser Black-Backed Gulls has increased exponentially in the last 50 years, mainly in urban areas in the UK.

Besides, about 40% of the population of those birds in Europe, live in the UK, so that is why they should be controlled.

With the huge offer of food and places to breed, those birds make a nest on the roofs, terrace, and other protected places of houses, buildings, and monuments.

The nests create a scenario of infestation of vectors of diseases, besides causing damage to properties.

They are also aggressive and may attack and hurt humans and other animals.

WHY USING AIRGUNS TO DOING PEST CONTROL? Used by a skillful and trained shooter, become one of the safest and effective ways to do pest control.

The systematic reduction of pests’ population, helps to balance the environment and to protect native and threatened species.

Although the graphic character (blood, spasms, etc.

), the animal is not suffering anymore, once that the kill is instantaneous.

The management of pest species is made in a professional and responsible way, always aiming to vitals, like head, cervical column, lungs, and heart – the called “Clean Kill”.

The responsible shooter will not shoot if it is sure that the kill will be clean and quick.

Besides, if necessary, a second shot may take place, to make sure the animal is dead.

Other methods of pest control are palliative, and do not result in effective control of the population, and are also highly expensive.

Although many people may think, the GOOD AIRGUN SHOOTER, loves and respects animals, and only do pest control in a responsible and proper manner, looking the environment balance.

10 shots25 meters / 27 yardsØ (diameter) = 0.

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Pest Control Services

Physical pest control

With 39 years of experience, Bug Lady PestControl brings extensive knowledge and high-caliber equipment to each job.

Flea infestations are common during warm monthswhen pests enter the home by latching onto dogs or cats.

From there, fleas can lay eggs in carpeting,linens, and furniture.

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Truly Nolen


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Maricopa Local Pest Control

Pest control in Maricopa for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Cockroach Infestation

Maricopa Pest Control For Rodents

Western Pest Control knows that rats and mice transmit diseases and contaminate food. These professionals are also aware fire marshals give these rodents credit for starting a large number of fires in buildings and homes. The unwelcome guests chew on a wide assortment of things including electrical wires. Using the services of professionals to eliminate these problems is an investment in safety.

The three major problems with mice and rats are the fast rate of reproduction, their athletic ability and the small sized openings they can enter through. Rodents multiply rapidly. A pair of rats produces 20 offspring in 12 months while a pair of mice can produce 40 to 60 young ones in a year. The time to call for help is as soon as the first sign of invasion is seen.

The best way to eliminate the danger of contaminated food, the potential of 55 different diseases and fires is to eradicate these rodents. Specialists knows how to eliminate the problems before hundreds of rats and mice are running around, climbing and jumping everywhere and using small openings as doorways into and out of homes. Western Pest Control will keep the home rodent free.

Mouse Problems

Truly Nolen

The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a small species of cockroach, typically about 1.1 to 1.6 cm (0.43 to 0.63 in)[1][2] long. In colour it varies from tan to almost black, and it has two dark, roughly parallel, streaks on the pronotum running anteroposteriorly from behind the head to the base of the wings. Although Blattella germanica has wings, it can barely fly, although it may glide when disturbed.[3] Of the few species of cockroach that are domestic pests, it probably is the most widely troublesome example.[4] It is very closely related to the Asian cockroach, and to the casual observer the two appear nearly identical and may be mistaken for each other. However, the Asian cockroach is attracted to light and can fly rather like a moth, while the German cockroach cannot.

Blattella germanica occurs widely in human buildings, but is particularly associated with restaurants, food processing facilities, hotels, and institutional establishments such as nursing homes. In cold climates, they occur only near human dwellings, because they cannot survive severe cold. However, even though they would soon die in the outdoors on their own, German cockroaches have been found as inquilines ("tenants") of human buildings as far north as Alert, Nunavut.[5] Similarly, they have been found as far south as Southern Patagonia.[6]

Previously thought to be a native of Europe, the German cockroach later was considered to have emerged from the region of Ethiopia in Northeast Africa,[7][8] but more recent evidence suggests that it actually originated in Southeast Asia.[4][9] Whatever the truth of the matter, the cockroach's sensitivity to cold might reflect its origin from such warm climates, and its spread as a domiciliary pest since ancient times has resulted from incidental human transport and shelter. The species now is cosmopolitan in distribution, occurring as a household pest on all continents except Antarctica, and on many major islands as well. It accordingly has been given various names in the cultures of many regions. For example, although it is widely known as the "German cockroach" in English-speaking countries, in Germany in turn, it is known as the Russian roach.[10]

Though nocturnal, the German cockroach occasionally appears by day, especially if the population is crowded or has been disturbed. However, sightings are most frequent of an evening, when someone suddenly brings a light into a room deserted after dark, such as a kitchen where they have been scavenging.[11] When excited or frightened, the species emits an unpleasant odor.

German cockroaches are omnivorous scavengers. They are attracted particularly to meats, starches, sugars, and fatty foods. Where a shortage of foodstuffs exists, they may eat household items such as soap, glue, and toothpaste. In famine conditions, they turn cannibalistic, chewing at each other's wings and legs.[12]

The German cockroach reproduces faster than any other residential cockroach,[13] growing from egg to reproductive adult in approximately 50 – 60 days.[14] Once fertilized, a female German cockroach develops an ootheca in her abdomen. The abdomen swells as her eggs develop, until the translucent tip of the ootheca begins to protrude from the end of her abdomen, and by that time the eggs inside are fully sized. The ootheca, at first translucent, soon turns white and then within a few hours it turns pink, progressively darkening until, some 48 hours later, it attains the dark red-brown of the shell of a chestnut. The ootheca has a keel-like ridge along the line where the young emerge, and curls slightly towards that edge as it completes its maturation. A small percentage of the nymphs may hatch while the ootheca is still attached to the female, but the majority emerge some 24 hours after it has detached from the female's body. The newly hatched 3mm-long black nymphs then progress through six or seven instars before becoming sexually mature, but ecdysis is such a hazardous process that nearly half the nymphs die of natural causes before reaching adulthood. Molted skins and dead nymphs are soon eaten by living nymphs present at the time of molting.[13]

The German cockroach is very successful at establishing an ecological niche in buildings, and is resilient in the face of many pest control measures. Reasons include:

German cockroaches are thigmotactic, meaning they prefer confined spaces, and they are small compared to other pest species, so they can hide within small cracks and crevices that are easy to overlook, thereby evading humans and their eradication efforts. Conversely, the seasoned pest controller is alert for cracks and crevices where it is likely to be profitable to place baits or spray surfaces.

To be effective, control measures must be comprehensive, sustained, and systematic; survival of just a few eggs is quite enough to regenerate a nearly exterminated pest population within a few generations, and recolonisation from surrounding populations often is very rapid, too.[12]

Another problem in controlling German cockroaches is the nature of their population behaviour. Though they are not social and practise no organised maternal care, females carry oothecae of 18-50 eggs (average about 32) during incubation until just before hatching, instead of dropping them as most other species of cockroaches do. This protects the eggs from certain classes of predation. Then, after hatching, nymphs largely survive by consuming excretions and moults from adults, thereby establishing their own internal microbial populations and avoiding contact with most insecticidal surface treatments and baits. One effective control is insect growth regulators (IGRs, hydroprene, methoprene, etc.), which act by preventing molting, thus prevent maturation of the various instars. Caulking baseboards and around pipes may prevent the travel of adults from one apartment to another within a building.

Female German cockroach with ootheca

As an adaptive consequence of pest control by poisoned sugar baits, a strain of German cockroaches has emerged that reacts to glucose as distastefully bitter. They refuse to eat sweetened baits, which presents an obstacle to their control, given that baits are an economical and effective means of control. It also is a dramatic illustration of adaptive selection; in the absence of poisoned sweet baits, attraction to sugars strongly promotes growth, energy, and reproduction; cockroaches that are not attracted to sugars take longer to grow and reproduce, whereas in the presence of poisoned sugared baits, sugar avoidance promotes reproduction.[15]


  1. ^ Alan Weaving; Mike Picker; Griffiths, Charles Llewellyn (2003). Field Guide to Insects of South Africa. New Holland Publishers, Ltd. ISBN 1-86872-713-0. 
  2. ^ John A. Jackman; Bastiaan M. Drees (1 March 1998). A Field Guide to Common Texas Insects. Taylor Trade Publishing. pp. 28–. ISBN 978-1-4616-2291-8. 
  3. ^ William J. Bell; Louis M. Roth; Christine A. Nalepa (26 June 2007). Cockroaches: Ecology, Behavior, and Natural History. JHU Press. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-0-8018-8616-4. 
  4. ^ a b Xavier Bonnefoy; Helge Kampen; Kevin Sweeney (2008). Public Health Significance of Urban Pests. World Health Organization. pp. 35–. ISBN 978-92-890-7188-8. 
  5. ^ The insects and arachnids of Canada, part 14, The Grasshoppers, Crickets, and related insects of Canada and adjacent region
  6. ^ Faúndez, E. I. & M. A. Carvajal. 2011. Blattella germanica (Linnaeus, 1767) (Insecta: Blattaria) en la Región de Magallanes. Boletín de Biodiversidad de Chile, 5: 50-55.
  7. ^ Cory, EN; McConnell, HS (1917). Bulletin No. 8: Insects and Rodents Injurious to Stored Products. College Park, Maryland: Maryland State College of Agriculture Extension Service. p. 135. 
  8. ^ Hill, Dennis S. (30 September 2002). Pests of Stored Foodstuffs and their Control. Springer. pp. 145–146. ISBN 978-1-4020-0735-4. 
  9. ^ Eaton, Eric R.; Kaufman, Kenn (2007). Kaufman Field Guide to Insects of North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 62. ISBN 0-618-15310-1. 
  10. ^ Berenbaum, May (1989). Ninety-nine Gnats, Nits, and Nibblers. University of Illinois Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-252-06027-4. 
  11. ^ Gary R. Mullen; Lance A. Durden (27 September 2002). Medical and Veterinary Entomology. Academic Press. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-0-08-053607-1. 
  12. ^ a b Rust, Michael K.; Owens, John M.; Reierson, Donald A. (30 November 1994). Understanding and Controlling the German Cockroach. Oxford University Press. pp. 388–. ISBN 978-0-19-534508-7. 
  13. ^ a b Ebeling, Walter. "Urban entomology". Archived from the original on 17 July 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013. 
  14. ^ http://museumpests.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/German-Cockroach.pdf Museumpests.net Accessed July 15, 2015
  15. ^ Wada-Katsumata, A.; Silverman, J.; Schal, C. (2013). "Changes in Taste Neurons Support the Emergence of an Adaptive Behavior in Cockroaches". Science. 340 (6135): 972–5. PMID 23704571. doi:10.1126/science.1234854.  (summary at BBC News)
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Robinson, William H. (14 April 2005). Urban Insects and Arachnids: A Handbook of Urban Entomology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 45–46, 51–54. ISBN 978-0-521-81253-5. 
  17. ^ a b Bassett, W.H. (12 October 2012). Clay's Handbook of Environmental Health. Routledge. p. 317. ISBN 978-1-135-81033-7. 

Maricopa

Pest Control For Rodents


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Taft Cockroach Pest Control

Pest control in Taft for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Weekend Pest Control

Taft Pest Control For Rodents

Hello and welcometo this teaching from Skip Heitzig ofCalvary Albuquerque.

We pray this messagestrengthens your relationship with the Lord.

And if it does, we'dlove to hear about it.

Email us atmystory@calvaryabq.

Org.

And if you'd like to supportthis ministry financially, you can give online securelycalvaryabq.

Org/give.

Every group has its share ofproblem people and detractors.

Their words may hurt us andtheir actions may confuse us.

But as we continue ourseries, Technicolor Joy, Pastor Skip teaches us howto handle these pesky folks.

Now, please open your Bibleto Philippians chapter 1 as he begins the message,Pest Control.

Would you turn in your Biblesto Philippians chapter 1 this morning.

Philippians chapter 1.

That's what we're doing.

We're going through the bookof Philippians, verse by verse, on the weekends.

We call it TechnicolorJoy, because we've discovered thisbook is a book that has as its central theme joy.

And yet, Paul was writingfrom a Roman prison.

It's amazing.

Philippians chapter 1.

So there was a man, he wasstranded on a desert island all alone for years.

Finally, he was found.

And a rescue team was sentto pull him off the island and bring him backto civilization.

Well, they get to the islandand before they take him off, he goes well, let meshow you around first.

So you can see what I'vedone with the place.

So he brought them toa hut that he lived in.

He goes, this is the home thatI built with my own two hands.

They were impressed.

And then, he showedthem a second building.

And he said, thisis the church that I built with my own two hands.

Now, he was alone on the island.

But he said, this is the churchI built with my own two hands.

And then, somebodyfrom the rescue party noticed a third building.

And he said, whatabout that building? He said, oh, that's thechurch I used to go to.

If you've gone tochurch for very long, you know that thatsentiment is not far off.

That the longeryou go to church, you discover that church historyis filled with contention sometimes.

And discord over years.

And it's one of the thingsthat unbelievers have noticed.

People who do not believein the Jesus we follow will sometimes-- in fact, oftentimes-- say,well, you know, there's a lot of denominationsin the Christian world.

And it just seems like you guyscan't get your act together.

You don't all agreeon all the points.

You know, it'slike the old joke.

How many Christians does ittake to change a light bulb? And it's not an easy answer.

Presbyterians, none.

Lights will go on andoff at predestined times.

Catholics, none.

Candles only.

Baptist, at least 15.

One to change the lightbulb and three committees to approve the change and decidewho brings the potato salad.

Episcopalians, three.

One to call the electrician,one to mix the drinks, and one to talk about how muchbetter the old light bulb was.

Charismatics, only one.

Hands are already in the air.

Pentecostals, 10.

One to change thebulb and nine to pray against the spirit of darkness.

Unitarians, we choosenot to make a statement either in favor of or againstthe need for light bulbs.

However if you are--in your own journey you found that light bulbswork for you, that's fine.

You're invited towrite a poem or compose a modern dance aboutyour light bulb for next Sunday's service,in which we will explore a number of lightbulb traditions, including incandescent,fluorescent, three-way long life, and tinted.

All of which are equallyvalid paths to luminescence.

Methodists, undetermined.

Whether your light is brightor dull or completely out, you are loved.

You can be a light bulb, aturnip bulb, or a tulip bulb.

Christian, our church-widelighting service is planned for next Sunday.

Bring the bulb of yourchoice and a covered dish.

Nazarenes, six.

One woman to replace thebulb while five men review the church lighting policy.

Lutherans, none.

Lutherans don'tbelieve in change.

Amish, what's a light bulb? Well, now that Ihave effectively ditched all denominationsand offended everyone, I want to go to the text itself,in Philippians chapter 1.

We're going to be lookingat verses 15 through 18.

And here's where we are.

Last time we weretogether, we noted that Paul was dealing withproblem circumstances.

He had been on trial.

It was a mistrial.

It was a miscarriage of justice.

It landed him inprison in Caesarea, than in prison in Rome.

Now, Paul writes aboutnot problem circumstances but problem people.

But get this-- there areChristian people that are the problem.

Christian people thatare opposed to Paul.

This disillusionslots of people who-- after they come to Christ-- say something like,well, I thought it would be much differentamong Christians.

I thought Christians wouldbe so wonderful all the time.

It's a good thought, but thereality is we're all fallen.

We're all sinful.

We're all imperfect.

And yet, we all get together.

Remember, Jesus said,when he gave his sermon to that synagogue in Nazareth,he said that he had come-- his words-- to preachthe gospel to the poor, to heal the broken-hearted,to proclaim liberty to the captives, togive sight to the blind, to set at liberty thosewho are oppressed.

Did you hear the description ofthe audience he speaks about? Poor, broken-hearted,captive, blind, oppressed.

Sounds like a messy bunch to me.

And that is who we areas we are all together.

Now, the critical questionis, how do you handle pests? How do you deal with peoplewho claim to be Christians, yet at the same time, they're weird,irritable, sometimes wrong, or just plain goofy? How do you handle them? What do you do? Well, we are given athree-fold strategy in these four verses ofPhilippians chapter 1.

Whether you are a church leader,whether you are a group leader, whether you gather asmall group in your home or you go on a missionstrip-- or you just hang around Christians--these are valuable principles to know.

Let's begin andby-- just looking at our texts in verse 15.

Paul says these words.

Some indeed preach Christeven from envy and strife, and some also from goodwill.

The former preach Christfrom selfish ambition, not sincerely, supposing toadd affliction to my chains.

But the latter outof love, knowing that I am appointed forthe defense of the gospel.

What then? Only that in every way, whetherin pretense or in truth, Christ is preached.

And in this I rejoice,yes, and will rejoice.

The first thing we must do isidentify the troublemakers.

Now, this will not be difficult.

Troublemakers show themselves.

They emerge on their own.

You don't have to look for them.

You'll find them pretty easily.

Paul did, in hisexperience in Rome.

Now, as we examine these wordsin this text more carefully, we discover who heis speaking about.

First of all, wewant to make a note that these people Paul iswriting about are believers.

They are believers.

Notice in verse 15, he says,some indeed preach Christ.

Some of what? Some of whom? The answer is given in theprevious verse, verse 14.

Most of the brethrenin the Lord.

Please notice that,that's part of the group.

Most of the brethren in theLord have become confident by my chains and aremuch more bold to speak the word without fear.

Some-- that issome of them, some of those brethren in theLord-- indeed preach Christ.

So Paul is not dealing withheretics here or Gnostics or Judaizers or unbelievingidol worshippers.

He's talking about Christianbrothers and sisters who preach Christ.

Evidently leaders inthe church in Rome.

Why is this importantto make a note of? Well, I've noticedthat some of us like to idealizethe early church.

We think that the earlychurch must have just been perfect all the time.

And I've heardsentiments such as, boy, I wish our church could belike the early centuries.

Those were the good old days.

I've discovered thegood old days is just a combination of a goodimagination and a bad memory.

Because if you think aboutit, the New Testament is filled withearly church issues.

Example? The church at Corinthwas an early church.

Ever spend much timein 1 and 2 Corinthians? If you have, you understand thatwhen Paul wrote that letter, he was speaking toa divided church who were arguing over leadership.

There was rampant divorce.

There was lack of love.

There was immorality.

There was the discussionover spiritual gifts that nobody agreed on.

It sounds verycontemporary to me.

If you're wanting to belike the early church, I think we've hit that mark.

They were not a perfectgroup of people.

I guess the most disturbingissue is why does that happen in the church? Why among redeemed,saved people can there get to be so many problems? The Puritan John Trapp answeredthat question the best.

He said, the devil lovesto fish in troubled waters.

That's good, isn't it? The devil loves to fishin troubled waters.

Satan loves toexploit and amplify any conflict or disagreementor issue that may be among us.

If you have never read the bookThe Screwtape Letters by C.

S.

Lewis, I recommend you read it.

C.

S.

Lewis decidedto write a book from the vantage point of thedevil trying to undo people.

The devil in this book,Screwtape-- the senior demon-- is training ayounger protege demon named Wormwood on how tomess people's lives up.

And in one section of the book,he writes a letter to Wormwood.

My dear Wormwood, saysScrewtape, the senior demon, the church is afertile field if you keep them bickering overdetails, structure, money, property, personal hurts,and misunderstandings.

One thing you mustprevent, don't ever let Christians look up and seethe banner of victory flying, because you will lose them.

Never let them seethe glory of God.

Now, that's exactlywhat Paul does.

Paul lets us seethe glory of God.

That's how he will answerthis whole contention issue, you'll notice in a minute.

He flies the bannerof victory and he shows them the glory of God.

But let's look atthese troublemakers.

Let's identify them.

One thing I want you tonotice is they were jealous.

Look in verse 15at the word envy.

Some indeed preachedChrist even from envy.

Now, we have anotherword for envy in our language-- jealousy.

They were jealous over Paul.

Why were they jealous over Paul? Well, Paul was an easy target.

He was quite successful.

Paul was highly intelligent.

He was very gifted,extraordinarily successful inspreading the gospel.

He had seen with his own eyesa vision of the resurrected Christ.

And, at the timethis was written, Christians were alreadyregarding his letters as holy scripture.

So he's an easy target.

And people, in seeing Paul,decided, let's shoot him down.

Now this is human nature.

I notice this on everylevel, whether it's people mad at Wall Streetor the one percenters or the big corporations.

Always the big, successfulguys that are the easy targets.

So they were jealous.

He uses the word,they preach from envy.

Not only were they jealous,they were a contentious group.

Look at the next word.

Some indeed preach Christfrom envy-- that's jealousy-- and strife.

Now, that describes somebodywho is an argumentative person.

That's what strifemeans, somebody who stirs up a conflict.

Argumentative.

Do you know anypeople like that? They're just-- you'rearound, they're always stirring up a conflict,always argumentative.

Some people thrive onbeing argumentative.

In fact, some peopleare known more for what they are againstrather than what they are for.

You never quite knowwhat they're for, you just know they'reagainst a lot.

That's strife.

They exist to slamothers and they were slamming Paul the Apostle.

I have a colleague inthe ministry who I've known for years, I respect.

And he was speaking about--and answering questions-- that young ministers wereasking him about the ministry.

And they said, what is themost difficult experience you've ever had in ministry? And he said, well,there are two.

Number one is when people whoknow truth walk away from it.

When somebody who shouldknow better-- there are Christians whohave been exposed to truth, beenexposed to the word, bring their Bibles, read-along.

Suddenly, one day, they--for whatever reason-- walk away completelyfrom living for Christ.

He said, but the second-- and he was speakingabout ministers who were comingagainst him-- he said those who live to attackothers in the ministry.

It's like they falsely accuse.

And they live justto stir up trouble.

So, envy and strife.

And we do not know howthis strife was expressed.

We can only suppose.

Maybe there was agroup of people saying, well, you know Paul the Apostle,there must be sin in his life.

That's why he's in jail.

Because God wouldbe more faithful and not allow him to bein prison unless something is wrong with him.

Or maybe they weresaying, well, Paul hasn't tapped into thevictorious Holy Spirit-filled life.

If he did, if he had, thenhe wouldn't be in prison.

He'd be free like we have-- like we are.

But we do know theywere jealous and we do know they were contentious.

Something else theywere, they were selfish.

If you go down to verse 16,he amplifies it further.

He says, the former-- that is the first group, theguys against him, the former-- preach Christ fromselfish ambition.

Very interesting term.

It is a political term thatspeaks about a politician canvassing for office.

Using negative campaigns,putting other people down to make himself lookbetter, to promote himself.

So here's a group of peopleputting Paul down to puff themselves up, like a politicianmight do in a negative campaign ad.

They got some pervertedpleasure by slamming Paul so that they couldmake other people think they are much better.

This is not new inthe New Testament.

We know that Johnthe Apostle spoke about a guy named Diotrephes.

If you know yourBible, 3 John verse 9, that little letter towardthe end of the New Testament.

He says, Diotrephes lovesto have the preeminence.

He loves to havethe preeminence.

In other words, he wantsto dominate people.

He's a control freak.

Diotrephes loves to havethe preeminence among them.

Keep this in mind.

Next time you hear gossip-- and there are, unfortunately,too many people even in the church wholove to spread gossip-- when you hear gossip,somebody's ego is being exalted.

It's usually sharedbecause I know this and you don't andI am concerned.

And ego is being exalted as thatinformation is being divulged.

A man wrapped up in himselfmakes a very small package.

And selfish ambitionwas part and parcel of what was wrongwith these people.

They were selfish.

So they're jealous, they'recontentious, they're selfish.

Paul mentions them.

Not by name, he doesn't wantto make too much out of it.

He just doesn't wantto be self-serving.

But he mentions what they did.

But there's a fourth thing.

They were malicious.

Notice in verse 16,the former preacher Christ from selfishambition, not sincerely.

Now, watch this.

Supposing or hoping to addaffliction to my chains.

Now, Paul is revealingtheir motivation.

They're doing all this.

They are this way.

They're pushing me downto pull themselves up.

And here's why.

They want to addaffliction to my bonds.

What does that mean? The word affliction is acommon New Testament word.

Thlipsis.

Thlipsis is a word thatmeans pressure or trial, but it literallymeans an irritation.

It means friction.

It is the irritation causedby the rubbing of an object over another object.

Now, notice it says-- Paul says, they want to addaffliction or irritation to my chains.

For two years,Paul was in chains.

I know you've heard that.

I know we've read that.

We've discussed that.

But I just want you tothink of what that means.

That means for two years, Paulcouldn't take a potty break alone.

He had no freedom.

He had no isolation.

He had no privacy.

He couldn't eat a meal alone.

He couldn't have aconversation in that rented house in Rome for two years.

He was chained to a guard.

That means there was ashackle around his wrist, with a chain attached to theshackle of another soldier who only occupied that placefor a few hours at a time.

But Paul-- 24 hours a day,seven days a week, two years-- he had a chain.

That means that shacklewould irritate his skin and his bones andscabs would develop.

And it would bleed.

And it would thicken, et cetera.

You get the picture.

So he says, the reason thesepeople are this way toward me is they want to addto the irritation that I alreadyhave in my chains.

That is their motivation.

They don't want toevangelize the lost.

They don't wantto feed the flock.

They're not reallyconcerned for the church, even though they'resaying, well, I'm saying this about Paulbecause I'm really concerned for the church.

Paul said, that's not the truth.

The truth is theyhave one motivation.

They want to add irritation tomy already irritable situation of being in chains.

Now, please understandagain, these are preachers.

Paul says, they preach Christ.

They are Christians.

They are Christian preachers.

They are not anti-Christ,but they are anti-Paul.

And they are anti-Paulwith a vengeance.

And I can't thinkof a worse reason to preach a message than that.

I can't think of a worsemotivation to write a book or have a blog site than that.

Let's just make life hardfor Paul the Apostle.

Sort of like scorpions.

You know that if you leavescorpions together alone, they'll kill themselvesand eat themselves? A guy did an experiment with 100scorpions in a huge glass jar.

In a few days, only 14 survived.

They had killed the othersand were eating them.

There was even apregnant scorpion in that jar that killed andstarted eating her young as soon as they were born.

One of those babies escapedon the mother's back and eventually killed her.

Any leader whohas led anything-- even Christian leadersin Christian churches-- know that everychurch, every group has the Tate family among them.

Every church has the Tates.

There's old man Dick Tate,who wants to run everything.

While Uncle Ro Tate triesto change everything.

Their sister, AgiTate, stirs up plenty of trouble with help fromher husband, Irri Tate.

And whenever newprojects are suggested, Hesi Tate and his wife Vege Tatewant to wait till next year.

Then there's Aunt ImiTate, who wants our church to be like all the others.

Devas Tate providesthe voice of doom, while Poten Tate wantsto be a big shot.

And, of course,there's the black sheep of the family, Ampu Tate, whohas completely cut himself off from every church.

Anybody who's a leaderknows those people exist.

So what do you do? I suggest you do what Paul does.

You don't spend all yourtime worried about them.

You pivot.

Yes, you identifythe troublemakers, but then you ratifythe truth makers.

And notice what Paulsays in verse 15.

Some indeed preach Christfrom envy and strife.

And some-- I want to go,ah, it feels better already.

He's pivoting here.

And some also from goodwill.

Verse 17 further describes them.

But the latter, outof love, knowing that I am appointed forthe defense of the gospel.

This is the silver lining inthe dark cloud of contention and Paul has found it.

Yes, in any group, thereis going to Irri Tate and Agi Tate and Vege Tate.

But there is also going tobe advocate and celebrate.

And you want tofind those people.

And here's what Paul does.

He says, yeah, thereare some like this.

But then there aresome like that.

You see, rather than justfocusing on the smudge that is on the white linengarment, Paul says, yeah, but there's a lot of white linengarment around that smudge.

It's not all a smudge.

There is a smudge,I grant you that.

I can identifythe troublemakers, but there's a lot of otherswho are not like that.

That's part of the strategy.

Starve the problemand feed the solution.

Find those who love you, wholove the work of God in you, and run with them.

Ratify them, encourage them,empower them, build with them.

And just keep runningahead of the Irri Tates and the Agi Tatesand the Ampu Tates.

Their voice will diminishas you go further ahead.

Now, I'm going to sharesomething with you that will probably be shocking to you.

Did you know that Paulthe Apostle probably lost his life as a resultof troublemaking Christians in Rome? I want that to settleon your hearts.

Paul probably losthis life because of the trouble caused bytroublemaking Christians in Rome.

You're saying,oh, wait a minute.

I always heard that it wasCaesar Nero that killed Paul the Apostle, beheaded him.

Well, that's true.

Here's the problem.

We have very little informationabout the death of Paul from early church records.

They're very silent on it.

We just have asnippet here or there.

But it would seem like the envy,the jealousy of many Christians in Rome denounced Paulbefore Caesar Nero, which added the weightto the death sentence.

You say, well, howdo you know that? Well, there are severalsources I've discovered.

But I'm going toshare two with you.

One comes from 2Timothy chapter 1, a guy by the name of Onesiphorus-- how's that for a name? Don't name your Onesiphorus,though he was a good guy.

It'll be hard in school.

Onesiphorus came to visit Paulwhile he was in Rome in prison.

The problem is oncehe gets to Rome, it seems like nobody will tellhim where Paul the Apostle is.

They don't want to tell him.

Maybe they don't know or maybethey don't want to tell him.

But listen to what itsays, 2 Timothy chapter 1.

Paul writes, may the Lord showspecial kindness to Onesiphorus and all his family,because he often visited and encouraged me.

He was never ashamed of mebecause I was in prison.

When he came to Rome,he searched everywhere until he found me.

So he came to Rome.

Nobody told him wherePaul was, even though he kept open house for two years.

People came and visited him andhe influenced church leaders, were told.

But he had to search forhim until he could find him.

And Paul made aspecial note, he wasn't ashamed of me being in prison.

Which indicates some were.

They saw this as adefeat, an embarrassment.

But then a second sourcecomes from a letter that was foundfrom 90 AD, written by a man named Clement ofRome to the Church of Corinth.

And in the book, in theletter from Clement, Clement addresses jealousyand envy among God's people that have led to thedestruction, death, or trouble caused byother of God's people.

And he gives seven examplesof that through history.

And one of the examples is Paul.

Clement writesthis, and I quote, "by reason of jealousy andstrife, Paul, by his example, pointed out the prizeof patient endurance.

And when he had borne histestimony before the rulers, he departed from thisworld and went to heaven.

" The point Clement makes isthat envy among Christians somehow helped bringthe execution brought on by Caesar Nero.

If you still havefurther doubts, you have only to read2 Timothy chapter 4.

It's the end of Paul's life.

It's right before he died.

Paul says this, listen to Paul.

At my first defense,no one stood with me.

But all forsook me.

That breaks my heartto just read that.

This is Paul thestinking Apostle.

At my first offense,nobody stood with me.

Everybody forsook me.

But then he quickly adds,but the Lord stood with me.

He was utterly alone, interms of human fellowship at that point.

So Paul identifiesthe troublemakers, tells us that they arejealous, contentious, selfish, malicious.

But then he pivots andratifies the truth-makers.

But here's the thirdpart of this strategy and the best of all.

Magnify the true message.

Look at verse 18.

Look at how Paul answers this.

He says, what then? You know what that means? That little question, what then? You know how wewould translate that? So what? So what? What does it matter? What then? Only that in every way,whether in pretense-- they're pretending to be pure intheir motives, but they're not.

In pretense or in truth,Christ is preached.

And in this, I rejoice,yes, and will rejoice.

Man, you cannot stop this dude.

He is in jail.

He has been in jail.

He will be in jail fora total of two years.

He will be released,brought back into prison.

He will be executed.

He is in jail.

He is persecuted by unbelievers.

He is picked on by believers.

And he goes, so what? And then he says, I rejoice.

You know, I don't know how manyof us would have the courage to say, you know, there is a lotof people that are against me.

And then say, so what? Most of us wouldwrite, shame on them.

Don't they know that I amthe great Paul the Apostle, who had a vision ofthe living Christ? Who will write 13New Testament books? Don't they know who I am? He goes, so what? I rejoice and will rejoice.

Almost like thisdefiant, I'm not going to let anybodysteal my joy.

An amazing reaction.

An amazing reaction.

Now, I don't want you tothink, in looking at this-- because a lot ofpeople do think this-- that Paul came to apoint where he was just this stone statue of a man,impervious to the criticisms of others.

It just rolled off his back.

I don't believe that.

He was a person with emotionsand heart and feelings.

And he was wounded verydeeply by these people.

But what he issaying is, I'm not going to let meanpeople rob me of joy.

In fact, I have found causeand reason to rejoice, and that is this-- themessage of the gospel.

Even when preachedwith bad motives, they're preachingthe right message.

Right message, wrong motives.

I'm not going to worryabout the motives.

That's between them and God.

I'm going to worryabout the message, and that is the gospel.

Now, here's the great truth.

The great truthin all of this can be boiled down to theirreducible minimum, which is this.

The power is in the message,not in the messenger.

The power is in the message,not in the messenger.

If somebody tampers withthe message, go at them.

If people tamper with themessenger, ignore them.

Now, let's just talkabout that for a moment.

If people mess and tamperwith the message, go at them.

Paul did.

Paul wrote to the Galatians.

And he says, I'm noticingthat people among you are preaching adifferent gospel, a different gospel than onethat is the true gospel.

And he goes, I want you to knowif we or an angel from heaven preach to you any other gospelthan the one you have received, let him be cursedbelow the lowest hell.

How's that for confrontation? So you mess with the message,I'm going to come at you.

You mess with the messenger,I'm going to ignore you.

What then? So what? What does it matter? I rejoice that themessage is being preached.

So Paul has his comrades.

Those are partnersin the gospel.

He rejoices because of them.

But Paul has his critics,detractors of Paul.

He rejoices in spite of them.

Why? Because they'rebrothers, that's why.

Simple as that.

They're brothers.

Yes, they're ornery.

Yes, they're stupid.

Yes, they're irritating.

But they're brothers.

They're brothers in Christ.

So Paul is saying, I'm notcalled to defend myself.

I'm called to defend the gospel.

I'm not called toprotect myself, I'm called toproclaim the gospel.

Now, I want to close ona couple of thoughts.

We often make too muchover what divides us and not enough overwhat unites us.

I know.

I know, we have touse discernment.

I know we have to becareful about what the truth is, the true gospel,like Galatians chapter 1.

But sometimes I fearthat we are known more for what we're againstthan what we're for.

And some people actuallylike being that way.

They like being knownfor what they're against.

And they are known forwhat they're against.

But sometimes, I thinkwe make too much of it.

Here's the truth.

God reserves the right to usepeople who disagree with you.

Newsflash! God reserves the right to usepeople who disagree with you.

There's people who disagreewith you on the rapture.

There's people whodisagree with me on the rapture orspiritual gifts or a number of thingsthat aren't the real crux, crucial matters of the gospel.

Death, burial, Resurrection,vicarious atonement, all that central stuff.

So what? I began with talkingabout denominations and changing light bulbs.

Let me tell you a truestory about denominations.

In the late 1700s, John Wesley-- you know John Wesley, one ofthe great leaders in England at the time.

Wesley was concernedbecause there were so many denominationsspringing up.

And this always bothers peoplewho study church history, because the church historyis a history of people not getting along and dividing.

So somebody in the groupdoesn't like the group and leaves the group andstarts their own group.

And as their group grows,somebody in that group doesn't like that group andthey start another group.

And that group grows andsomebody in that group may get together with the firstgroup and start another group.

Those are denominations.

Well, this bothered him.

So one night, John Wesleygoes to bed, has a dream.

And in his dream, he isushered to the gates of hell.

And in his dream, heasked the question, are there anyPresbyterians here? And the answer comes back.

Yes, there are.

He's shocked.

He goes, are thereany Baptists here? He goes, yes, there are.

Are there any Methodists? Are there any Episcopalians? Yes, yes, yes.

Well, he's troubled by this.

And immediatelyin his dream, he's now ushered to thegates of heaven.

And he asks the sameset of questions.

Are there anyPresbyterians here? No was the answer.

Are there any Baptists? No.

Or any Methodists? No.

Any Episcopalians? No.

And he said, no? Who then is inside? And this answer came back,there are only Christians here.

There are only Christians here.

You don't get to heaven bybeing a Presbyterian, a Baptist, a Methodist, anEpiscopalian, a Calvaryite.

But by trust inJesus' death, burial, and Resurrection, period.

And you are a Christian if youbelieve that and that message has changed your life.

As we close today, couldI have you stand, please? And we're going to pray.

And we're going tothank God in our prayer for all the other great churchesthat are in our community.

Father, we do thank youfor pastors and leaders who labor hard in thefield, that are scattered throughout this community.

Yes, we know thatthere are some who do not proclaim thetrue gospel, some who deny the deity of Christ,the Atonement of Christ, the Trinity and all that.

But we're not thinking of them.

We're thinking ofthose who do believe in those essential truths.

And in their differentstyles or different nuances, they love you.

They love your work.

They love the message.

And even if theywould say something disparaging about anybodyelse, that isn't the issue.

We want to just say we rejoicethat Christ is preached.

And help us to makemuch of Jesus Christ.

It's in his name we pray.

Amen.

It's important toknow how to deal with people who claim Christbut still act like pests.

Did this message impact you? We want to know.

Email us atmystory@calvaryabq.

Org.

And just a reminder, you cangive financially to this work at calvaryabq.

Org/give.

Thank you for joining usfor this teaching from Skip Heitzig of Calvary Albuquerque.

Wasp Exterminator

The History of Pest Control

Pest control is a term that is used to refer to the processes associated with the control and elimination of unwanted pests. Pests and animals that can be harmful to humans, that carry diseases and can damage property.

There are many methods that are used and which one is used primarily depends on the type of pest that is being eliminated. With mice being one of the most common pests that humans encounter, there are many processes that deal with mice extermination. Mice are feared as if they are not controlled they can be the root cause of many health problems. They can be detrimental to certain environments as their introduction can lead to the breaking of the food chain.

A pest control company can help a homeowner deal with these rodents once and for all by using state of the art exterminations that promise to eradicate them permanently. Pest control is a necessary procedure if one is going to live a healthy free life where their family is safe and food can be eaten without contamination.

Taft

Local pest control companies see an increase in bugs from monsoon


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Bodfish Pest Control Cost

Pest control in Bodfish for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Pest Inspection

Bodfish Pest Control For Rodents

THE FIRST INCREASE IN MORE THAN A DECADE.

THEY SAY IT IS NEEDED TO MAINTAIN THE QUALITY OF THE FACILITIES AND SERVICES.

WE HAVE MORE INFORMATION FOR YOU ON THOSE PRICES AT WCCO.

COM.

IN THE SUMMER MONTHS, IT IS A GIVEN.

YOU MIGHT SEE THE OCCASIONAL INSECTS CREEPING AROUND YOUR HOME.

THIS YEAR, ONE PEST IS TURNING UP MORE.

THERE IS A SIGNIFICANT INCREASE IN THE AMOUNT OF CALLS FOR CARPENTER ANTS.

RACHEL SLAVIK EXPLAINS WHY THEY'RE MORE LIKELY TO SHOW UP IN YOUR HOME THIS SUMMER.

Reporter: THE OCCASIONAL ANT MAY NOT SEEM LIKE THAT BIG OF A DEAL.

THEY WILL GET IN HERE AND CREATE A NEST SITE.

Reporter: PEST CONTROL EXPERTS LIKE SCOTT KNOW IT IS A SYMPTOM OF A MUCH LARGER PROBLEM.

THIS YEAR, THE TINY BLACK INSECT IS INVADING HOMES AT A SURPRISING RATE.

I'D SAY IT'S UP AT LEAST 100% OVER LAST YEAR.

I HAVE BEEN DOING THIS 17 YEARS AND HAVE NEVER SEEN A YEAR WITH THIS MANY ANT PROBLEMS.

Reporter: THE REASON? WATER HAS A DAMAGING EFFECT ON WOOD.

AND, THIS YEAR'S WET SPRING IS GIVING THIS SMALL PEST PLENTY OF OPPORTUNITY TO MOVE IN.

DAMAGED WOOD IS THE NUMBER ONE THING THAT THEY ARE ATTRACTED TO.

Reporter: IT CAN LEAD TO MASSIVE COLONIES WHICH CAN'T BE TREATED WITH OVER-THE-COUNTER PESTICIDES.

THEY HAVE MULTIPLE NEST SITES.

Reporter: IN THIS HOME, THE PRIMARY NEST SITS 100 FEET AWAY BUT ANTS CAN TRAVEL THE DISTANCE OF A FOOTBALL FIELD.

YOU CAN SEE THE DAMAGE TO THE WOOD.

THIS IS VERY TYPICAL OF WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE INSIDE.

THESE ARE NOCTURNAL INSECTS.

TONIGHT, WE WOULD SEE THEM BEING FULLY ACTIVE INSIDE OF HERE.

Reporter: FOR THIS INFESTATION, TREATMENT IS THE ONLY OPTION TO END THE INVITATION TO THOUSANDS OF UNWELCOME VISITORS.

Rodent Control Company

Electronic pest control

The application of pest control ranges from do-it-yourself arrangements to
scientific and very precise deployment of chemicals and predatory insects by
highly skilled practitioners. Despite the fact that pest control is a world-wide
industry it is still dominated by family or 1-person businesses. Those that need
to control pests range from householders to
large scale agri-conglomerates who need to maximise their yield. In between
these two are restaurants, bars, food production facilities, farmers - in fact,
anybody that routinely deals with food. Pest control can make us more
comfortable - but can also save lives.

The word pest is subjective as one man's pest may be another man's
helper. For instance, pest A may be a threat to crop A, and pest B a threat to
crop B. However, if pest B is a natural predator to pest A, then the farmer who
wishes to protect crop A may cultivate and release pest B amongst his crops.
There is a theory that without man's intervention in the food chain through
agriculture, hunting and long distance travel there would be no pests. The
theory continues that man's intervention (for instance, in cultivating and
releasing pest B, or in carrying creatures long distances) has upset the balance
of the food chain, producing instability in insect and other animal numbers and
distorting their evolution. This instability has led to over-population of a
given
species with the result that they have become pests. Having said this, if we assume that the very first fly swat was the first
instance of pest control - and we know that large animals swat flies - it could be
argued that pest control dates back way before humans came on the scene.

At this point pest control was carried out by farmers and some householders
as an everyday activity. By the early nineteenth century however, this changed
as studies and writings started to appear that treated pest control as a
separate discipline. Increasing use of intensive and large scale farming brought
matching increases in the intensity and scale of pest scares such as the
disastrous potato famine in Ireland in 1840. Pest control management was scaled
up to meet these demands, to the point that dedicated pest controllers began to
emerge throughout the 20th century.

In 1921 the first crop-spraying aeroplane was employed and in 1962 flying insect control was revolutionized when Insect-o-cutor started selling fly killer
machines using ultra violet lamps.

Pest control is still carried out by farmers and householders to this day.
There are also pest control specialists (sometimes called pesties); many
are one-person businesses and others work for large companies. In most countries
the pest control industry has been dogged by a few bad practitioners who have
tarnished the reputation for the highly professional and responsible majority.

One thing is for certain, from way before the Sumerians of 2500BC to us in modern times, there have always been - and probably always will be - pests (including some human ones!). Thank goodness, therefore, that we have pest controllers.

Bodfish

Exterminator


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Lake Isabella Bed Bug Pesticide

Pest control in Lake Isabella for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Weekend Pest Control

Lake Isabella Pest Control For Rodents

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MY HOME THAT I PROBABLYUSE ALMOST EVERY DAY.

I USE ALMOST EVERY DAY.

I USE ALMOST EVERY DAY.

IDO USE ALMOST EVERY DAY.

IDO NOT USE ALMOST EVERY DAY.

IDO NOT LIKE USE ALMOST EVERY DAY.

IDO NOT LIKE GETTING USE ALMOST EVERY DAY.

IDO NOT LIKE GETTING THE DO NOT LIKE GETTING THE DO NOT LIKE GETTING THEMOSQUITO DO NOT LIKE GETTING THEMOSQUITO BITES.

DO NOT LIKE GETTING THEMOSQUITO BITES.

I DO NOT LIKE GETTING THEMOSQUITO BITES.

I AM DO NOT LIKE GETTING THEMOSQUITO BITES.

I AM MO MOSQUITO BITES.

I AM MO MOSQUITO BITES.

I AM MOONE MOSQUITO BITES.

I AM MOONE OF MOSQUITO BITES.

I AM MOONE OF THE MOSQUITO BITES.

I AM MOONE OF THE PEOPLE MOSQUITO BITES.

I AM MOONE OF THE PEOPLE IT ONE OF THE PEOPLE IT ONE OF THE PEOPLE ITSEEMS ONE OF THE PEOPLE ITSEEMS LIKE ONE OF THE PEOPLE ITSEEMS LIKE IF ONE OF THE PEOPLE ITSEEMS LIKE IF I'M ONE OF THE PEOPLE ITSEEMS LIKE IF I'M EVERY SEEMS LIKE IF I'M EVERY SEEMS LIKE IF I'M EVERY-- SEEMS LIKE IF I'M EVERY-- IF SEEMS LIKE IF I'M EVERY-- IF I'M SEEMS LIKE IF I'M EVERY-- IF I'M OUTSIDE, SEEMS LIKE IF I'M EVERY-- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I SEEMS LIKE IF I'M EVERY-- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I -- -- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I -- -- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I --WILL -- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I --WILL GET -- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I --WILL GET TWICE -- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I --WILL GET TWICE AS -- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I --WILL GET TWICE AS MANY -- IF I'M OUTSIDE, I --WILL GET TWICE AS MANY W WILL GET TWICE AS MANY W WILL GET TWICE AS MANY WAS WILL GET TWICE AS MANY WAS EVERYBODY WILL GET TWICE AS MANY WAS EVERYBODY ELSE.

WILL GET TWICE AS MANY WAS EVERYBODY ELSE.

I AS EVERYBODY ELSE.

I AS EVERYBODY ELSE.

ILOVE AS EVERYBODY ELSE.

ILOVE THAT AS EVERYBODY ELSE.

ILOVE THAT TREADED AS EVERYBODY ELSE.

ILOVE THAT TREADED SOLE LOVE THAT TREADED SOLE LOVE THAT TREADED SOLEGREEN LOVE THAT TREADED SOLEGREEN NO LOVE THAT TREADED SOLEGREEN NO MORE LOVE THAT TREADED SOLEGREEN NO MORE BUGS LOVE THAT TREADED SOLEGREEN NO MORE BUGS -- LOVE THAT TREADED SOLEGREEN NO MORE BUGS -- GR GREEN NO MORE BUGS -- GR GREEN NO MORE BUGS -- GRTHE GREEN NO MORE BUGS -- GRTHE NATURALLY GREEN NO MORE BUGS -- GRTHE NATURALLY GREEN GREEN NO MORE BUGS -- GRTHE NATURALLY GREEN NO THE NATURALLY GREEN NO THE NATURALLY GREEN NOMORE THE NATURALLY GREEN NOMORE BUGS! THE NATURALLY GREEN NOMORE BUGS! THAT'S THE NATURALLY GREEN NOMORE BUGS! THAT'S WHAT MORE BUGS! THAT'S WHAT MORE BUGS! THAT'S WHATIT'S MORE BUGS! THAT'S WHATIT'S CALLED MORE BUGS! THAT'S WHATIT'S CALLED BUT MORE BUGS! THAT'S WHATIT'S CALLED BUT ON MORE BUGS! THAT'S WHATIT'S CALLED BUT ON YOUR IT'S CALLED BUT ON YOUR IT'S CALLED BUT ON YOURSKIN, IT'S CALLED BUT ON YOURSKIN, BY IT'S CALLED BUT ON YOURSKIN, BY THE IT'S CALLED BUT ON YOURSKIN, BY THE WAY IT'S CALLED BUT ON YOURSKIN, BY THE WAY IT IT'S CALLED BUT ON YOURSKIN, BY THE WAY IT IS SKIN, BY THE WAY IT IS SKIN, BY THE WAY IT ISFROM SKIN, BY THE WAY IT ISFROM THE SKIN, BY THE WAY IT ISFROM THE HIGHEST SKIN, BY THE WAY IT ISFROM THE HIGHEST QUALITY FROM THE HIGHEST QUALITY FROM THE HIGHEST QUALITYCEDAR.

FROM THE HIGHEST QUALITYCEDAR.

IT FROM THE HIGHEST QUALITYCEDAR.

IT IS FROM THE HIGHEST QUALITYCEDAR.

IT IS MADE FROM THE HIGHEST QUALITYCEDAR.

IT IS MADE IN CEDAR.

IT IS MADE IN CEDAR.

IT IS MADE INUSA, CEDAR.

IT IS MADE INUSA, IS CEDAR.

IT IS MADE INUSA, IS A CEDAR.

IT IS MADE INUSA, IS A COMPANY CEDAR.

IT IS MADE INUSA, IS A COMPANY OWNED USA, IS A COMPANY OWNED USA, IS A COMPANY OWNEDBY USA, IS A COMPANY OWNEDBY A USA, IS A COMPANY OWNEDBY A WOMAN.

USA, IS A COMPANY OWNEDBY A WOMAN.

A BY A WOMAN.

A BY A WOMAN.

AWOMAN-OWNED BY A WOMAN.

AWOMAN-OWNED COMPANY, WOMAN-OWNED COMPANY, WOMAN-OWNED COMPANY,CEDAR, WOMAN-OWNED COMPANY,CEDAR, ALL WOMAN-OWNED COMPANY,CEDAR, ALL NATURAL, WOMAN-OWNED COMPANY,CEDAR, ALL NATURAL, USDA CEDAR, ALL NATURAL, USDA CEDAR, ALL NATURAL, USDACERTIFIED, CEDAR, ALL NATURAL, USDACERTIFIED, AND CEDAR, ALL NATURAL, USDACERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

CERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

CERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

YOU CERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

YOU GO CERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

YOU GO OUT CERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

YOU GO OUT TO CERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

YOU GO OUT TO THE CERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

YOU GO OUT TO THE YOU CERTIFIED, AND LISTEN.

YOU GO OUT TO THE YOU GO YOU GO OUT TO THE YOU GO YOU GO OUT TO THE YOU GOGROCERY YOU GO OUT TO THE YOU GOGROCERY STORE, YOU GO OUT TO THE YOU GOGROCERY STORE, YOU YOU GO OUT TO THE YOU GOGROCERY STORE, YOU SPEND GROCERY STORE, YOU SPEND GROCERY STORE, YOU SPENDA GROCERY STORE, YOU SPENDA FORTUNE GROCERY STORE, YOU SPENDA FORTUNE BUYING GROCERY STORE, YOU SPENDA FORTUNE BUYING ORGANIC GROCERY STORE, YOU SPENDA FORTUNE BUYING ORGANICC A FORTUNE BUYING ORGANICC A FORTUNE BUYING ORGANICC, A FORTUNE BUYING ORGANICC, DOING A FORTUNE BUYING ORGANICC, DOING THIS A FORTUNE BUYING ORGANICC, DOING THIS AND A FORTUNE BUYING ORGANICC, DOING THIS AND THAT, , DOING THIS AND THAT, , DOING THIS AND THAT,THEN , DOING THIS AND THAT,THEN YOU , DOING THIS AND THAT,THEN YOU SPRAY , DOING THIS AND THAT,THEN YOU SPRAY CHEMICALS THEN YOU SPRAY CHEMICALS THEN YOU SPRAY CHEMICALSALL THEN YOU SPRAY CHEMICALSALL AROUND THEN YOU SPRAY CHEMICALSALL AROUND YOUR THEN YOU SPRAY CHEMICALSALL AROUND YOUR HOUSE THEN YOU SPRAY CHEMICALSALL AROUND YOUR HOUSE AL ALL AROUND YOUR HOUSE AL ALL AROUND YOUR HOUSE ALYOU ALL AROUND YOUR HOUSE ALYOU WILL ALL AROUND YOUR HOUSE ALYOU WILL LOVE ALL AROUND YOUR HOUSE ALYOU WILL LOVE NO ALL AROUND YOUR HOUSE ALYOU WILL LOVE NO MORE YOU WILL LOVE NO MORE YOU WILL LOVE NO MOREBUGS.

YOU WILL LOVE NO MOREBUGS.

CHAIRS, YOU WILL LOVE NO MOREBUGS.

CHAIRS, SOFAS YOU WILL LOVE NO MOREBUGS.

CHAIRS, SOFAS THE BUGS.

CHAIRS, SOFAS THE BUGS.

CHAIRS, SOFAS THEFLOORS, BUGS.

CHAIRS, SOFAS THEFLOORS, CARPETS, BUGS.

CHAIRS, SOFAS THEFLOORS, CARPETS, YOUR FLOORS, CARPETS, YOUR FLOORS, CARPETS, YOURLONG, FLOORS, CARPETS, YOURLONG, YOUR FLOORS, CARPETS, YOURLONG, YOUR PLANS, FLOORS, CARPETS, YOURLONG, YOUR PLANS, YOUR LONG, YOUR PLANS, YOUR LONG, YOUR PLANS, YOURHOUSE LONG, YOUR PLANS, YOURHOUSE PLANTS! LONG, YOUR PLANS, YOURHOUSE PLANTS! OUTDOOR HOUSE PLANTS! OUTDOOR HOUSE PLANTS! OUTDOORPLANS, HOUSE PLANTS! OUTDOORPLANS, AROUND HOUSE PLANTS! OUTDOORPLANS, AROUND THE HOUSE PLANTS! OUTDOORPLANS, AROUND THE BED, PLANS, AROUND THE BED, PLANS, AROUND THE BED,MATTRESS, PLANS, AROUND THE BED,MATTRESS, BOX PLANS, AROUND THE BED,MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, PLANS, AROUND THE BED,MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, OR MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, OR MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, ORYOURSELF, MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, ORYOURSELF, BY MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, ORYOURSELF, BY THE MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, ORYOURSELF, BY THE WAY MATTRESS, BOX SPRING, ORYOURSELF, BY THE WAY AND YOURSELF, BY THE WAY AND YOURSELF, BY THE WAY ANDYOU YOURSELF, BY THE WAY ANDYOU CAN YOURSELF, BY THE WAY ANDYOU CAN PUT YOURSELF, BY THE WAY ANDYOU CAN PUT IT YOURSELF, BY THE WAY ANDYOU CAN PUT IT ON YOURSELF, BY THE WAY ANDYOU CAN PUT IT ON YOUR YOU CAN PUT IT ON YOUR YOU CAN PUT IT ON YOURPETS.

YOU CAN PUT IT ON YOURPETS.

IT YOU CAN PUT IT ON YOURPETS.

IT IS YOU CAN PUT IT ON YOURPETS.

IT IS SAFE YOU CAN PUT IT ON YOURPETS.

IT IS SAFE OR PETS.

IT IS SAFE OR PETS.

IT IS SAFE ORKIDS! PETS.

IT IS SAFE ORKIDS! HERE'S PETS.

IT IS SAFE ORKIDS! HERE'S WHAT PETS.

IT IS SAFE ORKIDS! HERE'S WHAT IT KIDS! HERE'S WHAT IT KIDS! HERE'S WHAT ITRECALLS KIDS! HERE'S WHAT ITRECALLS TAKES KIDS! HERE'S WHAT ITRECALLS TAKES -- RECALLS TAKES -- RECALLS TAKES --[READING] [READING] [READING]THAT [READING]THAT IS [READING]THAT IS REALLY [READING]THAT IS REALLY GREAT [READING]THAT IS REALLY GREAT TO THAT IS REALLY GREAT TO THAT IS REALLY GREAT TOSPRAY THAT IS REALLY GREAT TOSPRAY ON THAT IS REALLY GREAT TOSPRAY ON YOUR THAT IS REALLY GREAT TOSPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS THAT IS REALLY GREAT TOSPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS S SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS S SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS SIS SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS SIS VIEW SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS SIS VIEW OF SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS SIS VIEW OF MATTRESS SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS SIS VIEW OF MATTRESS IS IS VIEW OF MATTRESS IS IS VIEW OF MATTRESS ISOVER IS VIEW OF MATTRESS ISOVER TWO IS VIEW OF MATTRESS ISOVER TWO YEARS IS VIEW OF MATTRESS ISOVER TWO YEARS OLD, IS VIEW OF MATTRESS ISOVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR, OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR, OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT IS OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT IS IN OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT IS IN ITS OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT OR IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT OR IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT ORNINE IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT ORNINE HERE, IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT ORNINE HERE, YOU IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT ORNINE HERE, YOU NINE IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT ORNINE HERE, YOU NINE HERE NINE HERE, YOU NINE HERE NINE HERE, YOU NINE HEREDEFINITELY NINE HERE, YOU NINE HEREDEFINITELY NEED NINE HERE, YOU NINE HEREDEFINITELY NEED TO NINE HERE, YOU NINE HEREDEFINITELY NEED TO BE DEFINITELY NEED TO BE DEFINITELY NEED TO BESPRAYING DEFINITELY NEED TO BESPRAYING IT.

DEFINITELY NEED TO BESPRAYING IT.

NOW, SPRAYING IT.

NOW, SPRAYING IT.

NOW,MOSQUITOES SPRAYING IT.

NOW,MOSQUITOES ARE SPRAYING IT.

NOW,MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

SPRAYING IT.

NOW,MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

-- MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

-- MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD YOU MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD YOU DON'T MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD YOU DON'T WANT MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BA BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BA BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BAGET BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BAGET A BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BAGET A MOSQUITO BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BAGET A MOSQUITO BITE.

BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BAGET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GE GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GE GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT LET GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT LET ME GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT LET ME TELL GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT LET ME TELL YOU GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT LET ME TELL YOU ARE BUT LET ME TELL YOU ARE BUT LET ME TELL YOU ARETHOSE BUT LET ME TELL YOU ARETHOSE HORRIBLE, BUT LET ME TELL YOU ARETHOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE BUT LET ME TELL YOU ARETHOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE HO THOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE HO THOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE HOCHEMICALS THOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE HOCHEMICALS LIKE THOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE HOCHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEET CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEET CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEETIS CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEETIS A CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEETIS A MAJOR CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEETIS A MAJOR INGREDIENT CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEETIS A MAJOR INGREDIENT IN IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT IN IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT INBUG IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT INBUG SPRAY.

IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT INBUG SPRAY.

THIS IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT INBUG SPRAY.

THIS IS IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT INBUG SPRAY.

THIS IS A BUG SPRAY.

THIS IS A BUG SPRAY.

THIS IS ANATURAL BUG SPRAY.

THIS IS ANATURAL CEDAR BUG SPRAY.

THIS IS ANATURAL CEDAR OIL.

BUG SPRAY.

THIS IS ANATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHAT NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHAT NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHATYOU'RE NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHATYOU'RE GETTING NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHATYOU'RE GETTING IS NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHATYOU'RE GETTING IS THE NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHATYOU'RE GETTING IS THE 32 YOU'RE GETTING IS THE 32 YOU'RE GETTING IS THE 32FLUID YOU'RE GETTING IS THE 32FLUID OUNCE YOU'RE GETTING IS THE 32FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE, FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE, FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD AUTO FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD AUTO FREE FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD AUTO FREE TO FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO A THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO A THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO ADILUTION THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO ADILUTION OF THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO ADILUTION OF IT THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO ADILUTION OF IT AND THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO ADILUTION OF IT AND THE DILUTION OF IT AND THE DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO GO DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO GO ON DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO GO ON THE DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO B BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO B BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO BIT BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO BIT IS BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO BIT IS A BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO BIT IS A TRAVEL BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO BIT IS A TRAVEL SIZED IT IS A TRAVEL SIZED IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, WHAT IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO I IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO IS BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO IS BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI DILUTE BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI DILUTE IT BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI DILUTE IT TO BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI DILUTE IT TO PUT BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI DILUTE IT TO PUT IT I DILUTE IT TO PUT IT I DILUTE IT TO PUT ITON I DILUTE IT TO PUT ITON MYSELF, I DILUTE IT TO PUT ITON MYSELF, AND I DILUTE IT TO PUT ITON MYSELF, AND THEN I DILUTE IT TO PUT ITON MYSELF, AND THEN I ON MYSELF, AND THEN I ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY IT ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY IT ON ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY IT ON AND ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY IT ON AND I ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBED SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBED SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBEDIN SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBEDIN IT SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBEDIN IT SMELLS SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBEDIN IT SMELLS LIKE SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBEDIN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAR IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAR IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I DO IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I DO NOT IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I DO NOT KNOW IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I DO NOT KNOW IF IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOU OIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOU OIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOUHAD OIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOUHAD OR OIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOUHAD OR YOUR OIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOUHAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHER HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHER HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHERHAD HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHERHAD A HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHERHAD A CEDAR HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHERHAD A CEDAR CLOSET HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHERHAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEY HAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEY HAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEYWOULD HAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEYWOULD BUT HAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEYWOULD BUT THERE HAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEYWOULD BUT THERE WILL WOULD BUT THERE WILL WOULD BUT THERE WILLSWEATER'S WOULD BUT THERE WILLSWEATER'S SO WOULD BUT THERE WILLSWEATER'S SO THE WOULD BUT THERE WILLSWEATER'S SO THE MOUSE SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSE SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSEWOULD SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSEWOULD NOT SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSEWOULD NOT EAT SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSEWOULD NOT EAT THEM.

SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSEWOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUT WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUT WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUTCEDAR WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUTCEDAR IS WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUTCEDAR IS A WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUTCEDAR IS A NATURAL WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUTCEDAR IS A NATURAL BUG CEDAR IS A NATURAL BUG CEDAR IS A NATURAL BUGREPELLENT CEDAR IS A NATURAL BUGREPELLENT --WOOL CEDAR IS A NATURAL BUGREPELLENT --WOOL THE CEDAR IS A NATURAL BUGREPELLENT --WOOL THE REP REPELLENT --WOOL THE REP REPELLENT --WOOL THE REPGOOD REPELLENT --WOOL THE REPGOOD FOLKS REPELLENT --WOOL THE REPGOOD FOLKS AT REPELLENT --WOOL THE REPGOOD FOLKS AT NO REPELLENT --WOOL THE REPGOOD FOLKS AT NO MORE GOOD FOLKS AT NO MORE GOOD FOLKS AT NO MOREBUGS! GOOD FOLKS AT NO MOREBUGS! HIGH-GRADE, BUGS! HIGH-GRADE, BUGS! HIGH-GRADE,HIGHEST-QUALITY BUGS! HIGH-GRADE,HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR BUGS! HIGH-GRADE,HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OI BUGS! HIGH-GRADE,HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OIL HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OIL HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OILTHAT HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OILTHAT IS HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OILTHAT IS NATURALLY THAT IS NATURALLY THAT IS NATURALLYGETTING THAT IS NATURALLYGETTING RID THAT IS NATURALLYGETTING RID OF THAT IS NATURALLYGETTING RID OF THESE GETTING RID OF THESE GETTING RID OF THESEBUGS, GETTING RID OF THESEBUGS, DETERRING GETTING RID OF THESEBUGS, DETERRING THEM! GETTING RID OF THESEBUGS, DETERRING THEM! O, BUGS, DETERRING THEM! O, BUGS, DETERRING THEM! O,SPRAY BUGS, DETERRING THEM! O,SPRAY IT BUGS, DETERRING THEM! O,SPRAY IT ON BUGS, DETERRING THEM! O,SPRAY IT ON YOUR SPRAY IT ON YOUR SPRAY IT ON YOURBASEBOARDS, SPRAY IT ON YOURBASEBOARDS, SPRAY SPRAY IT ON YOURBASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWN BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWN BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWNTHE BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWNTHE ENTRY BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWNTHE ENTRY POINT BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWNTHE ENTRY POINT OF BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWNTHE ENTRY POINT OF YOUR THE ENTRY POINT OF YOUR THE ENTRY POINT OF YOURHOME THE ENTRY POINT OF YOURHOME LIKE THE ENTRY POINT OF YOURHOME LIKE A THE ENTRY POINT OF YOURHOME LIKE A SLIDING THE ENTRY POINT OF YOURHOME LIKE A SLIDING LAST HOME LIKE A SLIDING LAST HOME LIKE A SLIDING LASTYOUR! HOME LIKE A SLIDING LASTYOUR! ANYWHERE HOME LIKE A SLIDING LASTYOUR! ANYWHERE YOU HOME LIKE A SLIDING LASTYOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEE YOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEE YOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEEBUGS.

YOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEEBUGS.

TWO YOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEEBUGS.

TWO SPONGES, YOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEEBUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BY BUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BY BUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BYTHE BUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BYTHE WAY, BUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BYTHE WAY, ARE BUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BYTHE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THESE THE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THESE SPONGES THE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THESE SPONGES YOU THE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THESE SPONGES YOU POP THESE SPONGES YOU POP THESE SPONGES YOU POPTHEM THESE SPONGES YOU POPTHEM IN THESE SPONGES YOU POPTHEM IN WATER THESE SPONGES YOU POPTHEM IN WATER AND THESE SPONGES YOU POPTHEM IN WATER AND THEY THEM IN WATER AND THEY THEM IN WATER AND THEYBECOME THEM IN WATER AND THEYBECOME A THEM IN WATER AND THEYBECOME A GROWN-UP THEM IN WATER AND THEYBECOME A GROWN-UP SIZED BECOME A GROWN-UP SIZED BECOME A GROWN-UP SIZEDSPONGES.

BECOME A GROWN-UP SIZEDSPONGES.

AGAIN BECOME A GROWN-UP SIZEDSPONGES.

AGAIN YOU BECOME A GROWN-UP SIZEDSPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POP SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POP SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POPTHEM SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POPTHEM IN SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POPTHEM IN THE SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POPTHEM IN THE MODERN SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POPTHEM IN THE MODERN NAB, THEM IN THE MODERN NAB, THEM IN THE MODERN NAB,GROWN-UP THEM IN THE MODERN NAB,GROWN-UP SIZED THEM IN THE MODERN NAB,GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGES GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGES GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGESAND GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGESAND YOU GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGESAND YOU SPRAY GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGESAND YOU SPRAY SOME AND YOU SPRAY SOME AND YOU SPRAY SOMEPRODUCT AND YOU SPRAY SOMEPRODUCT ON AND YOU SPRAY SOMEPRODUCT ON IT AND YOU SPRAY SOMEPRODUCT ON IT AND AND YOU SPRAY SOMEPRODUCT ON IT AND YOU PRODUCT ON IT AND YOU PRODUCT ON IT AND YOUWIPE PRODUCT ON IT AND YOUWIPE DOWN PRODUCT ON IT AND YOUWIPE DOWN YOUR PRODUCT ON IT AND YOUWIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERS WIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERS WIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERSWHERE WIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERSWHERE YOU WIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERSWHERE YOU KEEP WIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERSWHERE YOU KEEP YOUR WHERE YOU KEEP YOUR WHERE YOU KEEP YOURSILVERWARE, WHERE YOU KEEP YOURSILVERWARE, YOUR WHERE YOU KEEP YOURSILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE, SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE, SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE,YOUR SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE,YOUR CUPS, SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE,YOUR CUPS, THE SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE,YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE,YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE Y YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE Y YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY BUGS YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY BUGS LIKE YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO G YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GO IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GO IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GOTHAT IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GOTHAT -- IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GOTHAT -- PLATES IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GOTHAT -- PLATES IF IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GOTHAT -- PLATES IF YOU THAT -- PLATES IF YOU THAT -- PLATES IF YOUGO THAT -- PLATES IF YOUGO TO THAT -- PLATES IF YOUGO TO THE THAT -- PLATES IF YOUGO TO THE GROCERY THAT -- PLATES IF YOUGO TO THE GROCERY STORE GO TO THE GROCERY STORE GO TO THE GROCERY STORETHE GO TO THE GROCERY STORETHE PLASTIC GO TO THE GROCERY STORETHE PLASTIC BAGS GO TO THE GROCERY STORETHE PLASTIC BAGS IN GO TO THE GROCERY STORETHE PLASTIC BAGS IN THE THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THE THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THEGROCERY THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THEGROCERY STORE THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THEGROCERY STORE TO THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THEGROCERY STORE TO MARK THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THEGROCERY STORE TO MARK GR GROCERY STORE TO MARK GR GROCERY STORE TO MARK GRAND GROCERY STORE TO MARK GRAND THOSE GROCERY STORE TO MARK GRAND THOSE PLASTIC GROCERY STORE TO MARK GRAND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS(.

) AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS(.

) ARE AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS(.

) ARE LIKE AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS(.

) ARE LIKE LARVA AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS(.

) ARE LIKE LARVA AND (.

) ARE LIKE LARVA AND (.

) ARE LIKE LARVA ANDEGGS (.

) ARE LIKE LARVA ANDEGGS FROM (.

) ARE LIKE LARVA ANDEGGS FROM BUGS.

(.

) ARE LIKE LARVA ANDEGGS FROM BUGS.

YOU EGGS FROM BUGS.

YOU EGGS FROM BUGS.

YOUBRING EGGS FROM BUGS.

YOUBRING THOSE EGGS FROM BUGS.

YOUBRING THOSE BAGS EGGS FROM BUGS.

YOUBRING THOSE BAGS HOME, BRING THOSE BAGS HOME, BRING THOSE BAGS HOME,STICK BRING THOSE BAGS HOME,STICK THEM BRING THOSE BAGS HOME,STICK THEM IN BRING THOSE BAGS HOME,STICK THEM IN THE BRING THOSE BAGS HOME,STICK THEM IN THE STICK STICK THEM IN THE STICK STICK THEM IN THE STICKCABINET STICK THEM IN THE STICKCABINET AND STICK THEM IN THE STICKCABINET AND THAT STICK THEM IN THE STICKCABINET AND THAT IS STICK THEM IN THE STICKCABINET AND THAT IS ONE CABINET AND THAT IS ONE CABINET AND THAT IS ONEOF CABINET AND THAT IS ONEOF THE CABINET AND THAT IS ONEOF THE PLACES CABINET AND THAT IS ONEOF THE PLACES (.

) OF THE PLACES (.

) OF THE PLACES (.

)THEY'RE OF THE PLACES (.

)THEY'RE NOT OF THE PLACES (.

)THEY'RE NOT JUST OF THE PLACES (.

)THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'RE THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'RE THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'REMARCHING THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'REMARCHING IN THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'REMARCHING IN FROM THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'REMARCHING IN FROM THE MARCHING IN FROM THE MARCHING IN FROM THEOUTSIDE MARCHING IN FROM THEOUTSIDE SOMETIMES MARCHING IN FROM THEOUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOU OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOU OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOUBRING OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOUBRING THEM OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOUBRING THEM IN.

OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOUBRING THEM IN.

SPRAY OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOUBRING THEM IN.

SPRAY IT BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY IT BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY ITAROUND.

BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY ITAROUND.

LME BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY ITAROUND.

LME TELL BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY ITAROUND.

LME TELL YOU BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY ITAROUND.

LME TELL YOU A AROUND.

LME TELL YOU A AROUND.

LME TELL YOU ALITTLE AROUND.

LME TELL YOU ALITTLE BIT AROUND.

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Pesticides

Pest Control For Rodents

Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea, which also includes termites. About 30 cockroach species out of 4,600 are associated with human habitats. About four species are well known as pests.

The cockroaches are an ancient group, dating back at least as far as the Carboniferous period, some 320 million years ago. Those early ancestors however lacked the internal ovipositors of modern roaches. Cockroaches are somewhat generalized insects without special adaptations like the sucking mouthparts of aphids and other true bugs; they have chewing mouthparts and are likely among the most primitive of living neopteran insects. They are common and hardy insects, and can tolerate a wide range of environments from Arctic cold to tropical heat. Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger than temperate species, and, contrary to popular belief, extinct cockroach relatives and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species.

Some species, such as the gregarious German cockroach, have an elaborate social structure involving common shelter, social dependence, information transfer and kin recognition. Cockroaches have appeared in human culture since classical antiquity. They are popularly depicted as dirty pests, though the great majority of species are inoffensive and live in a wide range of habitats around the world.

A 40- to 50-million-year-old cockroach in Baltic amber (Eocene)

Cockroaches are members of the order Blattodea, which includes the termites, a group of insects once thought to be separate from cockroaches. Currently, 4,600 species and over 460 genera are described worldwide.[1][2] The name "cockroach" comes from the Spanish word for cockroach, cucaracha, transformed by 1620s English folk etymology into "cock" and "roach".[3] The scientific name derives from the Latin blatta, "an insect that shuns the light", which in classical Latin was applied not only to cockroaches, but also to mantids.[4][5]

Historically, the name Blattaria was used largely interchangeably with the name Blattodea, but whilst the former name was used to refer to 'true' cockroaches exclusively, the latter also includes the termites. The current catalogue of world cockroach species uses the name Blattodea for the group.[1] Another name, Blattoptera, is also sometimes used.[6] The earliest cockroach-like fossils ("blattopterans" or "roachids") are from the Carboniferous period 320 million years ago, as are fossil roachoid nymphs.[7][8][9]

Since the 19th century, scientists believed that cockroaches were an ancient group of insects that had a Devonian origin, according to one hypothesis.[10] Fossil roachoids that lived during that time differ from modern cockroaches in having long external ovipositors and are the ancestors of mantises, as well as modern blattodeans. As the body, hind wings and mouthparts are not preserved in fossils frequently, the relationship of these roachoids and modern cockroaches remains disputed. The first fossils of modern cockroaches with internal ovipositors appeared in the early Cretaceous. A recent phylogenetic analysis suggests that cockroaches originated at least in the Jurassic.[10]

The evolutionary relationships of the Blattodea (cockroaches and termites) shown in the cladogram are based on Eggleton, Beccaloni & Inward (2007).[11] The cockroach families Lamproblattidae and Tryonicidae are not shown but are placed within the superfamily Blattoidea. The cockroach families Corydiidae and Ectobiidae were previously known as the Polyphagidae and Blattellidae.[12]

Termites were previously regarded as a separate order Isoptera to cockroaches. However, recent genetic evidence strongly suggests that they evolved directly from 'true' cockroaches, and many authors now place them as an "epifamily" of Blattodea.[11] This evidence supported a hypothesis suggested in 1934 that termites are closely related to the wood-eating cockroaches (genus Cryptocercus). This hypothesis was originally based on similarity of the symbiotic gut flagellates in termites regarded as living fossils and wood-eating cockroaches.[13] Additional evidence emerged when F. A. McKittrick (1965) noted similar morphological characteristics between some termites and cockroach nymphs.[14] The similarities among these cockroaches and termites have led some scientists to reclassify termites as a single family, the Termitidae, within the order Blattodea.[11][15] Other scientists have taken a more conservative approach, proposing to retain the termites as the Termitoidea, an epifamily within the order. Such measure preserves the classification of termites at family level and below.[16]

Domino cockroach Therea petiveriana, normally found in India

Most species of cockroach are about the size of a thumbnail, but several species are bigger. The world's heaviest cockroach is the Australian giant burrowing cockroach Macropanesthia rhinoceros, which can reach 9 cm (3.5 in) in length and weigh more than 30 g (1.1 oz).[17] Comparable in size is the Central American giant cockroach Blaberus giganteus, which grows to a similar length.[18] The longest cockroach species is Megaloblatta longipennis, which can reach 97 mm (3.8 in) in length and 45 mm (1.8 in) across.[19] A Central and South American species, Megaloblatta blaberoides, has the largest wingspan of up to 185 mm (7.3 in).[20]

Head of Periplaneta americana

Cockroaches are generalized insects, with few special adaptations, and may be among the most primitive living neopteran insects. They have a relatively small head and a broad, flattened body, and most species are reddish-brown to dark brown. They have large compound eyes, two ocelli, and long, flexible antennae. The mouthparts are on the underside of the head and include generalized chewing mandibles, salivary glands and various touch and taste receptors.[21]

The body is divided into a thorax of three segments and a ten-segmented abdomen. The external surface has a tough exoskeleton which contains calcium carbonate and protects the inner organs and provides attachment to muscles. It is coated with wax to repel water. The wings are attached to the second and third thoracic segments. The tegmina, or first pair of wings, are tough and protective, lying as a shield on top of the membranous hind wings, which are used in flight. All four wings have branching longitudinal veins, and multiple cross-veins.[22]

The three pairs of legs are sturdy, with large coxae and five claws each.[22] They are attached to each of the three thoracic segments. The front legs are the shortest and the hind legs the longest, providing the main propulsive power when the insect runs.[21] The spines on the legs were earlier considered to be sensory, but observations of the insect's gait on sand and wire meshes have demonstrated that they help in locomotion on difficult terrain. The structures have been used as inspiration for robotic legs.[23][24]

The abdomen has ten segments, each with a pair of spiracles for respiration. Segment ten bears a pair of cerci, a pair of anal styles, the anus and the external genitalia. Males have an aedeagus through which they secrete sperm during copulation and females have spermathecae for storing sperm and an ovipositor through which the ootheca is laid.[21]

Cockroaches are abundant throughout the world and live in a wide range of environments, especially in the tropics and subtropics.[25] Cockroaches can withstand extremely cold temperatures, allowing them to live in the Arctic. Some species are capable of surviving temperatures of −188 °F (−122 °C) by manufacturing an antifreeze made out of glycerol.[26] In North America, 50 species separated into five families are found throughout the continent.[25] 450 species are found in Australia.[27] Only about four widespread species are commonly regarded as pests.[28][29]

Cockroaches occupy a wide range of habitats. Many live in leaf litter, among the stems of matted vegetation, in rotting wood, in holes in stumps, in cavities under bark, under log piles and among debris. Some live in arid regions and have developed mechanisms to survive without access to water sources. Others are aquatic, living near the surface of water bodies, including bromeliad phytotelmata, and diving to forage for food. Most of these respire by piercing the water surface with the tip of the abdomen which acts as a snorkel, but some carry a bubble of air under their thoracic shield when they submerge. Others live in the forest canopy where they may be one of the main types of invertebrate present. Here they may hide during the day in crevices, among dead leaves, in bird and insect nests or among epiphytes, emerging at night to feed.[30]

A cockroach soon after ecdysis

Cockroaches are social insects; a large number of species are either gregarious or inclined to aggregate, and a slightly smaller number exhibit parental care.[31] It used to be thought that cockroaches aggregated because they were reacting to environmental cues, but it is now believed that pheromones are involved in these behaviors. Some species secrete these in their feces with gut microbial symbionts being involved, while others use glands located on their mandibles. Pheromones produced by the cuticle may enable cockroaches to distinguish between different populations of cockroach by odor. The behaviors involved have only been studied in a few species, but German cockroaches leave fecal trails with an odor gradient.[31] Other cockroaches follow such trails to discover sources of food and water, and where other cockroaches are hiding. Thus, cockroaches have emergent behavior, in which group or swarm behavior emerges from a simple set of individual interactions.[32]

Daily rhythms may also be regulated by a complex set of hormonal controls of which only a small subset have been understood. In 2005, the role of one of these proteins, pigment dispersing factor (PDF), was isolated and found to be a key mediator in the circadian rhythms of the cockroach.[33]

Pest species adapt readily to a variety of environments, but prefer warm conditions found within buildings. Many tropical species prefer even warmer environments. Cockroaches are mainly nocturnal[34] and run away when exposed to light. An exception to this is the Asian cockroach, which flies mostly at night but is attracted to brightly-lit surfaces and pale colors.[35]

Gregarious cockroaches display collective decision-making when choosing food sources. When a sufficient number of individuals (a "quorum") exploits a food source, this signals to newcomer cockroaches that they should stay there longer rather than leave for elsewhere.[36] Other mathematical models have been developed to explain aggregation dynamics and conspecific recognition.[37][38]

Group-based decision-making is responsible for complex behaviors such as resource allocation. In a study where 50 cockroaches were placed in a dish with three shelters with a capacity for 40 insects in each, the insects arranged themselves in two shelters with 25 insects in each, leaving the third shelter empty. When the capacity of the shelters was increased to more than 50 insects per shelter, all of the cockroaches arranged themselves in one shelter. Cooperation and competition are balanced in cockroach group decision-making behavior.[32]

Cockroaches appear to use just two pieces of information to decide where to go, namely how dark it is and how many other cockroaches there are. A study used specially-scented roach-sized robots that appear to the roaches as real to demonstrate that once there are enough insects in a place to form a critical mass, the roaches accepted the collective decision on where to hide, even if this was an unusually light place.[39]

Gregarious German cockroaches show different behavior when reared in isolation from when reared in a group. In one study, isolated cockroaches were less likely to leave their shelters and explore, spent less time eating, interacted less with conspecifics when exposed to them, and took longer to recognize receptive females. Because these changes occurred in many contexts, the authors suggested them as constituting a behavioral syndrome. These effects might have been due either to reduced metabolic and developmental rates in isolated individuals or the fact that the isolated individuals hadn't had a training period to learn about what others were like via their antennae.[40]

Individual American cockroaches appear to have consistently different "personalities" regarding how they seek shelter. In addition, group personality is not simply the sum of individual choices, but reflects conformity and collective decision-making.[41][42]

The gregarious German and American cockroaches have elaborate social structure, chemical signalling, and "social herd" characteristics. Lihoreau and his fellow researchers stated:[32]

Some species make a hissing noise while other cockroaches make a chirping noise. The Madagascar hissing cockroach produces its sound through the modified spiracles on the fourth abdominal segment. Several different hisses are produced, including disturbance sounds, produced by adults and larger nymphs, and aggressive, courtship and copulatory sounds produced by adult males.[43]Henschoutedenia epilamproides has a stridulatory organ between its thorax and abdomen, but the purpose of the sound produced is unclear.[44]

Several Australian species practice acoustic and vibration behavior as an aspect of courtship. They have been observed producing hisses and whistles from air forced through the spiracles. Furthermore, in the presence of a potential mate, some cockroaches tap the substrate in a rhythmic, repetitive manner. Acoustic signals may be of greater prevalence amongst perching species, particularly those that live on low vegetation in Australia's tropics.[45]

Cockroaches are generally omnivorous; the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), for example, feeds on a great variety of foodstuffs including bread, fruit, leather, starch in book bindings, paper, glue, skin flakes, hair, dead insects and soiled clothing.[46] Many species of cockroach harbor symbiotic protozoans and bacteria in their gut which are able to digest cellulose. In many species, these symbionts may be essential if the insect is to utilize cellulose; however, some species secrete cellulase in their saliva, and the wood-eating cockroach, Panesthia cribrata, is able to survive indefinitely on a diet of crystallized cellulose while being free of micro-organisms.[47]

The similarity of these symbionts in the genus Cryptocercus to those in termites are such that these cockroaches have been suggested to be more closely related to termites than to other cockroaches,[48] and current research strongly supports this hypothesis about their relationships.[49] All species studied so far carry the obligate mutualistic endosymbiont bacterium Blattabacterium, with the exception of Nocticola australiensise, an Australian cave-dwelling species without eyes, pigment or wings, which recent genetic studies indicate is a very primitive cockroach.[50][51] It had previously been thought that all five families of cockroach were descended from a common ancestor that was infected with B. cuenoti. It may be that N. australiensise subsequently lost its symbionts, or alternatively this hypothesis will need to be re-examined.[51]

Like other insects, cockroaches breathe through a system of tubes called tracheae which are attached to openings called spiracles on all body segments. When the carbon dioxide level in the insect rises high enough, valves on the spiracles open and carbon dioxide diffuses out and oxygen diffuses in. The tracheal system branches repeatedly, the finest tracheoles bringing air directly to each cell, allowing gaseous exchange to take place.[52]

While cockroaches do not have lungs as do vertebrates, and can continue to respire if their heads are removed, in some very large species, the body musculature may contract rhythmically to forcibly move air in and out of the spiracles; this may be considered a form of breathing.[52]

Cockroaches use pheromones to attract mates, and the males practice courtship rituals, such as posturing and stridulation. Like many insects, cockroaches mate facing away from each other with their genitalia in contact, and copulation can be prolonged. A few species are known to be parthenogenetic, reproducing without the need for males.[22]

Female cockroaches are sometimes seen carrying egg cases on the end of their abdomens; the German cockroach holds about 30 to 40 long, thin eggs in a case called an ootheca. She drops the capsule prior to hatching, though live births do occur in rare instances. The egg capsule may take more than five hours to lay and is initially bright white in color. The eggs are hatched from the combined pressure of the hatchlings gulping air. The hatchlings are initially bright white nymphs and continue inflating themselves with air, becoming harder and darker within about four hours. Their transient white stage while hatching and later while molting has led to claims of albino cockroaches.[22] Development from eggs to adults takes three to four months. Cockroaches live up to a year, and the female may produce up to eight egg cases in a lifetime; in favorable conditions, she can produce 300 to 400 offspring. Other species of cockroaches, however, can produce far more eggs; in some cases a female needs to be impregnated only once to be able to lay eggs for the rest of her life.[22]

The female usually attaches the egg case to a substrate, inserts it into a suitably protective crevice, or carries it about until just before the eggs hatch. Some species, however, are ovoviviparous, keeping the eggs inside their body, with or without an egg case, until they hatch. At least one genus, Diploptera, is fully viviparous.[22]

Cockroaches have incomplete metamorphosis, meaning that the nymphs are generally similar to the adults, except for undeveloped wings and genitalia. Development is generally slow, and may take a few months to over a year. The adults are also long-lived, and have survived for as much as four years in the laboratory.[22]

Cockroaches are among the hardiest insects. Some species are capable of remaining active for a month without food and are able to survive on limited resources, such as the glue from the back of postage stamps.[53] Some can go without air for 45 minutes. Japanese cockroach (Periplaneta japonica) nymphs, which hibernate in cold winters, survived twelve hours at −5 °C to −8 °C in laboratory experiments.[54]

Experiments on decapitated specimens of several species of cockroach found a variety of behavioral functionality remained, including shock avoidance and escape behavior, although many insects other than cockroaches are also able to survive decapitation, and popular claims of the longevity of headless cockroaches do not appear to be based on published research.[55][56] The severed head is able to survive and wave its antennae for several hours, or longer when refrigerated and given nutrients.[56]

It is popularly suggested that cockroaches will "inherit the earth" if humanity destroys itself in a nuclear war. Cockroaches do indeed have a much higher radiation resistance than vertebrates, with the lethal dose perhaps six to 15 times that for humans. However, they are not exceptionally radiation-resistant compared to other insects, such as the fruit fly.[57]

The cockroach's ability to withstand radiation better than human beings can be explained through the cell cycle. Cells are most vulnerable to the effects of radiation when they are dividing. A cockroach's cells divide only once each time it molts, which is weekly at most in a juvenile roach. Since not all cockroaches would be molting at the same time, many would be unaffected by an acute burst of radiation, but lingering radioactive fallout would still be harmful.[52]

Cockroaches in research: Periplaneta americana in an electrophysiology experiment

Because of their ease of rearing and resilience, cockroaches have been used as insect models in the laboratory, particularly in the fields of neurobiology, reproductive physiology and social behavior.[31]

The cockroach is a convenient insect to study as it is large and simple to raise in a laboratory environment. This makes it suitable both for research and for school and undergraduate biology studies. It can be used in experiments on topics such as learning, sexual pheromones, spatial orientation, aggression, activity rhythms and the biological clock, and behavioral ecology.[58]

The Blattodea include some thirty species of cockroaches associated with humans; these species are atypical of the thousands of species in the order.[59] They feed on human and pet food and can leave an offensive odor.[60] They can passively transport pathogenic microbes on their body surfaces, particularly in environments such as hospitals.[61][62] Cockroaches are linked with allergic reactions in humans.[63][64] One of the proteins that trigger allergic reactions is tropomyosin.[65] These allergens are also linked with asthma.[66] About 60% of asthma patients in Chicago are also sensitive to cockroach allergens. Studies similar to this have been done globally and all the results are similar. Cockroaches can live for a few days up to a month without food, so just because no cockroaches are visible in a home does not mean they are not there. Approximately 20-48% of homes with no visible sign of cockroaches have detectable cockroach allergens in dust.[67]

Many remedies have been tried in the search for control of the major pest species of cockroaches, which are resilient and fast-breeding. Household chemicals like sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) have been suggested, without evidence for their effectiveness.[68] Garden herbs including bay, catnip, mint, cucumber, and garlic have been proposed as repellents.[69] Poisoned bait containing hydramethylnon or fipronil, and boric acid powder is effective on adults.[70] Baits with egg killers are also quite effective at reducing the cockroach population. Alternatively, insecticides containing deltamethrin or pyrethrin are very effective.[70] In Singapore and Malaysia, taxi drivers use pandan leaves to repel cockroaches in their vehicles.[71]

Few parasites and predators are effective for biological control of cockroaches. Parasitoidal wasps such as Ampulex wasps sting nerve ganglia in the cockroach's thorax, temporarily paralyzing the victim, allowing the wasp to deliver a second sting into the cockroach's brain. The wasp clips the antennae with its mandibles and drinks some hemolymph before dragging the prey to a burrow, where an egg is laid on it. The wasp larva feeds on the subdued living cockroach.[72]

Cockroaches can be trapped in a deep, smooth-walled jar baited with food inside, placed so that cockroaches can reach the opening, for example with a ramp of card or twigs on the outside. An inch or so of water or stale beer (by itself a cockroach attractant) in the jar can be used to drown any insects thus captured. The method works well with the American cockroach, but less so with the German cockroach.[73]

See also: Entomophagy

Although considered disgusting in Western culture, cockroaches are eaten in many places around the world.[74][75] Whereas household pest cockroaches may carry bacteria and viruses, cockroaches bred under laboratory conditions can be used to prepare nutritious food.[76] Common household cockroaches can be decontaminated by being isolated and fed a diet of apple and lettuce.[74]

In Mexico and Thailand, the heads and legs are removed, and the remainder may be boiled, sauted, grilled, dried or diced.[74]

In China, cockroaches have become popular as medicine and cockroach farming is rising. The cockroaches are fried twice in a wok of hot oil, which makes them crispy with soft innards that are like cottage cheese.[77][78] Fried cockroaches are ground and sold as pills for stomach, heart and liver diseases.[79]

A cockroach recipe from Formosa (Taiwan) specifies salting and frying cockroaches after removing the head and entrails.[80]

In 1905, Henri Coupin wrote a French book Les bizarreries des races humaines, which mentions a cockroach paste recipe used by the English and the Irish people. After being simmered in vinegar and dried in the sun, the cockroaches' heads and intestines are removed, and they are boiled with butter, salt and pepper, made into a paste, and spread on bread. But there is no other evidence of this recipe. The only confirmed edible use of cockroaches by the British is the use of Periplaneta americana feces in homeopathic medicine.[80]

According to International Union of Crystallography journal, the "milk" produced by the Pacific beetle cockroach (Diploptera punctata) is one of the most nutritious foods on earth.[81]

See also: Depopulation of cockroaches in post-Soviet states

While a small minority of cockroaches are associated with human habitats and viewed as repugnant by many people, a few species are of conservation concern. The Lord Howe Island wood-feeding cockroach (Panesthia lata) is listed as endangered by the New South Wales Scientific Committee, but the cockroach may be extinct on Lord Howe Island itself. The introduction of rats, the spread of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) and fires are possible reasons for their scarcity.[82] Two species are currently listed as endangered and critically endangered by the IUCN Red List, Delosia ornata and Nocticola gerlachi.[83][84] Both cockroaches have a restricted distribution and are threatened by habitat loss and rising sea levels. Only 600 Delosia ornata adults and 300 nymphs are known to exist, and these are threatened by a hotel development. No action has been taken to save the two cockroach species, but protecting their natural habitats may prevent their extinction. In the former Soviet Union, cockroach populations have been declining at an alarming rate; this may be exaggerated, or the phenomenon may be temporary or cyclic.[85]

Main article: Cockroaches in popular culture Madagascar hissing cockroaches kept as pets

Cockroaches were known and considered repellent but useful in medicines in Classical times. An insect named in Greek "σίλφη" ("Silphe") has been identified with the cockroach. It is mentioned by Aristotle, saying that it sheds its skin; it is described as foul-smelling in Aristophanes' play Peace; Euenus called it a pest of book collections, being "page-eating, destructive, black-bodied" in his Analect. Virgil named the cockroach "Lucifuga" ("one that avoids light"). Pliny the Elder recorded the use of "Blatta" in various medicines; he describes the insect as disgusting, and as seeking out dark corners to avoid the light.[86][87]Dioscorides recorded the use of the "Silphe", ground up with oil, as a remedy for earache.[87]

Lafcadio Hearn (1850–1904) asserted that "For tetanus cockroach tea is given. I do not know how many cockroaches go to make up the cup; but I find that faith in this remedy is strong among many of the American population of New Orleans. A poultice of boiled cockroaches is placed over the wound." He adds that cockroaches are eaten, fried with garlic, for indigestion.[88]

Several cockroach species, such as Blaptica dubia, are raised as food for insectivorous pets.[89] A few cockroach species are raised as pets, most commonly the giant Madagascar hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa.[90] Whilst the hissing cockroaches may be the most commonly kept species, there are many species that are kept by cockroach enthusiasts; there is even a specialist society: the Blattodea Culture Group (BCG), which was a thriving organisation for about 15 years although now appears to be dormant.[91] The BCG provided a source of literature for people interested in rearing cockroaches which was otherwise limited to either scientific papers, or general insect books, or books covering a variety of exotic pets; in the absence of an inclusive book one member published Introduction to Rearing Cockroaches which still appears to be the only book dedicated to rearing cockroaches.[92]

Cockroaches have been used for space tests. A cockroach given the name Nadezhda was sent into space by Russian scientists during Foton-M test, becoming the first terrestrial animal to "give birth" in space.[93]

Because of their long association with humans, cockroaches are frequently referred to in popular culture. In Western culture, cockroaches are often depicted as dirty pests.[94][95] In a 1750–1752 journal, Peter Osbeck noted that cockroaches were frequently seen and found their way to the bakeries, after the sailing ship Gothenburg ran aground and was destroyed by rocks.[96]

Donald Harington's satirical novel The Cockroaches of Stay More (Harcourt, 1989) imagines a community of "roosterroaches" in a mythical Ozark town where the insects are named after their human counterparts. Madonna has famously quoted, "I am a survivor. I am like a cockroach, you just can't get rid of me."[97] An urban legend maintains that cockroaches are immortal.[98]

Lake Isabella

5 Pest Control Myths


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Arvin Ant Exterminator

Pest control in Arvin for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Ant Infestation

Arvin Pest Control For Rodents

The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a small species of cockroach, typically about 1.1 to 1.6 cm (0.43 to 0.63 in)[1][2] long. In colour it varies from tan to almost black, and it has two dark, roughly parallel, streaks on the pronotum running anteroposteriorly from behind the head to the base of the wings. Although Blattella germanica has wings, it can barely fly, although it may glide when disturbed.[3] Of the few species of cockroach that are domestic pests, it probably is the most widely troublesome example.[4] It is very closely related to the Asian cockroach, and to the casual observer the two appear nearly identical and may be mistaken for each other. However, the Asian cockroach is attracted to light and can fly rather like a moth, while the German cockroach cannot.

Blattella germanica occurs widely in human buildings, but is particularly associated with restaurants, food processing facilities, hotels, and institutional establishments such as nursing homes. In cold climates, they occur only near human dwellings, because they cannot survive severe cold. However, even though they would soon die in the outdoors on their own, German cockroaches have been found as inquilines ("tenants") of human buildings as far north as Alert, Nunavut.[5] Similarly, they have been found as far south as Southern Patagonia.[6]

Previously thought to be a native of Europe, the German cockroach later was considered to have emerged from the region of Ethiopia in Northeast Africa,[7][8] but more recent evidence suggests that it actually originated in Southeast Asia.[4][9] Whatever the truth of the matter, the cockroach's sensitivity to cold might reflect its origin from such warm climates, and its spread as a domiciliary pest since ancient times has resulted from incidental human transport and shelter. The species now is cosmopolitan in distribution, occurring as a household pest on all continents except Antarctica, and on many major islands as well. It accordingly has been given various names in the cultures of many regions. For example, although it is widely known as the "German cockroach" in English-speaking countries, in Germany in turn, it is known as the Russian roach.[10]

Though nocturnal, the German cockroach occasionally appears by day, especially if the population is crowded or has been disturbed. However, sightings are most frequent of an evening, when someone suddenly brings a light into a room deserted after dark, such as a kitchen where they have been scavenging.[11] When excited or frightened, the species emits an unpleasant odor.

German cockroaches are omnivorous scavengers. They are attracted particularly to meats, starches, sugars, and fatty foods. Where a shortage of foodstuffs exists, they may eat household items such as soap, glue, and toothpaste. In famine conditions, they turn cannibalistic, chewing at each other's wings and legs.[12]

The German cockroach reproduces faster than any other residential cockroach,[13] growing from egg to reproductive adult in approximately 50 – 60 days.[14] Once fertilized, a female German cockroach develops an ootheca in her abdomen. The abdomen swells as her eggs develop, until the translucent tip of the ootheca begins to protrude from the end of her abdomen, and by that time the eggs inside are fully sized. The ootheca, at first translucent, soon turns white and then within a few hours it turns pink, progressively darkening until, some 48 hours later, it attains the dark red-brown of the shell of a chestnut. The ootheca has a keel-like ridge along the line where the young emerge, and curls slightly towards that edge as it completes its maturation. A small percentage of the nymphs may hatch while the ootheca is still attached to the female, but the majority emerge some 24 hours after it has detached from the female's body. The newly hatched 3mm-long black nymphs then progress through six or seven instars before becoming sexually mature, but ecdysis is such a hazardous process that nearly half the nymphs die of natural causes before reaching adulthood. Molted skins and dead nymphs are soon eaten by living nymphs present at the time of molting.[13]

The German cockroach is very successful at establishing an ecological niche in buildings, and is resilient in the face of many pest control measures. Reasons include:

German cockroaches are thigmotactic, meaning they prefer confined spaces, and they are small compared to other pest species, so they can hide within small cracks and crevices that are easy to overlook, thereby evading humans and their eradication efforts. Conversely, the seasoned pest controller is alert for cracks and crevices where it is likely to be profitable to place baits or spray surfaces.

To be effective, control measures must be comprehensive, sustained, and systematic; survival of just a few eggs is quite enough to regenerate a nearly exterminated pest population within a few generations, and recolonisation from surrounding populations often is very rapid, too.[12]

Another problem in controlling German cockroaches is the nature of their population behaviour. Though they are not social and practise no organised maternal care, females carry oothecae of 18-50 eggs (average about 32) during incubation until just before hatching, instead of dropping them as most other species of cockroaches do. This protects the eggs from certain classes of predation. Then, after hatching, nymphs largely survive by consuming excretions and moults from adults, thereby establishing their own internal microbial populations and avoiding contact with most insecticidal surface treatments and baits. One effective control is insect growth regulators (IGRs, hydroprene, methoprene, etc.), which act by preventing molting, thus prevent maturation of the various instars. Caulking baseboards and around pipes may prevent the travel of adults from one apartment to another within a building.

Female German cockroach with ootheca

As an adaptive consequence of pest control by poisoned sugar baits, a strain of German cockroaches has emerged that reacts to glucose as distastefully bitter. They refuse to eat sweetened baits, which presents an obstacle to their control, given that baits are an economical and effective means of control. It also is a dramatic illustration of adaptive selection; in the absence of poisoned sweet baits, attraction to sugars strongly promotes growth, energy, and reproduction; cockroaches that are not attracted to sugars take longer to grow and reproduce, whereas in the presence of poisoned sugared baits, sugar avoidance promotes reproduction.[15]


  1. ^ Alan Weaving; Mike Picker; Griffiths, Charles Llewellyn (2003). Field Guide to Insects of South Africa. New Holland Publishers, Ltd. ISBN 1-86872-713-0. 
  2. ^ John A. Jackman; Bastiaan M. Drees (1 March 1998). A Field Guide to Common Texas Insects. Taylor Trade Publishing. pp. 28–. ISBN 978-1-4616-2291-8. 
  3. ^ William J. Bell; Louis M. Roth; Christine A. Nalepa (26 June 2007). Cockroaches: Ecology, Behavior, and Natural History. JHU Press. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-0-8018-8616-4. 
  4. ^ a b Xavier Bonnefoy; Helge Kampen; Kevin Sweeney (2008). Public Health Significance of Urban Pests. World Health Organization. pp. 35–. ISBN 978-92-890-7188-8. 
  5. ^ The insects and arachnids of Canada, part 14, The Grasshoppers, Crickets, and related insects of Canada and adjacent region
  6. ^ Faúndez, E. I. & M. A. Carvajal. 2011. Blattella germanica (Linnaeus, 1767) (Insecta: Blattaria) en la Región de Magallanes. Boletín de Biodiversidad de Chile, 5: 50-55.
  7. ^ Cory, EN; McConnell, HS (1917). Bulletin No. 8: Insects and Rodents Injurious to Stored Products. College Park, Maryland: Maryland State College of Agriculture Extension Service. p. 135. 
  8. ^ Hill, Dennis S. (30 September 2002). Pests of Stored Foodstuffs and their Control. Springer. pp. 145–146. ISBN 978-1-4020-0735-4. 
  9. ^ Eaton, Eric R.; Kaufman, Kenn (2007). Kaufman Field Guide to Insects of North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 62. ISBN 0-618-15310-1. 
  10. ^ Berenbaum, May (1989). Ninety-nine Gnats, Nits, and Nibblers. University of Illinois Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-252-06027-4. 
  11. ^ Gary R. Mullen; Lance A. Durden (27 September 2002). Medical and Veterinary Entomology. Academic Press. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-0-08-053607-1. 
  12. ^ a b Rust, Michael K.; Owens, John M.; Reierson, Donald A. (30 November 1994). Understanding and Controlling the German Cockroach. Oxford University Press. pp. 388–. ISBN 978-0-19-534508-7. 
  13. ^ a b Ebeling, Walter. "Urban entomology". Archived from the original on 17 July 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013. 
  14. ^ http://museumpests.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/German-Cockroach.pdf Museumpests.net Accessed July 15, 2015
  15. ^ Wada-Katsumata, A.; Silverman, J.; Schal, C. (2013). "Changes in Taste Neurons Support the Emergence of an Adaptive Behavior in Cockroaches". Science. 340 (6135): 972–5. PMID 23704571. doi:10.1126/science.1234854.  (summary at BBC News)
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Robinson, William H. (14 April 2005). Urban Insects and Arachnids: A Handbook of Urban Entomology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 45–46, 51–54. ISBN 978-0-521-81253-5. 
  17. ^ a b Bassett, W.H. (12 October 2012). Clay's Handbook of Environmental Health. Routledge. p. 317. ISBN 978-1-135-81033-7. 
Mouse Infestation

Pest Control Services and Technology

The nematodes (/ˈnɛmətdz/) or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda.[2][3] They are a diverse animal phylum inhabiting a broad range of environments. Nematode species can be difficult to distinguish, and although over 25,000 have been described,[4][5] of which more than half are parasitic, the total number of nematode species has been estimated to be about 1 million.[6] Nematodes are classified along with insects and other moulting animals in the clade Ecdysozoa, and, unlike flatworms, have tubular digestive systems with openings at both ends.

Nematodes have successfully adapted to nearly every ecosystem from marine (salt water) to fresh water, to soils, and from the polar regions to the tropics, as well as the highest to the lowest of elevations. They are ubiquitous in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial environments, where they often outnumber other animals in both individual and species counts, and are found in locations as diverse as mountains, deserts and oceanic trenches. They are found in every part of the earth's lithosphere,[7] even at great depths (0.9–3.6 km) below the surface of the Earth in gold mines in South Africa.[8][9][10][11][12] They represent 90% of all animals on the ocean floor.[13] Their numerical dominance, often exceeding a million individuals per square meter and accounting for about 80% of all individual animals on earth, their diversity of life cycles, and their presence at various trophic levels point at an important role in many ecosystems.[14] The many parasitic forms include pathogens in most plants and animals (including humans).[15] Some nematodes can undergo cryptobiosis.

Nathan Cobb, a nematologist, described the ubiquity of nematodes on Earth thus:

In short, if all the matter in the universe except the nematodes were swept away, our world would still be dimly recognizable, and if, as disembodied spirits, we could then investigate it, we should find its mountains, hills, vales, rivers, lakes, and oceans represented by a film of nematodes. The location of towns would be decipherable, since for every massing of human beings there would be a corresponding massing of certain nematodes. Trees would still stand in ghostly rows representing our streets and highways. The location of the various plants and animals would still be decipherable, and, had we sufficient knowledge, in many cases even their species could be determined by an examination of their erstwhile nematode parasites."[16]

See also: List of nematode families Eophasma jurasicum, a fossilized nematode Caenorhabditis elegans Rhabditia Nippostrongylus brasiliensis Unidentified Anisakidae (Ascaridina: Ascaridoidea) Oxyuridae Threadworm Spiruridae Dirofilaria immitis

In 1758, Linnaeus described some nematode genera (e.g., Ascaris), then included in Vermes.

The name of the group Nematoda, informally called "nematodes", came from Nematoidea, originally defined by Karl Rudolphi (1808),[17] from Ancient Greek νῆμα (nêma, nêmatos, 'thread') and -eiδἠς (-eidēs, 'species'). It was treated as family Nematodes by Burmeister (1837).[17]

At its origin, the "Nematoidea" erroneously included Nematodes and Nematomorpha, attributed by von Siebold (1843). Along with Acanthocephala, Trematoda and Cestoidea, it formed the obsolete group Entozoa,[18] created by Rudolphi (1808).[19] They were also classed along with Acanthocephala in the obsolete phylum Nemathelminthes by Gegenbaur (1859).

In 1861, K. M. Diesing treated the group as order Nematoda.[17] In 1877, the taxon Nematoidea, including the family Gordiidae (horsehair worms), was promoted to the rank of phylum by Ray Lankester. In 1919, Nathan Cobb proposed that nematodes should be recognized alone as a phylum.[20] He argued they should be called "nema" in English rather than "nematodes"[a] and defined the taxon Nemates (later emended as Nemata, Latin plural of nema), listing Nematoidea sensu restricto as a synonym. Since Cobb was the first to exclude all but nematodes from the group, some sources consider the valid taxon name to be Nemates or Nemata, rather than Nematoda.[21]

The phylogenetic relationships of the nematodes and their close relatives among the protostomian Metazoa are unresolved. Traditionally, they were held to be a lineage of their own but in the 1990s, they were proposed to form the group Ecdysozoa together with moulting animals, such as arthropods. The identity of the closest living relatives of the Nematoda has always been considered to be well resolved. Morphological characters and molecular phylogenies agree with placement of the roundworms as a sister taxon to the parasitic Nematomorpha; together they make up the Nematoida. Together with the Scalidophora (formerly Cephalorhyncha), the Nematoida form the clade Cycloneuralia, but much disagreement occurs both between and among the available morphological and molecular data. The Cycloneuralia or the Introverta—depending on the validity of the former—are often ranked as a superphylum.[22]

Due to the lack of knowledge regarding many nematodes, their systematics is contentious. An earliest and influential classification was proposed by Chitwood and Chitwood[23]—later revised by Chitwood[24]—who divided the phylum into two—the Aphasmidia and the Phasmidia. These were later renamed Adenophorea (gland bearers) and Secernentea (secretors), respectively.[25] The Secernentea share several characteristics, including the presence of phasmids, a pair of sensory organs located in the lateral posterior region, and this was used as the basis for this division. This scheme was adhered to in many later classifications, though the Adenophorea were not a uniform group.

Initial studies of incomplete DNA sequences[26] suggested the existence of five clades:[27]

As it seems, the Secernentea are indeed a natural group of closest relatives. But the "Adenophorea" appear to be a paraphyletic assemblage of roundworms simply retaining a good number of ancestral traits. The old Enoplia do not seem to be monophyletic either, but to contain two distinct lineages. The old group "Chromadoria" seem to be another paraphyletic assemblage, with the Monhysterida representing a very ancient minor group of nematodes. Among the Secernentea, the Diplogasteria may need to be united with the Rhabditia, while the Tylenchia might be paraphyletic with the Rhabditia.[28]

The understanding of roundworm systematics and phylogeny as of 2002 is summarised below:

Phylum Nematoda

Later work has suggested the presence of 12 clades.[29] The Secernentea—a group that includes virtually all major animal and plant 'nematode' parasites—apparently arose from within the Adenophorea.

A major effort to improve the systematics of this phylum is in progress and being organised by the 959 Nematode Genomes.[30]

A complete checklist of the World's nematode species can be found in the World Species Index:Nematoda.[31]

An analysis of the mitochondrial DNA suggests that the following groupings are valid[32]

The Ascaridomorpha, Rhabditomorpha and Diplogasteromorpha appear to be related.

The suborders Spirurina and Tylenchina and the infraorders Rhabditomorpha, Panagrolaimomorpha and Tylenchomorpha are paraphytic.

The monophyly of the Ascaridomorph is uncertain.

Internal anatomy of a male C. elegans nematode

Nematodes are slender worms: typically approximately 5 to 100 µm thick, and at least 0.1 mm (0.0039 in) but less than 2.5mm long.[33] The smallest nematodes are microscopic, while free-living species can reach as much as 5 cm (2.0 in), and some parasitic species are larger still, reaching over a meter in length.[34]:271 The body is often ornamented with ridges, rings, bristles, or other distinctive structures.[35]

The head of a nematode is relatively distinct. Whereas the rest of the body is bilaterally symmetrical, the head is radially symmetrical, with sensory bristles and, in many cases, solid 'head-shields' radiating outwards around the mouth. The mouth has either three or six lips, which often bear a series of teeth on their inner edges. An adhesive 'caudal gland' is often found at the tip of the tail.[36]

The epidermis is either a syncytium or a single layer of cells, and is covered by a thick collagenous cuticle. The cuticle is often of complex structure, and may have two or three distinct layers. Underneath the epidermis lies a layer of longitudinal muscle cells. The relatively rigid cuticle works with the muscles to create a hydroskeleton as nematodes lack circumferential muscles. Projections run from the inner surface of muscle cells towards the nerve cords; this is a unique arrangement in the animal kingdom, in which nerve cells normally extend fibres into the muscles rather than vice versa.[36]

The oral cavity is lined with cuticle, which is often strengthened with ridges or other structures, and, especially in carnivorous species, may bear a number of teeth. The mouth often includes a sharp stylet, which the animal can thrust into its prey. In some species, the stylet is hollow, and can be used to suck liquids from plants or animals.[36]

The oral cavity opens into a muscular, sucking pharynx, also lined with cuticle. Digestive glands are found in this region of the gut, producing enzymes that start to break down the food. In stylet-bearing species, these may even be injected into the prey.[36]

There is no stomach, with the pharynx connecting directly to a muscleless intestine that forms the main length of the gut. This produces further enzymes, and also absorbs nutrients through its single cell thick lining. The last portion of the intestine is lined by cuticle, forming a rectum, which expels waste through the anus just below and in front of the tip of the tail. Movement of food through the digestive system is the result of body movements of the worm. The intestine has valves or sphincters at either end to help control the movement of food through the body.[36]

Nitrogenous waste is excreted in the form of ammonia through the body wall, and is not associated with any specific organs. However, the structures for excreting salt to maintain osmoregulation are typically more complex.[36]

In many marine nematodes, one or two unicellular 'renette glands' excrete salt through a pore on the underside of the animal, close to the pharynx. In most other nematodes, these specialised cells have been replaced by an organ consisting of two parallel ducts connected by a single transverse duct. This transverse duct opens into a common canal that runs to the excretory pore.[36]

See also: Muscle arms

Four peripheral nerves run the length of the body on the dorsal, ventral, and lateral surfaces. Each nerve lies within a cord of connective tissue lying beneath the cuticle and between the muscle cells. The ventral nerve is the largest, and has a double structure forward of the excretory pore. The dorsal nerve is responsible for motor control, while the lateral nerves are sensory, and the ventral combines both functions.[36]

The nervous system is also the only place in the nematode body that contains cilia, which are all non-motile and with a sensory function.[37][38]

At the anterior end of the animal, the nerves branch from a dense, circular nerve (nerve ring) round surrounding the pharynx, and serving as the brain. Smaller nerves run forward from the ring to supply the sensory organs of the head.[36]

The bodies of nematodes are covered in numerous sensory bristles and papillae that together provide a sense of touch. Behind the sensory bristles on the head lie two small pits, or 'amphids'. These are well supplied with nerve cells, and are probably chemoreception organs. A few aquatic nematodes possess what appear to be pigmented eye-spots, but is unclear whether or not these are actually sensory in nature.[36]

Extremity of a male nematode showing the spicule, used for copulation. Bar = 100 µm [39]

Most nematode species are dioecious, with separate male and female individuals, though some, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, are androdioecious, consisting of hermaphrodites and rare males. Both sexes possess one or two tubular gonads. In males, the sperm are produced at the end of the gonad and migrate along its length as they mature. The testis opens into a relatively wide seminal vesicle and then during intercourse into a glandular and muscular ejaculatory duct associated with the vas deferens and cloaca. In females, the ovaries each open into an oviduct (in hermaphrodites, the eggs enter a spermatheca first) and then a glandular uterus. The uteri both open into a common vulva/ vagina, usually located in the middle of the morphologically ventral surface.[36]

Reproduction is usually sexual, though hermaphrodites are capable of self-fertilization. Males are usually smaller than females/ hermaphrodites (often much smaller) and often have a characteristically bent or fan-shaped tail. During copulation, one or more chitinized spicules move out of the cloaca and are inserted into the genital pore of the female. Amoeboid sperm crawl along the spicule into the female worm. Nematode sperm is thought to be the only eukaryotic cell without the globular protein G-actin.

Eggs may be embryonated or unembryonated when passed by the female, meaning their fertilized eggs may not yet be developed. A few species are known to be ovoviviparous. The eggs are protected by an outer shell, secreted by the uterus. In free-living roundworms, the eggs hatch into larvae, which appear essentially identical to the adults, except for an underdeveloped reproductive system; in parasitic roundworms, the life cycle is often much more complicated.[36]

Nematodes as a whole possess a wide range of modes of reproduction.[40] Some nematodes, such as Heterorhabditis spp., undergo a process called endotokia matricida: intrauterine birth causing maternal death.[41] Some nematodes are hermaphroditic, and keep their self-fertilized eggs inside the uterus until they hatch. The juvenile nematodes will then ingest the parent nematode. This process is significantly promoted in environments with a low food supply.[41]

The nematode model species Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae exhibit androdioecy, which is very rare among animals. The single genus Meloidogyne (root-knot nematodes) exhibit a range of reproductive modes, including sexual reproduction, facultative sexuality (in which most, but not all, generations reproduce asexually), and both meiotic and mitotic parthenogenesis.

The genus Mesorhabditis exhibits an unusual form of parthenogenesis, in which sperm-producing males copulate with females, but the sperm do not fuse with the ovum. Contact with the sperm is essential for the ovum to begin dividing, but because there is no fusion of the cells, the male contributes no genetic material to the offspring, which are essentially clones of the female.[36]

In free-living species, development usually consists of four molts of the cuticle during growth. Different species feed on materials as varied as algae, fungi, small animals, fecal matter, dead organisms, and living tissues. Free-living marine nematodes are important and abundant members of the meiobenthos. They play an important role in the decomposition process, aid in recycling of nutrients in marine environments, and are sensitive to changes in the environment caused by pollution. One roundworm of note, Caenorhabditis elegans, lives in the soil and has found much use as a model organism. C. elegans has had its entire genome sequenced, as well as the developmental fate of every cell determined, and every neuron mapped.

Eggs (mostly nematodes) from stools of wild primates

Nematodes commonly parasitic on humans include ascarids (Ascaris), filarias, hookworms, pinworms (Enterobius), and whipworms (Trichuris trichiura). The species Trichinella spiralis, commonly known as the 'trichina worm', occurs in rats, pigs, and humans, and is responsible for the disease trichinosis. Baylisascaris usually infests wild animals, but can be deadly to humans, as well. Dirofilaria immitis are known for causing heartworm disease by inhabiting the hearts, arteries, and lungs of dogs and some cats. Haemonchus contortus is one of the most abundant infectious agents in sheep around the world, causing great economic damage to sheep. In contrast, entomopathogenic nematodes parasitize insects and are mostly considered beneficial by humans, but some attack beneficial insects.

One form of nematode is entirely dependent upon fig wasps, which are the sole source of fig fertilization. They prey upon the wasps, riding them from the ripe fig of the wasp's birth to the fig flower of its death, where they kill the wasp, and their offspring await the birth of the next generation of wasps as the fig ripens.

A newly discovered parasitic tetradonematid nematode, Myrmeconema neotropicum, apparently induces fruit mimicry in the tropical ant Cephalotes atratus. Infected ants develop bright red gasters (abdomens), tend to be more sluggish, and walk with their gasters in a conspicuous elevated position. It is likely that these changes cause frugivorous birds to confuse the infected ants for berries, and eat them. Parasite eggs passed in the bird's feces are subsequently collected by foraging Cephalotes atratus and are fed to their larvae, thus completing the life cycle of M. neotropicum.[42]

Colorized electron micrograph of soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera sp.) and egg

Similarly, multiple varieties of nematodes have been found in the abdominal cavities of the primitively social sweat bee, Lasioglossum zephyrum. Inside the female body, the nematode hinders ovarian development and renders the bee less active and thus less effective in pollen collection.[43]

Plant-parasitic nematodes include several groups causing severe crop losses. The most common genera are Aphelenchoides (foliar nematodes), Ditylenchus, Globodera (potato cyst nematodes), Heterodera (soybean cyst nematodes), Longidorus, Meloidogyne (root-knot nematodes), Nacobbus, Pratylenchus (lesion nematodes), Trichodorus and Xiphinema (dagger nematodes). Several phytoparasitic nematode species cause histological damages to roots, including the formation of visible galls (e.g. by root-knot nematodes), which are useful characters for their diagnostic in the field. Some nematode species transmit plant viruses through their feeding activity on roots. One of them is Xiphinema index, vector of grapevine fanleaf virus, an important disease of grapes, another one is Xiphinema diversicaudatum, vector of arabis mosaic virus.

Other nematodes attack bark and forest trees. The most important representative of this group is Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the pine wood nematode, present in Asia and America and recently discovered in Europe.

Play media Anthelmintic effect of papain on Heligmosomoides bakeri

Depending on the species, a nematode may be beneficial or detrimental to plant health. From agricultural and horticulture perspectives, the two categories of nematodes are the predatory ones, which will kill garden pests like cutworms and corn earworm moths, and the pest nematodes, like the root-knot nematode, which attack plants, and those that act as vectors spreading plant viruses between crop plants.[44] Predatory nematodes can be bred by soaking a specific recipe of leaves and other detritus in water, in a dark, cool place, and can even be purchased as an organic form of pest control.

Rotations of plants with nematode-resistant species or varieties is one means of managing parasitic nematode infestations. For example, marigolds, grown over one or more seasons (the effect is cumulative), can be used to control nematodes.[45] Another is treatment with natural antagonists such as the fungus Gliocladium roseum. Chitosan, a natural biocontrol, elicits plant defense responses to destroy parasitic cyst nematodes on roots of soybean, corn, sugar beet, potato, and tomato crops without harming beneficial nematodes in the soil.[46]Soil steaming is an efficient method to kill nematodes before planting a crop, but indiscriminately eliminates both harmful and beneficial soil fauna.

The Golden Nematode (Globodera rostochiensis) is a particularly harmful variety of nematode pest that has resulted in quarantines and crop failures worldwide. CSIRO has found[47] a 13- to 14-fold reduction of nematode population densities in plots having Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) green manure or seed meal in the soil.

Disability-adjusted life year for intestinal nematode infections per 100,000 inhabitants in 2002.   no data   less than 25   25–50   50–75   75–100   100–120   120–140   140–160   160–180   180–200   200–220   220–240   more than 240

A number of intestinal nematodes cause diseases affecting human beings, including ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm disease. Filarial nematodes cause filariasis.

90 percent of nematodes reside in the top 15 cm of soil. Nematodes do not decompose organic matter, but, instead, are parasitic and free-living organisms that feed on living material. Nematodes can effectively regulate bacterial population and community composition - they may eat up to 5,000 bacteria per minute. Also, Nematodes can play an important role in the nitrogen cycle by way of nitrogen mineralization.[33]

One group of carnivorous fungi, the nematophagous fungi, are predators of soil nematodes. They set enticements for the nematodes in the form of lassos or adhesive structures.[48][49][50]

Nematode worms (C. elegans), the focus of an ongoing research project continued on shuttle mission STS-107, survived the Space Shuttle Columbia re-entry breakup. It is believed to be the first known life-form to survive a virtually unprotected atmospheric descent to Earth's surface.[51][52]

  1. ^ "Nematode Fossils". Nematode Fossils [Nematoda]. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2013.
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  8. ^ Lemonick MD (2011-06-08). "Could 'worms from Hell' mean there's life in space?". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved 2011-06-08. 
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  29. ^ Holterman M, van der Wurff A, van den Elsen S, van Megen H, Bongers T, Holovachov O, Bakker J, Helder J (2006). "Phylum-wide analysis of SSU rDNA reveals deep phylogenetic relationships among nematodes and accelerated evolution toward crown Clades". Mol Biol Evol. 23 (9): 1792–1800. PMID 16790472. doi:10.1093/molbev/msl044. 
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Arvin

Rodent Control Necessary For All Homeowners


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Tehachapi Rat Infestation

Pest control in Tehachapi for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Tick Control

Tehachapi Pest Control For Rodents

Orkin is an Atlanta-based company that provides residential and commercial pest control services. The company was founded in 1901 and became a wholly owned subsidiary when it was purchased by Rollins Inc. in 1964.[1] Orkin has held research partnerships with universities around the country and with organizations like the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) dating back to 1990 for pest biology research and pest-related disease studies. It has been ranked on Training Magazine's Top 125 list for its training programs since 2002.[2]

Orkin was founded in Lockport, Pennsylvania in 1901 by Otto Orkin,[3] who began selling rat poison door-to-door at age 14.[4][5] One of six children of a Latvian immigrant family, it was Otto's responsibility from an early age to shoot and poison rats to keep them out of the family's food stores and away from their farm animals.[6] At age 12, Orkin began experimenting with different methods to poison rats in order to discover the most effective ones.[7] When he was 14, Orkin borrowed 50 cents from his parents to buy arsenic in bulk, and he began consulting with apothecaries about the best proportions and mixtures to use.[8] His initial rat poison formulas contained a combination of arsenic and phosphorus paste, mixed with fresh food scraps or red-dyed flour or sugar (so that it would not be mistaken as edible).[9] He began offering his preparations to his neighbors for free. Otto carried a number of measured amounts of poison in what would become his signature black satchel a number of measured amounts of poison in paper bags that bore the word "POISON" along with a drawing of a skull and crossbones. If the customer was satisfied with the effectiveness of Orkin's rat poison and wanted more to use, only then would he charge them for his service.[10] Within six months, Orkin had several regular customers.[10]

Orkin began expanding his business outside his hometown by taking advantage of its proximity to the Lehigh Railway, which ran from New York City to Buffalo. This allowed for easy travel to nearly anywhere in the United States. Orkin chose to travel south.[11] His research had led him to determine that Richmond, Virginia was a city that did not have an established extermination business, and so in 1909, Orkin arrived there and started to establish not only his poison sales business in the area, but an extermination service business, as well.[5][12] Orkin found that it was much more practical and economical to perform a single "clean-out" service and then return regularly to ensure the pests could no longer secure a foothold in a building than it was to perform a full "clean-out" service once or twice a year.[13] It was also during this time that Orkin sought to elevate the perception of his occupation by launching a public relations campaign that touted extermination services as necessary to good sanitation.[14] Though Orkin had maintained an unofficial office in a Richmond boarding house since 1909, Orkin's business remained "officially" headquartered at a post office address in Easton, Pennsylvania until 1912, when he established an official office in downtown Richmond.[4][14][15] It was from here that Orkin received his first government contract in 1925 with the Army Corps of Engineers to mitigate the rat infestation of the Wilson Dam in Muscle Shoals, Alabama.[16] On the way to Muscle Shoals, Orkin stopped in Atlanta, Georgia, a city that had no real exterminator business presence at the time. He was thus inspired to move his headquarters to the city.[16][17]

"Orkin The Rat Man" became the Orkin Exterminating Company when it moved its headquarters to Atlanta, Georgia in January 1926 (though it would maintain the brand of "Orkin The Rat Man" in Virginia until 1956).[5][17][18][19] The office opened at the 609 Candler building on January 2 with Otto Orkin as president and his nephew, Theodore Oser, as vice president of sales.[17][18] By April of that year, Orkin serviced over 24 major clients in the city of Atlanta, which he listed proudly in advertisements he took out in the Atlanta Chamber of Commerce's publication, City Builder.[20] In August 1926, the now-familiar red and white Orkin diamond logo began appearing on advertisements and official company letterheads to replace The Rat Man.[21]

The company's offices moved to a larger space at 82 Courtland Street in 1929, and by 1930, Orkin had 13 branches in eight southern states.[21] The branch offices were mostly run by relatives who had worked for him in the original Atlanta and Richmond offices.[21] To start a new branch office, Otto would invest $5,000 (equivalent to $71,683 in 2016), from which a salary of $50 per week ($717 in 2016) was paid to the branch partner (and to Otto while he helped set up the branch), premises were secured, staff was hired, and purchases of a service truck, tools, supplies, and advertising were made.[22] The balance of the funds was typically enough to keep the branch solvent while it built a customer base to become self-sufficient, but occasionally funds ran low and the branch could not afford to pay Otto his salary. In these cases, he accepted an "IOU," and collected the interest on this and his initial investment once the office began to make money and applied the money to the investment in another branch.[22]

Orkin expanded its methods and its service offerings throughout the 1930s to include fumigation and termite removal. Beginning in 1937, Otto sought to centralize his business.[23] Prior to this, each branch operated mostly autonomously, adhering to most of the same standards and systems, but this independence caused some confusion among consumers, many of whom believed each Orkin branch was an independently owned franchise.[23] This consolidation helped every Orkin branch be recognized as part of a single company and centralized all national billing through the Atlanta office. These changes spurred further state-by-state growth, moving outward from the core of southern states the company was already in.[24] By 1940, Orkin had 50 branches in 14 states, including branch offices in nearly every major southern city. Gross sales that year were around $1.5 million (equivalent to $25,642,518 in 2016).[24]

The United States' entry into World War II in 1941 posed challenges to Orkin in the form of shortages of personnel, chemicals and supplies. In the particular face of personnel shortages, Ted Oser worked with the National Pest Control Association founder, Bill Buettner, to meet with legislators, rationing boards, and other government agencies to convince them to classify pest control as an "essential service" during the war.[25] Such classification would afford Orkin (and other pest control companies) draft deferments and placement on a preference list to receive chemicals and supplies such as gasoline, tires, and food ration points to manufacture rat bait.[25] Pest control became one of only two service industries operating during the war to be declared as "essential"—the other was mortuary service.[25] The war also caused a growth in the number of military contracts that Orkin took on—the company had over 150 military establishments under contract for regular bed bug fumigations and pest control, and many railroads maintained around-the-clock service agreements that had Orkin pest control teams sleeping in shifts on cots in the rail yards.[26] Pest control services for homes and businesses also remained in demand on top of all of the additional wartime service that Orkin was providing. This overall increase in demand strained the company’s resources, particularly since the chemicals that were most readily available for pest control were not as effective and required more frequent treatments, which taxed the already limited workforce.[27] In order to maximize resources, many branch offices were consolidated, some accounts were serviced less often, and service providers traveled further and more often.[27] Despite wartime shortages, however, Orkin not only survived, but it actually grew. In 1945, the company had record gross sales of $2.098 million (equivalent to $27,909,993 in 2016) and maintained 82 branches in 14 states.[28]

Following the war, the pest control industry’s introduction of new, more powerful chemicals for extermination led Orkin to hire academics and experts in the field of public health, entomology, chemistry, and sanitation.[28] Among these hires was Herman Fellton, formerly of the U.S. Public Health Service, as Orkin's technical director.[29] Felton centralized and standardized the purchase, use, and storage of chemicals and supplies, conducting four-day training courses and developing printed instructions for the use and handling of all chemicals.[29] The cultural change also had effects on the literal appearance of the company—the company moved once again into new offices at 590 Courtland Street and the adjacent building at 591 Peachtree.[30] For the first time, the executive offices were separate from the service department, with the former in the Peachtree building, and the latter in the Courtland building.[31] In 1947, Orkin began issuing company-wide uniforms for its service technicians that followed the professional appearance that Otto had long required of his employees and bore the red diamond Orkin logo on the hats, jackets and shirts.[32]

The introduction of new, more effective chemicals for pest control led to the expansion of Orkin's termite and fumigation services, in particular. Following the goals set by Felton, Orkin recognized the need to properly handle chemicals and was instrumental in emphasizing safety practices within the pest control industry, with Oser being named president of the NPCA in 1944 on a safety platform.[33][34] Oser was also instrumental in forcing the shift in both industry and public attitudes that hiring a pest control service was not something to be ashamed of, but rather something that was a valuable service that protected the health and welfare of people and property.[34]

By 1950, Orkin had grown to 141 branches in 20 states, with over 1,000 employees and $6 million (equivalent to $59,726,141 in 2016) in sales.[35] The company's growth exploded throughout the 1950s and is largely attributed to Orkin's profit-sharing and incentive programs for its employees.[36] Many branch and district managers made several times what Otto himself did each year, and many employees became millionaires through Orkin's profit-sharing.[36] Gross revenues more than doubled to $15.6 million in 1956.[37] The 1950s also brought a new advertising medium—television. The cartoon mascot of "Otto the Orkin Man", an anthropomorphized pesticide spray can, and his accompanying jingle became one of the most recognizable advertisements in the United States.[38] The boom in positive public relations for the company and the public interest in the real Otto Orkin that the television advertisements generated affected everything from branding on the caps worn by service technicians and the trucks (both now bore the "Otto" character as well as the Orkin diamond) to the details of the company headquarters' relocation to 713 West Peachtree Street in 1951. Every expense of the move was publicly reported; the building was modernly appointed, and upon its opening, Orkin staged an open house for the public to tour the offices and enjoy a variety of entertainment and exhibits.[39]

The rise of Otto's sons (Sanford and William) and sons-in-law (Petty Bregman and Perry Kaye) up through the ranks of the company during the 1950s resulted in a number of changes in the company's management structure.[40] Many of Orkin's long-term executives, including Bregman, either quit or were fired by Kaye or one of Otto's sons. Otto struggled with his sons and Kaye over control of the company.[41] The youngest Orkin son, William, was determined that the company not have any executives outside the Orkin family, and by the mid 1950s, Otto himself had become relegated to figurehead status within the company by his sons and sons-in-law.[41]

In the late 1950s, rumors began to circulate that questioned Otto's mental soundness in his old age.[42] Despite the insistence of a number of employees to the press that Otto was still very much of sound mind, the rumors persisted. Further rumors in the press suggested that Kaye and Otto's sons sought to exaggerate Otto's condition in order to expedite their takeover of the company.[42] On May 16, 1960, when Kaye and Otto's sons had Otto institutionalized and declared legally incompetent.[42] This occurred not long after Otto had transferred his controlling stake in the company to his sons and oldest daughter (Kaye's wife).[42] Otto successfully fought to have his competency status restored, aided by his younger daughter, Gloria; her husband, Petty Bregman; and Ted Oser.[43] At the end of 1960, Otto and Gloria both sold their remaining shares of the company for $5.35 million (equivalent to $43,311,530 in 2016) and $750,000 (equivalent to $6,071,710 in 2016), respectively.[43]

Orkin was troubled by more than leadership changes in the period from 1958 to 1961. Pest resistance to common insecticides and growing regulations over the pest control industry resulted in a drop in annual revenues for Orkin in 1960 for the first time in the company’s history.[44] In August 1961, the three Orkin siblings who retained ownership over the company—Sanford, William, and Bernice—sold 360,000 shares, about 15 percent of the interest in the company, to the public at $24 per share (equivalent to $192 in 2016), "in order to diversify on a personal basis".[45] Orkin's first report to its stockholders noted the company's highest profits ever and announced plans for the construction of a new home office building, to be located at 2170 Piedmont Road.[45] Orkin set revenue and profit records again in 1963 and executives often cited the "potential" of the business. However, a true rumor had begun to circulate—Orkin was for sale.[46] In April 1964, the company was acquired by Rollins Inc. for $62.4 million (equivalent to $481,859,227 in 2016).[4][47]

Rollins' purchase of Orkin became known as the first leveraged buyout to be made in the United States.[48] Under the purview of Wayne Rollins, a number of cultural and organizational changes were made to Orkin.[49] Among the changes made were the establishment of the Orkin Acceptance Corporation, a company-owned finance company intended to streamline customer financing of service agreements; computerizing payroll, accounts, and billing; and vertical integration through the acquisition of Dettelbach Pesticide Corporation, which became the primary manufacturer and distributor of Orkin's pesticides.[50] In 1965, Rollins acquired Arwell, Inc., a Waukegan, Illinois-based termite and pest control company for $3.14 million (equivalent to $23,863,337 in 2016).[51] Through a gradual process of branding and name changes, Arwell eventually became known as the "Midwest Region of Orkin Exterminating Company", and the acquisition provided Orkin with entry to the commercial pest control industry.[52]

In 1978, Gary Rollins, one of Wayne Rollins' sons, was named president of Orkin as part of a major overhaul of Rollins, Inc.'s executive structure. Gary was the first person to hold this title since Orkin had been acquired in 1964 (Earl Geiger, who had been at the helm of Orkin since the acquisition held the titles of executive vice president and division head).[53] In 1979, one of Orkin's worst-performing branches was converted into a "development" branch to test new ideas, procedures, and techniques to see if they held promise to improve performance and revenues in the rest of the company. From 1979 to 1984, ideas forged in the development branch resulted in a number of changes made throughout the company that nearly doubled productivity.[54] In 1984, Gary Rollins was elected president and chief operating officer of Rollins, Inc., and Ed Elkins became president of Orkin. Elkins had worked for Orkin in nearly every capacity over a 38-year career with the company and served as president until his retirement in 1987.[55][56]

Following Elkins' retirement, the position of Orkin president was filled for the first time by someone from outside of the company—Bob Mercer.[56] One of Mercer's first major initiatives as president of Orkin was the improvement of the company's employee training programs, which reduced both customer cancellations and employee turnover. He also oversaw a major reorganization of Orkin's district and branch office structure, which gave more responsibility and authority to district and branch managers.[56] Mercer stepped down as president after only three years with the company, and Gary Rollins returned as the head of Orkin, still retaining his title of president and chief operating officer of Rollins.[57]

During the 1990s, Orkin developed and introduced a number of new pest control techniques and products that often improved the effectiveness of treatments while reducing the amount of chemicals used.[58] The company also launched a number of environmental awareness campaigns, which included a partnership with the National Museum of Natural History to fund exhibits such as the O. Orkin Insect Zoo. From 1997 to 2001, a number of rapid changes occurred within the company in order to improve sales, customer retention and employee training, as well as to further streamline and modernize the Orkin business model. Of the changes that this era brought, among the most significant were the opening of the Rollins Learning Center in Atlanta, improved partnerships with universities and research institutions, and adjustments to the company's quality assurance, customer service, and service guarantee practices.[59]

Orkin’s uses its A.I.M. (assess, implement, monitor) Solution for pest control, which includes assessing activity, implementing a program based on the activity, and monitoring the program’s effectiveness for the customer.[60] Orkin uses a proactive approach, incorporating treatments with the least impact on the environment, to help prevent pest activity.[61]

Orkin has had research partnerships and entomology endowments with universities since 1990 to study pest behavior and biology. The research aids the company in finding new prevention and treatment methods.[62] These universities include Auburn University, University of California Riverside, University of Florida, University of Georgia, University of Kentucky, Purdue University, University of Tennessee, and Texas A&M University.[63]

Additionally, Orkin sponsors and conducts a number of educational programs and initiatives centered on teaching pest identification, entomology, and science basics primarily to K-6 students. The company has also sponsored a permanent exhibit at the Smithsonian to encourage a better understanding of insects and arthropods among the general public.

On September 9, 1993, the O. Orkin Insect Zoo (OOIZ) opened at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C. This permanent exhibit, made possible through a contribution from Orkin Pest Control, was created to encourage interactive learning and a better understanding about insects from all over the world as well as those found in the average backyard.[64]

The opening of the zoo marked the first time the Smithsonian enlisted a sponsor for a permanent exhibit in any of their museums. The Smithsonian's popular insect zoo, which annually draws more than one million visitors, is the museum's only exhibit where living creatures can be seen in their natural environments. The insect zoo, located on the second floor of the museum, focuses not only on strange and beautiful insects, but also on the relationships insects have with plants, other animals and humans.[65]

The exhibit features over 300 live insects and arthropods, including giant cockroaches, tarantulas, tailless whip scorpions and walking sticks. Each of the insects in the zoo live in their own natural habitats, which have been painstakingly reproduced under the direction of entomologists and museum professionals. Included in the habitat displays are mangrove swamps, a living bee tree, a desert diorama and a tropical rain forest.

In addition, there are plenty of hands-on activities that encourage the OOIZ visitor—adult or child—to get better acquainted with insects and arthropods of all shapes and sizes.[66] Of particular interest in the OOIZ is the "Our House, Their House" display which shows insects living in and around a giant 3-D home. By pushing buttons in front of the house, visitors illuminate the harborage areas for common household insects such as fleas, roaches, carpenter ants and silverfish.

Orkin’s Junior Pest Investigators’ program offers free science lesson plans for teachers.[67] These lessons, for students in grades K-6,[68] focus on common pest identification and environmentally friendly ways to help control pests. [69] The lesson plans are based on the National Science Education Standards and provide resources for assessment such as grading rubrics and quizzes.[70]

The Orkin Man School Presentation program, started in the 1950s, is a learning initiative that allows Orkin employees to educate students in their communities on the roles that insects play in the world and how they affect the environment.[71][72]

Rollins University is a strategic training program that increases its employees’ pest management knowledge.[73] New technicians participate in eight weeks of field and virtual training.[74]Training Magazine has recognized Orkin’s training program on its Top 125 list several times since 2002.[75]

Located in Atlanta, the 28,000-square-foot (2,600 m2) training facility includes simulated customer environments, including a house and mock grocery store. The facility also has a commercial kitchen, hospital room, hotel room and warehouse.[76]

The Orkin Man icon originated from the “Otto the Orkin Man” advertisement, a spray-can cartoon man, in the 1950s. Since then, the Orkin Man has been depicted as the pest control expert (Big Number One campaign), technologically savvy (Exterminator Robot campaign) and scientifically trained to control pests (Pest Control Down to a Science campaign).[77][78][79][80]

The most recognized Orkin uniform consists of a white collared shirt with the Orkin logo and red epaulets and pressed khaki (or gray) pants. The uniform varies depending on an employee’s job function for safety purposes. Commercial technicians have an additional pocket to store a handheld device used to record service data for on-the-job use.[81]

Orkin’s fleet consists principally of white Ford Ranger and Chevrolet Colorado trucks. Outfitted with Orkin’s red diamond logo, each truck has a Geotab global positioning system (GPS) vehicle tracking device to help improve routing efficiency so field specialists can increase their time with customers and decrease driving time.[82] Ford ended production of the Ranger in St. Paul, Minnesota on Dec. 16, 2011.[83][84] Orkin received the last truck off the production line for its service rotation.[85]

Rollins announced in September 2012 that the Toyota Tacoma will replace Orkin’s fleet of Ford Rangers. Orkin will lease the Tacomas and sell the Rangers as those leases expire. The company plans to replace all Ford Rangers by 2015.[86]

Orkin has more than 400 owned and operated branch offices and 58 franchises in the U.S. The company also has international franchises and subsidiaries located in Canada, Europe, Central America, the Caribbean, the Middle East, Asia, the Mediterranean, Africa and Mexico.[87][88]

Orkin’s employees have received industry recognition for their service. In 2012, Rick Gaudreault of Collinsville, Ill. was chosen as the “Termite Technician of the Year” by Pest Control Technology magazine.[89] In 2011, Jim Bailey of Columbus, Ohio was honored by Pest Control Technology magazine as the 2010 Commercial Technician of the Year.[90] In 2010, Randy Miller of Greenville, S.C. was chosen by the magazine as the 2009 Residential Technician of the Year.[91]

Orkin created the “Fight The Bite” campaign in 2008 to help raise money for the purchase and distribution of bed nets in Africa,[92] where 90 percent of malaria-related deaths occur among children.[93] From 2008 to 2011, Orkin donated one mosquito net[94] to Nothing But Nets a campaign started by the United Nations Foundation, with the purchase of every mosquito service.[95]Nothing But Nets provides insecticide-treated bed nets to prevent deaths by malaria in Africa. Orkin’s "Fight The Bite" campaign, which also includes donations, raised more than $820,000 in four years.[96]

Orkin has partnered with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), on public education initiatives involving pest-related health risks since 2004.[97] The CDC shares their scientific knowledge on pest-related diseases with Orkin employees during bi-annual training sessions. In April and September 2010, Orkin hosted CDC-led training seminars to discuss triatomine bugs (insects that transmit Chagas disease) and insect resistance to pesticides.[98] Orkin’s April 2011 training session featured CDC behavioral specialist Dr. Emily Zielinski-Gutierrez, who discussed emerging mosquito-borne and tick-borne diseases in the U.S. and provided prevention measures for technicians to share with homeowners.[99] During the October 2011 seminar, an expert shared rabies transmission facts and prevention tips.[100] The seminars are broadcast via satellite to Orkin branches throughout the country. Field representatives from Orkin’s 400 locations view the live broadcasts or access them later through a video-on-demand feature.[101]

Orkin serves as the presenting sponsor of the National Pest Management Association’s Women of Excellence Award. The award recognizes one woman each year who displays outstanding leadership skills and significantly contributes to advancing the pest management industry.[102]

Orkin is an official corporate sponsor of the Houston Zoo, supporting annual programs and community outreach initiatives.[103] Orkin also sponsored the Houston Zoo’s Earth Day celebration in April 2012. [104] Orkin partnered with the Houston Zoo to sponsor the DINOSAURS! exhibit, which opened May 4, 2012.[105] Orkin sponsored “Pollinator Palooza” at the Houston Zoo in June 2012 to highlight the role of Earth’s pollinators.[106]

Orkin has been the subject of many lawsuits around the country over recent years for alleged faulty service and slipshod practices. Notably, Orkin was investigated in Florida for racketeering in 2004 for its termite contracting practices, with one source citing over 15,000 consumer complaints in the state in a four-year period. This investigation comes on top of multiple lawsuits around that state alleging fraud and poor performance, and similarly around the nation.[107][108][109][110][111]

Recent revelations by a former high-level Orkin risk manager may serve to bolster those claims levelled against the company.[112] In 2001, NY Attorney General Spitzer instituted measures to reform Orkin advertising and arbitration for its termite services.[113]

Ant Infestation

Pest Control - Dealing With A Squirrel Infestation

Bugs represent numerous problems. They are health concerns, foundation stability concerns, even safety concerns. Finding a reliable exterminating company is just one more concern to add to the barrel. Eliminate them all with a quality Las Vegas pest control company that puts your needs first. Here are some generalized ideas that can help you find an exterminating company that will customize their treatment to your lifestyle.

For most, the top concern is cost. But, what does that cost include? Be sure to have your prospective company clarify everything they will do for the price they quote. Do they treat both the exterior and the interior, or just one? Do they offer free retreatments? If so, how many? Unlimited or just one? A sign of a good company is when they only charge for exterior treatments because they're confident that their products and techniques will successfully eliminate your pest problem. And if an interior treatment is still needed - for as many times as it may take to get the job done, it's free. But, above all, no matter what the cost, no matter which Las Vegas pest control company you hire, one thing should never be compromised...100% satisfaction. Make sure it's guaranteed.

All in all, the Las Vegas pest control company you choose should customize their treatments to your lifestyle. They are working for you, so they should consider your needs. You work hard for your money, make sure they deserve it.

Tehachapi

Pesticide


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Oildale Getting Rid Of Rats

Pest control in Oildale for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Wasp Exterminator

Oildale Pest Control For Rodents

The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a small species of cockroach, typically about 1.1 to 1.6 cm (0.43 to 0.63 in)[1][2] long. In colour it varies from tan to almost black, and it has two dark, roughly parallel, streaks on the pronotum running anteroposteriorly from behind the head to the base of the wings. Although Blattella germanica has wings, it can barely fly, although it may glide when disturbed.[3] Of the few species of cockroach that are domestic pests, it probably is the most widely troublesome example.[4] It is very closely related to the Asian cockroach, and to the casual observer the two appear nearly identical and may be mistaken for each other. However, the Asian cockroach is attracted to light and can fly rather like a moth, while the German cockroach cannot.

Blattella germanica occurs widely in human buildings, but is particularly associated with restaurants, food processing facilities, hotels, and institutional establishments such as nursing homes. In cold climates, they occur only near human dwellings, because they cannot survive severe cold. However, even though they would soon die in the outdoors on their own, German cockroaches have been found as inquilines ("tenants") of human buildings as far north as Alert, Nunavut.[5] Similarly, they have been found as far south as Southern Patagonia.[6]

Previously thought to be a native of Europe, the German cockroach later was considered to have emerged from the region of Ethiopia in Northeast Africa,[7][8] but more recent evidence suggests that it actually originated in Southeast Asia.[4][9] Whatever the truth of the matter, the cockroach's sensitivity to cold might reflect its origin from such warm climates, and its spread as a domiciliary pest since ancient times has resulted from incidental human transport and shelter. The species now is cosmopolitan in distribution, occurring as a household pest on all continents except Antarctica, and on many major islands as well. It accordingly has been given various names in the cultures of many regions. For example, although it is widely known as the "German cockroach" in English-speaking countries, in Germany in turn, it is known as the Russian roach.[10]

Though nocturnal, the German cockroach occasionally appears by day, especially if the population is crowded or has been disturbed. However, sightings are most frequent of an evening, when someone suddenly brings a light into a room deserted after dark, such as a kitchen where they have been scavenging.[11] When excited or frightened, the species emits an unpleasant odor.

German cockroaches are omnivorous scavengers. They are attracted particularly to meats, starches, sugars, and fatty foods. Where a shortage of foodstuffs exists, they may eat household items such as soap, glue, and toothpaste. In famine conditions, they turn cannibalistic, chewing at each other's wings and legs.[12]

The German cockroach reproduces faster than any other residential cockroach,[13] growing from egg to reproductive adult in approximately 50 – 60 days.[14] Once fertilized, a female German cockroach develops an ootheca in her abdomen. The abdomen swells as her eggs develop, until the translucent tip of the ootheca begins to protrude from the end of her abdomen, and by that time the eggs inside are fully sized. The ootheca, at first translucent, soon turns white and then within a few hours it turns pink, progressively darkening until, some 48 hours later, it attains the dark red-brown of the shell of a chestnut. The ootheca has a keel-like ridge along the line where the young emerge, and curls slightly towards that edge as it completes its maturation. A small percentage of the nymphs may hatch while the ootheca is still attached to the female, but the majority emerge some 24 hours after it has detached from the female's body. The newly hatched 3mm-long black nymphs then progress through six or seven instars before becoming sexually mature, but ecdysis is such a hazardous process that nearly half the nymphs die of natural causes before reaching adulthood. Molted skins and dead nymphs are soon eaten by living nymphs present at the time of molting.[13]

The German cockroach is very successful at establishing an ecological niche in buildings, and is resilient in the face of many pest control measures. Reasons include:

German cockroaches are thigmotactic, meaning they prefer confined spaces, and they are small compared to other pest species, so they can hide within small cracks and crevices that are easy to overlook, thereby evading humans and their eradication efforts. Conversely, the seasoned pest controller is alert for cracks and crevices where it is likely to be profitable to place baits or spray surfaces.

To be effective, control measures must be comprehensive, sustained, and systematic; survival of just a few eggs is quite enough to regenerate a nearly exterminated pest population within a few generations, and recolonisation from surrounding populations often is very rapid, too.[12]

Another problem in controlling German cockroaches is the nature of their population behaviour. Though they are not social and practise no organised maternal care, females carry oothecae of 18-50 eggs (average about 32) during incubation until just before hatching, instead of dropping them as most other species of cockroaches do. This protects the eggs from certain classes of predation. Then, after hatching, nymphs largely survive by consuming excretions and moults from adults, thereby establishing their own internal microbial populations and avoiding contact with most insecticidal surface treatments and baits. One effective control is insect growth regulators (IGRs, hydroprene, methoprene, etc.), which act by preventing molting, thus prevent maturation of the various instars. Caulking baseboards and around pipes may prevent the travel of adults from one apartment to another within a building.

Female German cockroach with ootheca

As an adaptive consequence of pest control by poisoned sugar baits, a strain of German cockroaches has emerged that reacts to glucose as distastefully bitter. They refuse to eat sweetened baits, which presents an obstacle to their control, given that baits are an economical and effective means of control. It also is a dramatic illustration of adaptive selection; in the absence of poisoned sweet baits, attraction to sugars strongly promotes growth, energy, and reproduction; cockroaches that are not attracted to sugars take longer to grow and reproduce, whereas in the presence of poisoned sugared baits, sugar avoidance promotes reproduction.[15]


  1. ^ Alan Weaving; Mike Picker; Griffiths, Charles Llewellyn (2003). Field Guide to Insects of South Africa. New Holland Publishers, Ltd. ISBN 1-86872-713-0. 
  2. ^ John A. Jackman; Bastiaan M. Drees (1 March 1998). A Field Guide to Common Texas Insects. Taylor Trade Publishing. pp. 28–. ISBN 978-1-4616-2291-8. 
  3. ^ William J. Bell; Louis M. Roth; Christine A. Nalepa (26 June 2007). Cockroaches: Ecology, Behavior, and Natural History. JHU Press. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-0-8018-8616-4. 
  4. ^ a b Xavier Bonnefoy; Helge Kampen; Kevin Sweeney (2008). Public Health Significance of Urban Pests. World Health Organization. pp. 35–. ISBN 978-92-890-7188-8. 
  5. ^ The insects and arachnids of Canada, part 14, The Grasshoppers, Crickets, and related insects of Canada and adjacent region
  6. ^ Faúndez, E. I. & M. A. Carvajal. 2011. Blattella germanica (Linnaeus, 1767) (Insecta: Blattaria) en la Región de Magallanes. Boletín de Biodiversidad de Chile, 5: 50-55.
  7. ^ Cory, EN; McConnell, HS (1917). Bulletin No. 8: Insects and Rodents Injurious to Stored Products. College Park, Maryland: Maryland State College of Agriculture Extension Service. p. 135. 
  8. ^ Hill, Dennis S. (30 September 2002). Pests of Stored Foodstuffs and their Control. Springer. pp. 145–146. ISBN 978-1-4020-0735-4. 
  9. ^ Eaton, Eric R.; Kaufman, Kenn (2007). Kaufman Field Guide to Insects of North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 62. ISBN 0-618-15310-1. 
  10. ^ Berenbaum, May (1989). Ninety-nine Gnats, Nits, and Nibblers. University of Illinois Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-252-06027-4. 
  11. ^ Gary R. Mullen; Lance A. Durden (27 September 2002). Medical and Veterinary Entomology. Academic Press. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-0-08-053607-1. 
  12. ^ a b Rust, Michael K.; Owens, John M.; Reierson, Donald A. (30 November 1994). Understanding and Controlling the German Cockroach. Oxford University Press. pp. 388–. ISBN 978-0-19-534508-7. 
  13. ^ a b Ebeling, Walter. "Urban entomology". Archived from the original on 17 July 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013. 
  14. ^ http://museumpests.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/German-Cockroach.pdf Museumpests.net Accessed July 15, 2015
  15. ^ Wada-Katsumata, A.; Silverman, J.; Schal, C. (2013). "Changes in Taste Neurons Support the Emergence of an Adaptive Behavior in Cockroaches". Science. 340 (6135): 972–5. PMID 23704571. doi:10.1126/science.1234854.  (summary at BBC News)
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Robinson, William H. (14 April 2005). Urban Insects and Arachnids: A Handbook of Urban Entomology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 45–46, 51–54. ISBN 978-0-521-81253-5. 
  17. ^ a b Bassett, W.H. (12 October 2012). Clay's Handbook of Environmental Health. Routledge. p. 317. ISBN 978-1-135-81033-7. 
Local Pest Control Companies

Cockroach

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IT IS SAFE ORKIDS! PETS.

IT IS SAFE ORKIDS! HERE'S PETS.

IT IS SAFE ORKIDS! HERE'S WHAT PETS.

IT IS SAFE ORKIDS! HERE'S WHAT IT KIDS! HERE'S WHAT IT KIDS! HERE'S WHAT ITRECALLS KIDS! HERE'S WHAT ITRECALLS TAKES KIDS! HERE'S WHAT ITRECALLS TAKES -- RECALLS TAKES -- RECALLS TAKES --[READING] [READING] [READING]THAT [READING]THAT IS [READING]THAT IS REALLY [READING]THAT IS REALLY GREAT [READING]THAT IS REALLY GREAT TO THAT IS REALLY GREAT TO THAT IS REALLY GREAT TOSPRAY THAT IS REALLY GREAT TOSPRAY ON THAT IS REALLY GREAT TOSPRAY ON YOUR THAT IS REALLY GREAT TOSPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS THAT IS REALLY GREAT TOSPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS S SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS S SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS SIS SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS SIS VIEW SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS SIS VIEW OF SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS SIS VIEW OF MATTRESS SPRAY ON YOUR MATTRESS SIS VIEW OF MATTRESS IS IS VIEW OF MATTRESS IS IS VIEW OF MATTRESS ISOVER IS VIEW OF MATTRESS ISOVER TWO IS VIEW OF MATTRESS ISOVER TWO YEARS IS VIEW OF MATTRESS ISOVER TWO YEARS OLD, IS VIEW OF MATTRESS ISOVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR, OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR, OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT IS OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT IS IN OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT IS IN ITS OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT OVER TWO YEARS OLD, OR,IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT OR IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT OR IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT ORNINE IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT ORNINE HERE, IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT ORNINE HERE, YOU IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT ORNINE HERE, YOU NINE IF IT IS IN ITS EIGHT ORNINE HERE, YOU NINE HERE NINE HERE, YOU NINE HERE NINE HERE, YOU NINE HEREDEFINITELY NINE HERE, YOU NINE HEREDEFINITELY NEED NINE HERE, YOU NINE HEREDEFINITELY NEED TO NINE HERE, YOU NINE HEREDEFINITELY NEED TO BE DEFINITELY NEED TO BE DEFINITELY NEED TO BESPRAYING DEFINITELY NEED TO BESPRAYING IT.

DEFINITELY NEED TO BESPRAYING IT.

NOW, SPRAYING IT.

NOW, SPRAYING IT.

NOW,MOSQUITOES SPRAYING IT.

NOW,MOSQUITOES ARE SPRAYING IT.

NOW,MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

SPRAYING IT.

NOW,MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

-- MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

-- MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD YOU MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD YOU DON'T MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD YOU DON'T WANT MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO MOSQUITOES ARE BED.

--BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BA BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BA BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BAGET BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BAGET A BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BAGET A MOSQUITO BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BAGET A MOSQUITO BITE.

BAD YOU DON'T WANT TO BAGET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GE GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GE GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT LET GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT LET ME GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT LET ME TELL GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT LET ME TELL YOU GET A MOSQUITO BITE.

GEBUT LET ME TELL YOU ARE BUT LET ME TELL YOU ARE BUT LET ME TELL YOU ARETHOSE BUT LET ME TELL YOU ARETHOSE HORRIBLE, BUT LET ME TELL YOU ARETHOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE BUT LET ME TELL YOU ARETHOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE HO THOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE HO THOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE HOCHEMICALS THOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE HOCHEMICALS LIKE THOSE HORRIBLE, THOSE HOCHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEET CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEET CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEETIS CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEETIS A CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEETIS A MAJOR CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEETIS A MAJOR INGREDIENT CHEMICALS LIKE EAT--DEETIS A MAJOR INGREDIENT IN IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT IN IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT INBUG IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT INBUG SPRAY.

IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT INBUG SPRAY.

THIS IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT INBUG SPRAY.

THIS IS IS A MAJOR INGREDIENT INBUG SPRAY.

THIS IS A BUG SPRAY.

THIS IS A BUG SPRAY.

THIS IS ANATURAL BUG SPRAY.

THIS IS ANATURAL CEDAR BUG SPRAY.

THIS IS ANATURAL CEDAR OIL.

BUG SPRAY.

THIS IS ANATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHAT NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHAT NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHATYOU'RE NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHATYOU'RE GETTING NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHATYOU'RE GETTING IS NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHATYOU'RE GETTING IS THE NATURAL CEDAR OIL.

WHATYOU'RE GETTING IS THE 32 YOU'RE GETTING IS THE 32 YOU'RE GETTING IS THE 32FLUID YOU'RE GETTING IS THE 32FLUID OUNCE YOU'RE GETTING IS THE 32FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE, FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE, FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD AUTO FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD AUTO FREE FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD AUTO FREE TO FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO FLUID OUNCE CONCENTRATE,THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO A THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO A THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO ADILUTION THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO ADILUTION OF THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO ADILUTION OF IT THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO ADILUTION OF IT AND THE MD AUTO FREE TO DO ADILUTION OF IT AND THE DILUTION OF IT AND THE DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO GO DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO GO ON DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO GO ON THE DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO DILUTION OF IT AND THEBOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO B BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO B BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO BIT BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO BIT IS BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO BIT IS A BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO BIT IS A TRAVEL BOTTLE TO GO ON THE GO BIT IS A TRAVEL SIZED IT IS A TRAVEL SIZED IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, WHAT IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO I IT IS A TRAVEL SIZEDBOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO IS BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO IS BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI DILUTE BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI DILUTE IT BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI DILUTE IT TO BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI DILUTE IT TO PUT BOTTLE.

SO, WHAT I DO ISI DILUTE IT TO PUT IT I DILUTE IT TO PUT IT I DILUTE IT TO PUT ITON I DILUTE IT TO PUT ITON MYSELF, I DILUTE IT TO PUT ITON MYSELF, AND I DILUTE IT TO PUT ITON MYSELF, AND THEN I DILUTE IT TO PUT ITON MYSELF, AND THEN I ON MYSELF, AND THEN I ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY IT ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY IT ON ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY IT ON AND ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY IT ON AND I ON MYSELF, AND THEN ISPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBED SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBED SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBEDIN SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBEDIN IT SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBEDIN IT SMELLS SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBEDIN IT SMELLS LIKE SPRAY IT ON AND I RUBBEDIN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAR IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAR IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I DO IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I DO NOT IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I DO NOT KNOW IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I DO NOT KNOW IF IN IT SMELLS LIKE CEDAROIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOU OIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOU OIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOUHAD OIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOUHAD OR OIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOUHAD OR YOUR OIL I DO NOT KNOW IF YOUHAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHER HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHER HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHERHAD HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHERHAD A HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHERHAD A CEDAR HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHERHAD A CEDAR CLOSET HAD OR YOUR GRANDMOTHERHAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEY HAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEY HAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEYWOULD HAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEYWOULD BUT HAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEYWOULD BUT THERE HAD A CEDAR CLOSET THEYWOULD BUT THERE WILL WOULD BUT THERE WILL WOULD BUT THERE WILLSWEATER'S WOULD BUT THERE WILLSWEATER'S SO WOULD BUT THERE WILLSWEATER'S SO THE WOULD BUT THERE WILLSWEATER'S SO THE MOUSE SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSE SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSEWOULD SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSEWOULD NOT SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSEWOULD NOT EAT SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSEWOULD NOT EAT THEM.

SWEATER'S SO THE MOUSEWOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUT WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUT WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUTCEDAR WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUTCEDAR IS WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUTCEDAR IS A WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUTCEDAR IS A NATURAL WOULD NOT EAT THEM.

BUTCEDAR IS A NATURAL BUG CEDAR IS A NATURAL BUG CEDAR IS A NATURAL BUGREPELLENT CEDAR IS A NATURAL BUGREPELLENT --WOOL CEDAR IS A NATURAL BUGREPELLENT --WOOL THE CEDAR IS A NATURAL BUGREPELLENT --WOOL THE REP REPELLENT --WOOL THE REP REPELLENT --WOOL THE REPGOOD REPELLENT --WOOL THE REPGOOD FOLKS REPELLENT --WOOL THE REPGOOD FOLKS AT REPELLENT --WOOL THE REPGOOD FOLKS AT NO REPELLENT --WOOL THE REPGOOD FOLKS AT NO MORE GOOD FOLKS AT NO MORE GOOD FOLKS AT NO MOREBUGS! GOOD FOLKS AT NO MOREBUGS! HIGH-GRADE, BUGS! HIGH-GRADE, BUGS! HIGH-GRADE,HIGHEST-QUALITY BUGS! HIGH-GRADE,HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR BUGS! HIGH-GRADE,HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OI BUGS! HIGH-GRADE,HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OIL HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OIL HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OILTHAT HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OILTHAT IS HIGHEST-QUALITY CEDAR OILTHAT IS NATURALLY THAT IS NATURALLY THAT IS NATURALLYGETTING THAT IS NATURALLYGETTING RID THAT IS NATURALLYGETTING RID OF THAT IS NATURALLYGETTING RID OF THESE GETTING RID OF THESE GETTING RID OF THESEBUGS, GETTING RID OF THESEBUGS, DETERRING GETTING RID OF THESEBUGS, DETERRING THEM! GETTING RID OF THESEBUGS, DETERRING THEM! O, BUGS, DETERRING THEM! O, BUGS, DETERRING THEM! O,SPRAY BUGS, DETERRING THEM! O,SPRAY IT BUGS, DETERRING THEM! O,SPRAY IT ON BUGS, DETERRING THEM! O,SPRAY IT ON YOUR SPRAY IT ON YOUR SPRAY IT ON YOURBASEBOARDS, SPRAY IT ON YOURBASEBOARDS, SPRAY SPRAY IT ON YOURBASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWN BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWN BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWNTHE BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWNTHE ENTRY BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWNTHE ENTRY POINT BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWNTHE ENTRY POINT OF BASEBOARDS, SPRAY DOWNTHE ENTRY POINT OF YOUR THE ENTRY POINT OF YOUR THE ENTRY POINT OF YOURHOME THE ENTRY POINT OF YOURHOME LIKE THE ENTRY POINT OF YOURHOME LIKE A THE ENTRY POINT OF YOURHOME LIKE A SLIDING THE ENTRY POINT OF YOURHOME LIKE A SLIDING LAST HOME LIKE A SLIDING LAST HOME LIKE A SLIDING LASTYOUR! HOME LIKE A SLIDING LASTYOUR! ANYWHERE HOME LIKE A SLIDING LASTYOUR! ANYWHERE YOU HOME LIKE A SLIDING LASTYOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEE YOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEE YOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEEBUGS.

YOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEEBUGS.

TWO YOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEEBUGS.

TWO SPONGES, YOUR! ANYWHERE YOU SEEBUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BY BUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BY BUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BYTHE BUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BYTHE WAY, BUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BYTHE WAY, ARE BUGS.

TWO SPONGES, BYTHE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THESE THE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THESE SPONGES THE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THESE SPONGES YOU THE WAY, ARE INCLUDED.

THESE SPONGES YOU POP THESE SPONGES YOU POP THESE SPONGES YOU POPTHEM THESE SPONGES YOU POPTHEM IN THESE SPONGES YOU POPTHEM IN WATER THESE SPONGES YOU POPTHEM IN WATER AND THESE SPONGES YOU POPTHEM IN WATER AND THEY THEM IN WATER AND THEY THEM IN WATER AND THEYBECOME THEM IN WATER AND THEYBECOME A THEM IN WATER AND THEYBECOME A GROWN-UP THEM IN WATER AND THEYBECOME A GROWN-UP SIZED BECOME A GROWN-UP SIZED BECOME A GROWN-UP SIZEDSPONGES.

BECOME A GROWN-UP SIZEDSPONGES.

AGAIN BECOME A GROWN-UP SIZEDSPONGES.

AGAIN YOU BECOME A GROWN-UP SIZEDSPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POP SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POP SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POPTHEM SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POPTHEM IN SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POPTHEM IN THE SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POPTHEM IN THE MODERN SPONGES.

AGAIN YOU POPTHEM IN THE MODERN NAB, THEM IN THE MODERN NAB, THEM IN THE MODERN NAB,GROWN-UP THEM IN THE MODERN NAB,GROWN-UP SIZED THEM IN THE MODERN NAB,GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGES GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGES GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGESAND GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGESAND YOU GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGESAND YOU SPRAY GROWN-UP SIZED SPONGESAND YOU SPRAY SOME AND YOU SPRAY SOME AND YOU SPRAY SOMEPRODUCT AND YOU SPRAY SOMEPRODUCT ON AND YOU SPRAY SOMEPRODUCT ON IT AND YOU SPRAY SOMEPRODUCT ON IT AND AND YOU SPRAY SOMEPRODUCT ON IT AND YOU PRODUCT ON IT AND YOU PRODUCT ON IT AND YOUWIPE PRODUCT ON IT AND YOUWIPE DOWN PRODUCT ON IT AND YOUWIPE DOWN YOUR PRODUCT ON IT AND YOUWIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERS WIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERS WIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERSWHERE WIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERSWHERE YOU WIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERSWHERE YOU KEEP WIPE DOWN YOUR DRAWERSWHERE YOU KEEP YOUR WHERE YOU KEEP YOUR WHERE YOU KEEP YOURSILVERWARE, WHERE YOU KEEP YOURSILVERWARE, YOUR WHERE YOU KEEP YOURSILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE, SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE, SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE,YOUR SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE,YOUR CUPS, SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE,YOUR CUPS, THE SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE,YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE SILVERWARE, YOUR PLACE,YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE Y YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE Y YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY BUGS YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY BUGS LIKE YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO G YOUR CUPS, THE GAZETTE YIS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GO IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GO IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GOTHAT IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GOTHAT -- IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GOTHAT -- PLATES IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GOTHAT -- PLATES IF IS WORTHY BUGS LIKE TO GOTHAT -- PLATES IF YOU THAT -- PLATES IF YOU THAT -- PLATES IF YOUGO THAT -- PLATES IF YOUGO TO THAT -- PLATES IF YOUGO TO THE THAT -- PLATES IF YOUGO TO THE GROCERY THAT -- PLATES IF YOUGO TO THE GROCERY STORE GO TO THE GROCERY STORE GO TO THE GROCERY STORETHE GO TO THE GROCERY STORETHE PLASTIC GO TO THE GROCERY STORETHE PLASTIC BAGS GO TO THE GROCERY STORETHE PLASTIC BAGS IN GO TO THE GROCERY STORETHE PLASTIC BAGS IN THE THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THE THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THEGROCERY THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THEGROCERY STORE THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THEGROCERY STORE TO THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THEGROCERY STORE TO MARK THE PLASTIC BAGS IN THEGROCERY STORE TO MARK GR GROCERY STORE TO MARK GR GROCERY STORE TO MARK GRAND GROCERY STORE TO MARK GRAND THOSE GROCERY STORE TO MARK GRAND THOSE PLASTIC GROCERY STORE TO MARK GRAND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS(.

) AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS(.

) ARE AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS(.

) ARE LIKE AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS(.

) ARE LIKE LARVA AND THOSE PLASTIC BAGS(.

) ARE LIKE LARVA AND (.

) ARE LIKE LARVA AND (.

) ARE LIKE LARVA ANDEGGS (.

) ARE LIKE LARVA ANDEGGS FROM (.

) ARE LIKE LARVA ANDEGGS FROM BUGS.

(.

) ARE LIKE LARVA ANDEGGS FROM BUGS.

YOU EGGS FROM BUGS.

YOU EGGS FROM BUGS.

YOUBRING EGGS FROM BUGS.

YOUBRING THOSE EGGS FROM BUGS.

YOUBRING THOSE BAGS EGGS FROM BUGS.

YOUBRING THOSE BAGS HOME, BRING THOSE BAGS HOME, BRING THOSE BAGS HOME,STICK BRING THOSE BAGS HOME,STICK THEM BRING THOSE BAGS HOME,STICK THEM IN BRING THOSE BAGS HOME,STICK THEM IN THE BRING THOSE BAGS HOME,STICK THEM IN THE STICK STICK THEM IN THE STICK STICK THEM IN THE STICKCABINET STICK THEM IN THE STICKCABINET AND STICK THEM IN THE STICKCABINET AND THAT STICK THEM IN THE STICKCABINET AND THAT IS STICK THEM IN THE STICKCABINET AND THAT IS ONE CABINET AND THAT IS ONE CABINET AND THAT IS ONEOF CABINET AND THAT IS ONEOF THE CABINET AND THAT IS ONEOF THE PLACES CABINET AND THAT IS ONEOF THE PLACES (.

) OF THE PLACES (.

) OF THE PLACES (.

)THEY'RE OF THE PLACES (.

)THEY'RE NOT OF THE PLACES (.

)THEY'RE NOT JUST OF THE PLACES (.

)THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'RE THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'RE THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'REMARCHING THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'REMARCHING IN THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'REMARCHING IN FROM THEY'RE NOT JUST THEY'REMARCHING IN FROM THE MARCHING IN FROM THE MARCHING IN FROM THEOUTSIDE MARCHING IN FROM THEOUTSIDE SOMETIMES MARCHING IN FROM THEOUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOU OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOU OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOUBRING OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOUBRING THEM OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOUBRING THEM IN.

OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOUBRING THEM IN.

SPRAY OUTSIDE SOMETIMES YOUBRING THEM IN.

SPRAY IT BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY IT BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY ITAROUND.

BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY ITAROUND.

LME BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY ITAROUND.

LME TELL BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY ITAROUND.

LME TELL YOU BRING THEM IN.

SPRAY ITAROUND.

LME TELL YOU A AROUND.

LME TELL YOU A AROUND.

LME TELL YOU ALITTLE AROUND.

LME TELL YOU ALITTLE BIT AROUND.

LME TELL YOU ALITTLE BIT OF AROUND.

LME TELL YOU ALITTLE BIT OF HOW AROUND.

LME TELL YOU ALITTLE BIT OF HOW BUGS LITTLE BIT OF HOW BUGS LITTLE BIT OF HOW BUGSBREEZY LITTLE BIT OF HOW BUGSBREEZY DO LITTLE BIT OF HOW BUGSBREEZY DO NOT LITTLE BIT OF HOW BUGSBREEZY DO NOT BREATHE BREEZY DO NOT BREATHE BREEZY DO NOT BREATHETHEIR BREEZY DO NOT BREATHETHEIR NOSE BREEZY DO NOT BREATHETHEIR NOSE OR BREEZY DO NOT BREATHETHEIR NOSE OR THEIR BREEZY DO NOT BREATHETHEIR NOSE OR THEIR THEI THEIR NOSE OR THEIR THEI THEIR NOSE OR THEIR THEIMOUTH THEIR NOSE OR THEIR THEIMOUTH THEY THEIR NOSE OR THEIR THEIMOUTH THEY HAVE THEIR NOSE OR THEIR THEIMOUTH THEY HAVE AN MOUTH THEY HAVE AN MOUTH THEY HAVE ANEXOSKELETON MOUTH THEY HAVE ANEXOSKELETON AND MOUTH THEY HAVE ANEXOSKELETON AND WHAT MOUTH THEY HAVE ANEXOSKELETON AND WHAT THE EXOSKELETON AND WHAT THE EXOSKELETON AND WHAT THECEDAR EXOSKELETON AND WHAT THECEDAR DOES EXOSKELETON AND WHAT THECEDAR DOES IS EXOSKELETON AND WHAT THECEDAR DOES IS IT CEDAR DOES IS IT CEDAR DOES IS ITBASICALLY CEDAR DOES IS ITBASICALLY (.

) CEDAR DOES IS ITBASICALLY (.

) WHEN CEDAR DOES IS ITBASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOU BASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOU BASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOUSPRAY BASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOUSPRAY TO BASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOUSPRAY TO KEEP BASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOUSPRAY TO KEEP THEM BASICALLY (.

) WHEN YOUSPRAY TO KEEP THEM FROM SPRAY TO KEEP THEM FROM SPRAY TO KEEP THEM FROMBEING SPRAY TO KEEP THEM FROMBEING ABLE SPRAY TO KEEP THEM FROMBEING ABLE TO SPRAY TO KEEP THEM FROMBEING ABLE TO BREATHE BEING ABLE TO BREATHE BEING ABLE TO BREATHEWHEN BEING ABLE TO BREATHEWHEN THEY BEING ABLE TO BREATHEWHEN THEY COME BEING ABLE TO BREATHEWHEN THEY COME NEAR BEING ABLE TO BREATHEWHEN THEY COME NEAR IT, WHEN THEY COME NEAR IT, WHEN THEY COME NEAR IT,THEREON WHEN THEY COME NEAR IT,THEREON IN WHEN THEY COME NEAR IT,THEREON IN THE WHEN THEY COME NEAR IT,THEREON IN THE OPPOSITE THEREON IN THE OPPOSITE THEREON IN THE OPPOSITEDIRECTION THEREON IN THE OPPOSITEDIRECTION IS THEREON IN THE OPPOSITEDIRECTION IS LIKE THEREON IN THE OPPOSITEDIRECTION IS LIKE THE DIRECTION IS LIKE THE DIRECTION IS LIKE THELAST DIRECTION IS LIKE THELAST THING DIRECTION IS LIKE THELAST THING IN DIRECTION IS LIKE THELAST THING IN THE DIRECTION IS LIKE THELAST THING IN THE WORLD LAST THING IN THE WORLD LAST THING IN THE WORLDARE LAST THING IN THE WORLDARE EXAMPLE LAST THING IN THE WORLDARE EXAMPLE OF LAST THING IN THE WORLDARE EXAMPLE OF A ARE EXAMPLE OF A ARE EXAMPLE OF AMOSQUITOES ARE EXAMPLE OF AMOSQUITOES BUZZING ARE EXAMPLE OF AMOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQU MOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQU MOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQUAROUND MOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQUAROUND YOU MOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQUAROUND YOU AS MOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQUAROUND YOU AS THEY MOSQUITOES BUZZING MOSQUAROUND YOU AS THEY GET AROUND YOU AS THEY GET AROUND YOU AS THEY GETCLOSE AROUND YOU AS THEY GETCLOSE AND AROUND YOU AS THEY GETCLOSE AND SMELL AROUND YOU AS THEY GETCLOSE AND SMELL THE CLOSE AND SMELL THE CLOSE AND SMELL THECEDAR, CLOSE AND SMELL THECEDAR, WHICH CLOSE AND SMELL THECEDAR, WHICH SMELLS CLOSE AND SMELL THECEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERY CEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERY CEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERYNICE CEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERYNICE (.

) CEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERYNICE (.

) IT CEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERYNICE (.

) IT IS CEDAR, WHICH SMELLS VERYNICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY, NICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY, NICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY,BUT NICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY,BUT THEY NICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY,BUT THEY ARE NICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY,BUT THEY ARE JUST NICE (.

) IT IS LOVELY,BUT THEY ARE JUST GOING BUT THEY ARE JUST GOING BUT THEY ARE JUST GOINGTO BUT THEY ARE JUST GOINGTO GO BUT THEY ARE JUST GOINGTO GO AWAY BUT THEY ARE JUST GOINGTO GO AWAY IF BUT THEY ARE JUST GOINGTO GO AWAY IF YOU BUT THEY ARE JUST GOINGTO GO AWAY IF YOU ARE BUT THEY ARE JUST GOINGTO GO AWAY IF YOU ARE AT TO GO AWAY IF YOU ARE AT TO GO AWAY IF YOU ARE ATTHE TO GO AWAY IF YOU ARE ATTHE OUTDOOR TO GO AWAY IF YOU ARE ATTHE OUTDOOR CONCERT, TO GO AWAY IF YOU ARE ATTHE OUTDOOR CONCERT, THE THE OUTDOOR CONCERT, THE THE OUTDOOR CONCERT, THETHAT THE OUTDOOR CONCERT, THETHAT THE THE OUTDOOR CONCERT, THETHAT THE PARK THE OUTDOOR CONCERT, THETHAT THE PARK THIS THE OUTDOOR CONCERT, THETHAT THE PARK THIS SUMME THE OUTDOOR CONCERT, THETHAT THE PARK THIS SUMMER THAT THE PARK THIS SUMMER THAT THE PARK THIS SUMMERIF THAT THE PARK THIS SUMMERIF YOU THAT THE PARK THIS SUMMERIF YOU ARE THAT THE PARK THIS SUMMERIF YOU ARE GOING THAT THE PARK THIS SUMMERIF YOU ARE GOING TO THAT THE PARK THIS SUMMERIF YOU ARE GOING TO THE IF YOU ARE GOING TO THE IF YOU ARE GOING TO THEBEACH IF YOU ARE GOING TO THEBEACH AND IF YOU ARE GOING TO THEBEACH AND YOU IF YOU ARE GOING TO THEBEACH AND YOU HAVE IF YOU ARE GOING TO THEBEACH AND YOU HAVE THOSE BEACH AND YOU HAVE THOSE BEACH AND YOU HAVE THOSEBIG BEACH AND YOU HAVE THOSEBIG FLIES, BEACH AND YOU HAVE THOSEBIG FLIES, GREAT BEACH AND YOU HAVE THOSEBIG FLIES, GREAT THINGS BIG FLIES, GREAT THINGS BIG FLIES, GREAT THINGSTHAT BIG FLIES, GREAT THINGSTHAT BITE BIG FLIES, GREAT THINGSTHAT BITE YOU, BIG FLIES, GREAT THINGSTHAT BITE YOU, THIS THAT BITE YOU, THIS THAT BITE YOU, THISREALLY THAT BITE YOU, THISREALLY IS THAT BITE YOU, THISREALLY IS A THAT BITE YOU, THISREALLY IS A MUST THAT BITE YOU, THISREALLY IS A MUST HAVE REALLY IS A MUST HAVE REALLY IS A MUST HAVEEVERYBODY.

REALLY IS A MUST HAVEEVERYBODY.

IT REALLY IS A MUST HAVEEVERYBODY.

IT DOES REALLY IS A MUST HAVEEVERYBODY.

IT DOES NOT EVERYBODY.

IT DOES NOT EVERYBODY.

IT DOES NOTMATTER EVERYBODY.

IT DOES NOTMATTER WHO EVERYBODY.

IT DOES NOTMATTER WHO YOU.

Oildale

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