Mojave Pest Control Chemicals

Pest control in Mojave for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Pest Control Cost

Mojave Pest Control For Rodents

Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea, which also includes termites. About 30 cockroach species out of 4,600 are associated with human habitats. About four species are well known as pests.

The cockroaches are an ancient group, dating back at least as far as the Carboniferous period, some 320 million years ago. Those early ancestors however lacked the internal ovipositors of modern roaches. Cockroaches are somewhat generalized insects without special adaptations like the sucking mouthparts of aphids and other true bugs; they have chewing mouthparts and are likely among the most primitive of living neopteran insects. They are common and hardy insects, and can tolerate a wide range of environments from Arctic cold to tropical heat. Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger than temperate species, and, contrary to popular belief, extinct cockroach relatives and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species.

Some species, such as the gregarious German cockroach, have an elaborate social structure involving common shelter, social dependence, information transfer and kin recognition. Cockroaches have appeared in human culture since classical antiquity. They are popularly depicted as dirty pests, though the great majority of species are inoffensive and live in a wide range of habitats around the world.

A 40- to 50-million-year-old cockroach in Baltic amber (Eocene)

Cockroaches are members of the order Blattodea, which includes the termites, a group of insects once thought to be separate from cockroaches. Currently, 4,600 species and over 460 genera are described worldwide.[1][2] The name "cockroach" comes from the Spanish word for cockroach, cucaracha, transformed by 1620s English folk etymology into "cock" and "roach".[3] The scientific name derives from the Latin blatta, "an insect that shuns the light", which in classical Latin was applied not only to cockroaches, but also to mantids.[4][5]

Historically, the name Blattaria was used largely interchangeably with the name Blattodea, but whilst the former name was used to refer to 'true' cockroaches exclusively, the latter also includes the termites. The current catalogue of world cockroach species uses the name Blattodea for the group.[1] Another name, Blattoptera, is also sometimes used.[6] The earliest cockroach-like fossils ("blattopterans" or "roachids") are from the Carboniferous period 320 million years ago, as are fossil roachoid nymphs.[7][8][9]

Since the 19th century, scientists believed that cockroaches were an ancient group of insects that had a Devonian origin, according to one hypothesis.[10] Fossil roachoids that lived during that time differ from modern cockroaches in having long external ovipositors and are the ancestors of mantises, as well as modern blattodeans. As the body, hind wings and mouthparts are not preserved in fossils frequently, the relationship of these roachoids and modern cockroaches remains disputed. The first fossils of modern cockroaches with internal ovipositors appeared in the early Cretaceous. A recent phylogenetic analysis suggests that cockroaches originated at least in the Jurassic.[10]

The evolutionary relationships of the Blattodea (cockroaches and termites) shown in the cladogram are based on Eggleton, Beccaloni & Inward (2007).[11] The cockroach families Lamproblattidae and Tryonicidae are not shown but are placed within the superfamily Blattoidea. The cockroach families Corydiidae and Ectobiidae were previously known as the Polyphagidae and Blattellidae.[12]

Termites were previously regarded as a separate order Isoptera to cockroaches. However, recent genetic evidence strongly suggests that they evolved directly from 'true' cockroaches, and many authors now place them as an "epifamily" of Blattodea.[11] This evidence supported a hypothesis suggested in 1934 that termites are closely related to the wood-eating cockroaches (genus Cryptocercus). This hypothesis was originally based on similarity of the symbiotic gut flagellates in termites regarded as living fossils and wood-eating cockroaches.[13] Additional evidence emerged when F. A. McKittrick (1965) noted similar morphological characteristics between some termites and cockroach nymphs.[14] The similarities among these cockroaches and termites have led some scientists to reclassify termites as a single family, the Termitidae, within the order Blattodea.[11][15] Other scientists have taken a more conservative approach, proposing to retain the termites as the Termitoidea, an epifamily within the order. Such measure preserves the classification of termites at family level and below.[16]

Domino cockroach Therea petiveriana, normally found in India

Most species of cockroach are about the size of a thumbnail, but several species are bigger. The world's heaviest cockroach is the Australian giant burrowing cockroach Macropanesthia rhinoceros, which can reach 9 cm (3.5 in) in length and weigh more than 30 g (1.1 oz).[17] Comparable in size is the Central American giant cockroach Blaberus giganteus, which grows to a similar length.[18] The longest cockroach species is Megaloblatta longipennis, which can reach 97 mm (3.8 in) in length and 45 mm (1.8 in) across.[19] A Central and South American species, Megaloblatta blaberoides, has the largest wingspan of up to 185 mm (7.3 in).[20]

Head of Periplaneta americana

Cockroaches are generalized insects, with few special adaptations, and may be among the most primitive living neopteran insects. They have a relatively small head and a broad, flattened body, and most species are reddish-brown to dark brown. They have large compound eyes, two ocelli, and long, flexible antennae. The mouthparts are on the underside of the head and include generalized chewing mandibles, salivary glands and various touch and taste receptors.[21]

The body is divided into a thorax of three segments and a ten-segmented abdomen. The external surface has a tough exoskeleton which contains calcium carbonate and protects the inner organs and provides attachment to muscles. It is coated with wax to repel water. The wings are attached to the second and third thoracic segments. The tegmina, or first pair of wings, are tough and protective, lying as a shield on top of the membranous hind wings, which are used in flight. All four wings have branching longitudinal veins, and multiple cross-veins.[22]

The three pairs of legs are sturdy, with large coxae and five claws each.[22] They are attached to each of the three thoracic segments. The front legs are the shortest and the hind legs the longest, providing the main propulsive power when the insect runs.[21] The spines on the legs were earlier considered to be sensory, but observations of the insect's gait on sand and wire meshes have demonstrated that they help in locomotion on difficult terrain. The structures have been used as inspiration for robotic legs.[23][24]

The abdomen has ten segments, each with a pair of spiracles for respiration. Segment ten bears a pair of cerci, a pair of anal styles, the anus and the external genitalia. Males have an aedeagus through which they secrete sperm during copulation and females have spermathecae for storing sperm and an ovipositor through which the ootheca is laid.[21]

Cockroaches are abundant throughout the world and live in a wide range of environments, especially in the tropics and subtropics.[25] Cockroaches can withstand extremely cold temperatures, allowing them to live in the Arctic. Some species are capable of surviving temperatures of −188 °F (−122 °C) by manufacturing an antifreeze made out of glycerol.[26] In North America, 50 species separated into five families are found throughout the continent.[25] 450 species are found in Australia.[27] Only about four widespread species are commonly regarded as pests.[28][29]

Cockroaches occupy a wide range of habitats. Many live in leaf litter, among the stems of matted vegetation, in rotting wood, in holes in stumps, in cavities under bark, under log piles and among debris. Some live in arid regions and have developed mechanisms to survive without access to water sources. Others are aquatic, living near the surface of water bodies, including bromeliad phytotelmata, and diving to forage for food. Most of these respire by piercing the water surface with the tip of the abdomen which acts as a snorkel, but some carry a bubble of air under their thoracic shield when they submerge. Others live in the forest canopy where they may be one of the main types of invertebrate present. Here they may hide during the day in crevices, among dead leaves, in bird and insect nests or among epiphytes, emerging at night to feed.[30]

A cockroach soon after ecdysis

Cockroaches are social insects; a large number of species are either gregarious or inclined to aggregate, and a slightly smaller number exhibit parental care.[31] It used to be thought that cockroaches aggregated because they were reacting to environmental cues, but it is now believed that pheromones are involved in these behaviors. Some species secrete these in their feces with gut microbial symbionts being involved, while others use glands located on their mandibles. Pheromones produced by the cuticle may enable cockroaches to distinguish between different populations of cockroach by odor. The behaviors involved have only been studied in a few species, but German cockroaches leave fecal trails with an odor gradient.[31] Other cockroaches follow such trails to discover sources of food and water, and where other cockroaches are hiding. Thus, cockroaches have emergent behavior, in which group or swarm behavior emerges from a simple set of individual interactions.[32]

Daily rhythms may also be regulated by a complex set of hormonal controls of which only a small subset have been understood. In 2005, the role of one of these proteins, pigment dispersing factor (PDF), was isolated and found to be a key mediator in the circadian rhythms of the cockroach.[33]

Pest species adapt readily to a variety of environments, but prefer warm conditions found within buildings. Many tropical species prefer even warmer environments. Cockroaches are mainly nocturnal[34] and run away when exposed to light. An exception to this is the Asian cockroach, which flies mostly at night but is attracted to brightly-lit surfaces and pale colors.[35]

Gregarious cockroaches display collective decision-making when choosing food sources. When a sufficient number of individuals (a "quorum") exploits a food source, this signals to newcomer cockroaches that they should stay there longer rather than leave for elsewhere.[36] Other mathematical models have been developed to explain aggregation dynamics and conspecific recognition.[37][38]

Group-based decision-making is responsible for complex behaviors such as resource allocation. In a study where 50 cockroaches were placed in a dish with three shelters with a capacity for 40 insects in each, the insects arranged themselves in two shelters with 25 insects in each, leaving the third shelter empty. When the capacity of the shelters was increased to more than 50 insects per shelter, all of the cockroaches arranged themselves in one shelter. Cooperation and competition are balanced in cockroach group decision-making behavior.[32]

Cockroaches appear to use just two pieces of information to decide where to go, namely how dark it is and how many other cockroaches there are. A study used specially-scented roach-sized robots that appear to the roaches as real to demonstrate that once there are enough insects in a place to form a critical mass, the roaches accepted the collective decision on where to hide, even if this was an unusually light place.[39]

Gregarious German cockroaches show different behavior when reared in isolation from when reared in a group. In one study, isolated cockroaches were less likely to leave their shelters and explore, spent less time eating, interacted less with conspecifics when exposed to them, and took longer to recognize receptive females. Because these changes occurred in many contexts, the authors suggested them as constituting a behavioral syndrome. These effects might have been due either to reduced metabolic and developmental rates in isolated individuals or the fact that the isolated individuals hadn't had a training period to learn about what others were like via their antennae.[40]

Individual American cockroaches appear to have consistently different "personalities" regarding how they seek shelter. In addition, group personality is not simply the sum of individual choices, but reflects conformity and collective decision-making.[41][42]

The gregarious German and American cockroaches have elaborate social structure, chemical signalling, and "social herd" characteristics. Lihoreau and his fellow researchers stated:[32]

Some species make a hissing noise while other cockroaches make a chirping noise. The Madagascar hissing cockroach produces its sound through the modified spiracles on the fourth abdominal segment. Several different hisses are produced, including disturbance sounds, produced by adults and larger nymphs, and aggressive, courtship and copulatory sounds produced by adult males.[43]Henschoutedenia epilamproides has a stridulatory organ between its thorax and abdomen, but the purpose of the sound produced is unclear.[44]

Several Australian species practice acoustic and vibration behavior as an aspect of courtship. They have been observed producing hisses and whistles from air forced through the spiracles. Furthermore, in the presence of a potential mate, some cockroaches tap the substrate in a rhythmic, repetitive manner. Acoustic signals may be of greater prevalence amongst perching species, particularly those that live on low vegetation in Australia's tropics.[45]

Cockroaches are generally omnivorous; the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), for example, feeds on a great variety of foodstuffs including bread, fruit, leather, starch in book bindings, paper, glue, skin flakes, hair, dead insects and soiled clothing.[46] Many species of cockroach harbor symbiotic protozoans and bacteria in their gut which are able to digest cellulose. In many species, these symbionts may be essential if the insect is to utilize cellulose; however, some species secrete cellulase in their saliva, and the wood-eating cockroach, Panesthia cribrata, is able to survive indefinitely on a diet of crystallized cellulose while being free of micro-organisms.[47]

The similarity of these symbionts in the genus Cryptocercus to those in termites are such that these cockroaches have been suggested to be more closely related to termites than to other cockroaches,[48] and current research strongly supports this hypothesis about their relationships.[49] All species studied so far carry the obligate mutualistic endosymbiont bacterium Blattabacterium, with the exception of Nocticola australiensise, an Australian cave-dwelling species without eyes, pigment or wings, which recent genetic studies indicate is a very primitive cockroach.[50][51] It had previously been thought that all five families of cockroach were descended from a common ancestor that was infected with B. cuenoti. It may be that N. australiensise subsequently lost its symbionts, or alternatively this hypothesis will need to be re-examined.[51]

Like other insects, cockroaches breathe through a system of tubes called tracheae which are attached to openings called spiracles on all body segments. When the carbon dioxide level in the insect rises high enough, valves on the spiracles open and carbon dioxide diffuses out and oxygen diffuses in. The tracheal system branches repeatedly, the finest tracheoles bringing air directly to each cell, allowing gaseous exchange to take place.[52]

While cockroaches do not have lungs as do vertebrates, and can continue to respire if their heads are removed, in some very large species, the body musculature may contract rhythmically to forcibly move air in and out of the spiracles; this may be considered a form of breathing.[52]

Cockroaches use pheromones to attract mates, and the males practice courtship rituals, such as posturing and stridulation. Like many insects, cockroaches mate facing away from each other with their genitalia in contact, and copulation can be prolonged. A few species are known to be parthenogenetic, reproducing without the need for males.[22]

Female cockroaches are sometimes seen carrying egg cases on the end of their abdomens; the German cockroach holds about 30 to 40 long, thin eggs in a case called an ootheca. She drops the capsule prior to hatching, though live births do occur in rare instances. The egg capsule may take more than five hours to lay and is initially bright white in color. The eggs are hatched from the combined pressure of the hatchlings gulping air. The hatchlings are initially bright white nymphs and continue inflating themselves with air, becoming harder and darker within about four hours. Their transient white stage while hatching and later while molting has led to claims of albino cockroaches.[22] Development from eggs to adults takes three to four months. Cockroaches live up to a year, and the female may produce up to eight egg cases in a lifetime; in favorable conditions, she can produce 300 to 400 offspring. Other species of cockroaches, however, can produce far more eggs; in some cases a female needs to be impregnated only once to be able to lay eggs for the rest of her life.[22]

The female usually attaches the egg case to a substrate, inserts it into a suitably protective crevice, or carries it about until just before the eggs hatch. Some species, however, are ovoviviparous, keeping the eggs inside their body, with or without an egg case, until they hatch. At least one genus, Diploptera, is fully viviparous.[22]

Cockroaches have incomplete metamorphosis, meaning that the nymphs are generally similar to the adults, except for undeveloped wings and genitalia. Development is generally slow, and may take a few months to over a year. The adults are also long-lived, and have survived for as much as four years in the laboratory.[22]

Cockroaches are among the hardiest insects. Some species are capable of remaining active for a month without food and are able to survive on limited resources, such as the glue from the back of postage stamps.[53] Some can go without air for 45 minutes. Japanese cockroach (Periplaneta japonica) nymphs, which hibernate in cold winters, survived twelve hours at −5 °C to −8 °C in laboratory experiments.[54]

Experiments on decapitated specimens of several species of cockroach found a variety of behavioral functionality remained, including shock avoidance and escape behavior, although many insects other than cockroaches are also able to survive decapitation, and popular claims of the longevity of headless cockroaches do not appear to be based on published research.[55][56] The severed head is able to survive and wave its antennae for several hours, or longer when refrigerated and given nutrients.[56]

It is popularly suggested that cockroaches will "inherit the earth" if humanity destroys itself in a nuclear war. Cockroaches do indeed have a much higher radiation resistance than vertebrates, with the lethal dose perhaps six to 15 times that for humans. However, they are not exceptionally radiation-resistant compared to other insects, such as the fruit fly.[57]

The cockroach's ability to withstand radiation better than human beings can be explained through the cell cycle. Cells are most vulnerable to the effects of radiation when they are dividing. A cockroach's cells divide only once each time it molts, which is weekly at most in a juvenile roach. Since not all cockroaches would be molting at the same time, many would be unaffected by an acute burst of radiation, but lingering radioactive fallout would still be harmful.[52]

Cockroaches in research: Periplaneta americana in an electrophysiology experiment

Because of their ease of rearing and resilience, cockroaches have been used as insect models in the laboratory, particularly in the fields of neurobiology, reproductive physiology and social behavior.[31]

The cockroach is a convenient insect to study as it is large and simple to raise in a laboratory environment. This makes it suitable both for research and for school and undergraduate biology studies. It can be used in experiments on topics such as learning, sexual pheromones, spatial orientation, aggression, activity rhythms and the biological clock, and behavioral ecology.[58]

The Blattodea include some thirty species of cockroaches associated with humans; these species are atypical of the thousands of species in the order.[59] They feed on human and pet food and can leave an offensive odor.[60] They can passively transport pathogenic microbes on their body surfaces, particularly in environments such as hospitals.[61][62] Cockroaches are linked with allergic reactions in humans.[63][64] One of the proteins that trigger allergic reactions is tropomyosin.[65] These allergens are also linked with asthma.[66] About 60% of asthma patients in Chicago are also sensitive to cockroach allergens. Studies similar to this have been done globally and all the results are similar. Cockroaches can live for a few days up to a month without food, so just because no cockroaches are visible in a home does not mean they are not there. Approximately 20-48% of homes with no visible sign of cockroaches have detectable cockroach allergens in dust.[67]

Many remedies have been tried in the search for control of the major pest species of cockroaches, which are resilient and fast-breeding. Household chemicals like sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) have been suggested, without evidence for their effectiveness.[68] Garden herbs including bay, catnip, mint, cucumber, and garlic have been proposed as repellents.[69] Poisoned bait containing hydramethylnon or fipronil, and boric acid powder is effective on adults.[70] Baits with egg killers are also quite effective at reducing the cockroach population. Alternatively, insecticides containing deltamethrin or pyrethrin are very effective.[70] In Singapore and Malaysia, taxi drivers use pandan leaves to repel cockroaches in their vehicles.[71]

Few parasites and predators are effective for biological control of cockroaches. Parasitoidal wasps such as Ampulex wasps sting nerve ganglia in the cockroach's thorax, temporarily paralyzing the victim, allowing the wasp to deliver a second sting into the cockroach's brain. The wasp clips the antennae with its mandibles and drinks some hemolymph before dragging the prey to a burrow, where an egg is laid on it. The wasp larva feeds on the subdued living cockroach.[72]

Cockroaches can be trapped in a deep, smooth-walled jar baited with food inside, placed so that cockroaches can reach the opening, for example with a ramp of card or twigs on the outside. An inch or so of water or stale beer (by itself a cockroach attractant) in the jar can be used to drown any insects thus captured. The method works well with the American cockroach, but less so with the German cockroach.[73]

See also: Entomophagy

Although considered disgusting in Western culture, cockroaches are eaten in many places around the world.[74][75] Whereas household pest cockroaches may carry bacteria and viruses, cockroaches bred under laboratory conditions can be used to prepare nutritious food.[76] Common household cockroaches can be decontaminated by being isolated and fed a diet of apple and lettuce.[74]

In Mexico and Thailand, the heads and legs are removed, and the remainder may be boiled, sauted, grilled, dried or diced.[74]

In China, cockroaches have become popular as medicine and cockroach farming is rising. The cockroaches are fried twice in a wok of hot oil, which makes them crispy with soft innards that are like cottage cheese.[77][78] Fried cockroaches are ground and sold as pills for stomach, heart and liver diseases.[79]

A cockroach recipe from Formosa (Taiwan) specifies salting and frying cockroaches after removing the head and entrails.[80]

In 1905, Henri Coupin wrote a French book Les bizarreries des races humaines, which mentions a cockroach paste recipe used by the English and the Irish people. After being simmered in vinegar and dried in the sun, the cockroaches' heads and intestines are removed, and they are boiled with butter, salt and pepper, made into a paste, and spread on bread. But there is no other evidence of this recipe. The only confirmed edible use of cockroaches by the British is the use of Periplaneta americana feces in homeopathic medicine.[80]

According to International Union of Crystallography journal, the "milk" produced by the Pacific beetle cockroach (Diploptera punctata) is one of the most nutritious foods on earth.[81]

See also: Depopulation of cockroaches in post-Soviet states

While a small minority of cockroaches are associated with human habitats and viewed as repugnant by many people, a few species are of conservation concern. The Lord Howe Island wood-feeding cockroach (Panesthia lata) is listed as endangered by the New South Wales Scientific Committee, but the cockroach may be extinct on Lord Howe Island itself. The introduction of rats, the spread of Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) and fires are possible reasons for their scarcity.[82] Two species are currently listed as endangered and critically endangered by the IUCN Red List, Delosia ornata and Nocticola gerlachi.[83][84] Both cockroaches have a restricted distribution and are threatened by habitat loss and rising sea levels. Only 600 Delosia ornata adults and 300 nymphs are known to exist, and these are threatened by a hotel development. No action has been taken to save the two cockroach species, but protecting their natural habitats may prevent their extinction. In the former Soviet Union, cockroach populations have been declining at an alarming rate; this may be exaggerated, or the phenomenon may be temporary or cyclic.[85]

Main article: Cockroaches in popular culture Madagascar hissing cockroaches kept as pets

Cockroaches were known and considered repellent but useful in medicines in Classical times. An insect named in Greek "σίλφη" ("Silphe") has been identified with the cockroach. It is mentioned by Aristotle, saying that it sheds its skin; it is described as foul-smelling in Aristophanes' play Peace; Euenus called it a pest of book collections, being "page-eating, destructive, black-bodied" in his Analect. Virgil named the cockroach "Lucifuga" ("one that avoids light"). Pliny the Elder recorded the use of "Blatta" in various medicines; he describes the insect as disgusting, and as seeking out dark corners to avoid the light.[86][87]Dioscorides recorded the use of the "Silphe", ground up with oil, as a remedy for earache.[87]

Lafcadio Hearn (1850–1904) asserted that "For tetanus cockroach tea is given. I do not know how many cockroaches go to make up the cup; but I find that faith in this remedy is strong among many of the American population of New Orleans. A poultice of boiled cockroaches is placed over the wound." He adds that cockroaches are eaten, fried with garlic, for indigestion.[88]

Several cockroach species, such as Blaptica dubia, are raised as food for insectivorous pets.[89] A few cockroach species are raised as pets, most commonly the giant Madagascar hissing cockroach, Gromphadorhina portentosa.[90] Whilst the hissing cockroaches may be the most commonly kept species, there are many species that are kept by cockroach enthusiasts; there is even a specialist society: the Blattodea Culture Group (BCG), which was a thriving organisation for about 15 years although now appears to be dormant.[91] The BCG provided a source of literature for people interested in rearing cockroaches which was otherwise limited to either scientific papers, or general insect books, or books covering a variety of exotic pets; in the absence of an inclusive book one member published Introduction to Rearing Cockroaches which still appears to be the only book dedicated to rearing cockroaches.[92]

Cockroaches have been used for space tests. A cockroach given the name Nadezhda was sent into space by Russian scientists during Foton-M test, becoming the first terrestrial animal to "give birth" in space.[93]

Because of their long association with humans, cockroaches are frequently referred to in popular culture. In Western culture, cockroaches are often depicted as dirty pests.[94][95] In a 1750–1752 journal, Peter Osbeck noted that cockroaches were frequently seen and found their way to the bakeries, after the sailing ship Gothenburg ran aground and was destroyed by rocks.[96]

Donald Harington's satirical novel The Cockroaches of Stay More (Harcourt, 1989) imagines a community of "roosterroaches" in a mythical Ozark town where the insects are named after their human counterparts. Madonna has famously quoted, "I am a survivor. I am like a cockroach, you just can't get rid of me."[97] An urban legend maintains that cockroaches are immortal.[98]

Tick Control

Termite

Rodents such as mice and rats can be a serious nuisance to any homeowner. However, by using effective rodent control methods, there are ways to prevent an infestation from happening in the first place or to get rid of undesirable rodents on your property for good.

A professional pest control company can help you by providing reliable solutions for rodent control. One of the first things that would need to be done is to inspect your property, in order to check for any places that rodents may be coming from.

In urban environments, pests such as rats and mice will typically enter buildings to look for food, a place to build their nests and to get shelter from cold temperatures outside. A pest control firm can then recommend ways for you to prevent these animals from getting inside.

If you have already seen rodents inside your property, it is of utmost importance to act quickly in order to eradicate the infestation at once and to prevent it from reoccurring again in the future. As rats and mice are able to reproduce quickly, contacting a rodent control specialist immediately.

Rodent control specialists can develop an effective action plan for you, depending on the size of your property and on the severity of the infestation. They have access to professional grade equipment and products in order to get rid of mice and rats quickly and efficiently. These experts have many years of experience in rodent control and will happily assist you in getting rid of an infestation at once.

Mojave

The History of Pest Control


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Tejon Pest Control Flies

Pest control in Tejon for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Rodent Control Company

Tejon Pest Control For Rodents

The application of pest control ranges from do-it-yourself arrangements to
scientific and very precise deployment of chemicals and predatory insects by
highly skilled practitioners. Despite the fact that pest control is a world-wide
industry it is still dominated by family or 1-person businesses. Those that need
to control pests range from householders to
large scale agri-conglomerates who need to maximise their yield. In between
these two are restaurants, bars, food production facilities, farmers - in fact,
anybody that routinely deals with food. Pest control can make us more
comfortable - but can also save lives.

The word pest is subjective as one man's pest may be another man's
helper. For instance, pest A may be a threat to crop A, and pest B a threat to
crop B. However, if pest B is a natural predator to pest A, then the farmer who
wishes to protect crop A may cultivate and release pest B amongst his crops.
There is a theory that without man's intervention in the food chain through
agriculture, hunting and long distance travel there would be no pests. The
theory continues that man's intervention (for instance, in cultivating and
releasing pest B, or in carrying creatures long distances) has upset the balance
of the food chain, producing instability in insect and other animal numbers and
distorting their evolution. This instability has led to over-population of a
given
species with the result that they have become pests. Having said this, if we assume that the very first fly swat was the first
instance of pest control - and we know that large animals swat flies - it could be
argued that pest control dates back way before humans came on the scene.

At this point pest control was carried out by farmers and some householders
as an everyday activity. By the early nineteenth century however, this changed
as studies and writings started to appear that treated pest control as a
separate discipline. Increasing use of intensive and large scale farming brought
matching increases in the intensity and scale of pest scares such as the
disastrous potato famine in Ireland in 1840. Pest control management was scaled
up to meet these demands, to the point that dedicated pest controllers began to
emerge throughout the 20th century.

In 1921 the first crop-spraying aeroplane was employed and in 1962 flying insect control was revolutionized when Insect-o-cutor started selling fly killer
machines using ultra violet lamps.

Pest control is still carried out by farmers and householders to this day.
There are also pest control specialists (sometimes called pesties); many
are one-person businesses and others work for large companies. In most countries
the pest control industry has been dogged by a few bad practitioners who have
tarnished the reputation for the highly professional and responsible majority.

One thing is for certain, from way before the Sumerians of 2500BC to us in modern times, there have always been - and probably always will be - pests (including some human ones!). Thank goodness, therefore, that we have pest controllers.

Pesticides

Pest Control for Mice - Getting Rid Of Mice

Nobody likes uninvited guests in their home and as the weather warms up you’ll be seeing more of them Ants, roaches, spiders, stinkbugs, in-laws Alright, you might be on your own for that last one but for the pests in your life with more than four legs try using Ortho Home Defense Ortho home defense can be used against a variety of insects, both indoors and outdoors Spray home defense around door and windows, along baseboards and behind appliances It also works great in garages and basements basically any major entry point, even your dryer exhaust Spray around the windows and siding on the southern and western sides of your home This is where stinkbugs generally enter, since it’s the warmest Home Defense doesn’t stain or smell, and will control insects for a period of up to 12 months Just spray until wet, it doesn’t need to bead or puddle up Keep pets & children out of the treated area until it’s dry, about 1-2 hours If you have any more questions about pest control stop in to your local Valu Home Centers, and talk to one of our knowledgeable associates You're not bugging em, trust me And if you need any tools, supplies, or more, we’ve got you covered.

Tejon

Insect And Rodent Pest Control


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Buttonwillow Fly Control

Pest control in Buttonwillow for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Household Pests

Buttonwillow Pest Control For Rodents

There are over 4,000 rodent species categorized based on their anatomy similarities and differences. Overall, three major groups with over 30 families make up the total rodent population.

Common Rodent Types
The more common rodents fall into three major suborders. The suborder Sciuromorpha includes squirrels, chipmunks, marmots, woodchucks, prairie dogs, gophers, pocket mice, kangaroo rats, and beavers. The suborder Myomorpha is made up of mouse-like rodents and includes a large variety of mouse and rat species, such as hamsters, lemmings, voles, muskrats, gerbils, dormice, and jerboas. The suborder Hystricomorpha includes porcupine, capybara, nutria, agouti, cavy, mara, chinchilla, and several other species.

Commensal Rodents
Rats and mice are largely responsible for eating up or contaminating a food supply. These types of rodents are known as "commensal rodents" because they live with or in close association to humans. The most common commensal rodents are the house mouse, the Norway rat and the roof rat. These rodents spoil our food by contaminating it with feces, hair and dander. These pests are found in homes, supermarkets, and restaurants throughout the United States in addition to warehouses and food processing facilities. The prevention and control of the commensal rodent population is a large concern in many states where these pests are able to thrive.

One of the only cons to the repellent is that you may have a harder time getting the rodents to permanently stay away from your home. It also does not always get the entire mouse or rat population to leave.

Traditional Pest Control Chemicals. Mouse and rat poison is still widely used because it eliminates rodents fast and effectively. The bromethalin commonly used in rodenticide causes a speedy death for the pest. Variations of this and various other chemicals are available for indoor or outdoor application.

As one would expect, the chemicals used in these rat poisons are highly deadly and should not be used if there are small children or animals that may come in contact with it. There is potential health risks associated with these chemicals touching skin or being inhaled as well.

Mouse Problems

Different Types of Pest Control Methods

Hello and welcometo this teaching from Skip Heitzig ofCalvary Albuquerque.

We pray this messagestrengthens your relationship with the Lord.

And if it does, we'dlove to hear about it.

Email us atmystory@calvaryabq.

Org.

And if you'd like to supportthis ministry financially, you can give online securelycalvaryabq.

Org/give.

Every group has its share ofproblem people and detractors.

Their words may hurt us andtheir actions may confuse us.

But as we continue ourseries, Technicolor Joy, Pastor Skip teaches us howto handle these pesky folks.

Now, please open your Bibleto Philippians chapter 1 as he begins the message,Pest Control.

Would you turn in your Biblesto Philippians chapter 1 this morning.

Philippians chapter 1.

That's what we're doing.

We're going through the bookof Philippians, verse by verse, on the weekends.

We call it TechnicolorJoy, because we've discovered thisbook is a book that has as its central theme joy.

And yet, Paul was writingfrom a Roman prison.

It's amazing.

Philippians chapter 1.

So there was a man, he wasstranded on a desert island all alone for years.

Finally, he was found.

And a rescue team was sentto pull him off the island and bring him backto civilization.

Well, they get to the islandand before they take him off, he goes well, let meshow you around first.

So you can see what I'vedone with the place.

So he brought them toa hut that he lived in.

He goes, this is the home thatI built with my own two hands.

They were impressed.

And then, he showedthem a second building.

And he said, thisis the church that I built with my own two hands.

Now, he was alone on the island.

But he said, this is the churchI built with my own two hands.

And then, somebodyfrom the rescue party noticed a third building.

And he said, whatabout that building? He said, oh, that's thechurch I used to go to.

If you've gone tochurch for very long, you know that thatsentiment is not far off.

That the longeryou go to church, you discover that church historyis filled with contention sometimes.

And discord over years.

And it's one of the thingsthat unbelievers have noticed.

People who do not believein the Jesus we follow will sometimes-- in fact, oftentimes-- say,well, you know, there's a lot of denominationsin the Christian world.

And it just seems like you guyscan't get your act together.

You don't all agreeon all the points.

You know, it'slike the old joke.

How many Christians does ittake to change a light bulb? And it's not an easy answer.

Presbyterians, none.

Lights will go on andoff at predestined times.

Catholics, none.

Candles only.

Baptist, at least 15.

One to change the lightbulb and three committees to approve the change and decidewho brings the potato salad.

Episcopalians, three.

One to call the electrician,one to mix the drinks, and one to talk about how muchbetter the old light bulb was.

Charismatics, only one.

Hands are already in the air.

Pentecostals, 10.

One to change thebulb and nine to pray against the spirit of darkness.

Unitarians, we choosenot to make a statement either in favor of or againstthe need for light bulbs.

However if you are--in your own journey you found that light bulbswork for you, that's fine.

You're invited towrite a poem or compose a modern dance aboutyour light bulb for next Sunday's service,in which we will explore a number of lightbulb traditions, including incandescent,fluorescent, three-way long life, and tinted.

All of which are equallyvalid paths to luminescence.

Methodists, undetermined.

Whether your light is brightor dull or completely out, you are loved.

You can be a light bulb, aturnip bulb, or a tulip bulb.

Christian, our church-widelighting service is planned for next Sunday.

Bring the bulb of yourchoice and a covered dish.

Nazarenes, six.

One woman to replace thebulb while five men review the church lighting policy.

Lutherans, none.

Lutherans don'tbelieve in change.

Amish, what's a light bulb? Well, now that Ihave effectively ditched all denominationsand offended everyone, I want to go to the text itself,in Philippians chapter 1.

We're going to be lookingat verses 15 through 18.

And here's where we are.

Last time we weretogether, we noted that Paul was dealing withproblem circumstances.

He had been on trial.

It was a mistrial.

It was a miscarriage of justice.

It landed him inprison in Caesarea, than in prison in Rome.

Now, Paul writes aboutnot problem circumstances but problem people.

But get this-- there areChristian people that are the problem.

Christian people thatare opposed to Paul.

This disillusionslots of people who-- after they come to Christ-- say something like,well, I thought it would be much differentamong Christians.

I thought Christians wouldbe so wonderful all the time.

It's a good thought, but thereality is we're all fallen.

We're all sinful.

We're all imperfect.

And yet, we all get together.

Remember, Jesus said,when he gave his sermon to that synagogue in Nazareth,he said that he had come-- his words-- to preachthe gospel to the poor, to heal the broken-hearted,to proclaim liberty to the captives, togive sight to the blind, to set at liberty thosewho are oppressed.

Did you hear the description ofthe audience he speaks about? Poor, broken-hearted,captive, blind, oppressed.

Sounds like a messy bunch to me.

And that is who we areas we are all together.

Now, the critical questionis, how do you handle pests? How do you deal with peoplewho claim to be Christians, yet at the same time, they're weird,irritable, sometimes wrong, or just plain goofy? How do you handle them? What do you do? Well, we are given athree-fold strategy in these four verses ofPhilippians chapter 1.

Whether you are a church leader,whether you are a group leader, whether you gather asmall group in your home or you go on a missionstrip-- or you just hang around Christians--these are valuable principles to know.

Let's begin andby-- just looking at our texts in verse 15.

Paul says these words.

Some indeed preach Christeven from envy and strife, and some also from goodwill.

The former preach Christfrom selfish ambition, not sincerely, supposing toadd affliction to my chains.

But the latter outof love, knowing that I am appointed forthe defense of the gospel.

What then? Only that in every way, whetherin pretense or in truth, Christ is preached.

And in this I rejoice,yes, and will rejoice.

The first thing we must do isidentify the troublemakers.

Now, this will not be difficult.

Troublemakers show themselves.

They emerge on their own.

You don't have to look for them.

You'll find them pretty easily.

Paul did, in hisexperience in Rome.

Now, as we examine these wordsin this text more carefully, we discover who heis speaking about.

First of all, wewant to make a note that these people Paul iswriting about are believers.

They are believers.

Notice in verse 15, he says,some indeed preach Christ.

Some of what? Some of whom? The answer is given in theprevious verse, verse 14.

Most of the brethrenin the Lord.

Please notice that,that's part of the group.

Most of the brethren in theLord have become confident by my chains and aremuch more bold to speak the word without fear.

Some-- that issome of them, some of those brethren in theLord-- indeed preach Christ.

So Paul is not dealing withheretics here or Gnostics or Judaizers or unbelievingidol worshippers.

He's talking about Christianbrothers and sisters who preach Christ.

Evidently leaders inthe church in Rome.

Why is this importantto make a note of? Well, I've noticedthat some of us like to idealizethe early church.

We think that the earlychurch must have just been perfect all the time.

And I've heardsentiments such as, boy, I wish our church could belike the early centuries.

Those were the good old days.

I've discovered thegood old days is just a combination of a goodimagination and a bad memory.

Because if you think aboutit, the New Testament is filled withearly church issues.

Example? The church at Corinthwas an early church.

Ever spend much timein 1 and 2 Corinthians? If you have, you understand thatwhen Paul wrote that letter, he was speaking toa divided church who were arguing over leadership.

There was rampant divorce.

There was lack of love.

There was immorality.

There was the discussionover spiritual gifts that nobody agreed on.

It sounds verycontemporary to me.

If you're wanting to belike the early church, I think we've hit that mark.

They were not a perfectgroup of people.

I guess the most disturbingissue is why does that happen in the church? Why among redeemed,saved people can there get to be so many problems? The Puritan John Trapp answeredthat question the best.

He said, the devil lovesto fish in troubled waters.

That's good, isn't it? The devil loves to fishin troubled waters.

Satan loves toexploit and amplify any conflict or disagreementor issue that may be among us.

If you have never read the bookThe Screwtape Letters by C.

S.

Lewis, I recommend you read it.

C.

S.

Lewis decidedto write a book from the vantage point of thedevil trying to undo people.

The devil in this book,Screwtape-- the senior demon-- is training ayounger protege demon named Wormwood on how tomess people's lives up.

And in one section of the book,he writes a letter to Wormwood.

My dear Wormwood, saysScrewtape, the senior demon, the church is afertile field if you keep them bickering overdetails, structure, money, property, personal hurts,and misunderstandings.

One thing you mustprevent, don't ever let Christians look up and seethe banner of victory flying, because you will lose them.

Never let them seethe glory of God.

Now, that's exactlywhat Paul does.

Paul lets us seethe glory of God.

That's how he will answerthis whole contention issue, you'll notice in a minute.

He flies the bannerof victory and he shows them the glory of God.

But let's look atthese troublemakers.

Let's identify them.

One thing I want you tonotice is they were jealous.

Look in verse 15at the word envy.

Some indeed preachedChrist even from envy.

Now, we have anotherword for envy in our language-- jealousy.

They were jealous over Paul.

Why were they jealous over Paul? Well, Paul was an easy target.

He was quite successful.

Paul was highly intelligent.

He was very gifted,extraordinarily successful inspreading the gospel.

He had seen with his own eyesa vision of the resurrected Christ.

And, at the timethis was written, Christians were alreadyregarding his letters as holy scripture.

So he's an easy target.

And people, in seeing Paul,decided, let's shoot him down.

Now this is human nature.

I notice this on everylevel, whether it's people mad at Wall Streetor the one percenters or the big corporations.

Always the big, successfulguys that are the easy targets.

So they were jealous.

He uses the word,they preach from envy.

Not only were they jealous,they were a contentious group.

Look at the next word.

Some indeed preach Christfrom envy-- that's jealousy-- and strife.

Now, that describes somebodywho is an argumentative person.

That's what strifemeans, somebody who stirs up a conflict.

Argumentative.

Do you know anypeople like that? They're just-- you'rearound, they're always stirring up a conflict,always argumentative.

Some people thrive onbeing argumentative.

In fact, some peopleare known more for what they are againstrather than what they are for.

You never quite knowwhat they're for, you just know they'reagainst a lot.

That's strife.

They exist to slamothers and they were slamming Paul the Apostle.

I have a colleague inthe ministry who I've known for years, I respect.

And he was speaking about--and answering questions-- that young ministers wereasking him about the ministry.

And they said, what is themost difficult experience you've ever had in ministry? And he said, well,there are two.

Number one is when people whoknow truth walk away from it.

When somebody who shouldknow better-- there are Christians whohave been exposed to truth, beenexposed to the word, bring their Bibles, read-along.

Suddenly, one day, they--for whatever reason-- walk away completelyfrom living for Christ.

He said, but the second-- and he was speakingabout ministers who were comingagainst him-- he said those who live to attackothers in the ministry.

It's like they falsely accuse.

And they live justto stir up trouble.

So, envy and strife.

And we do not know howthis strife was expressed.

We can only suppose.

Maybe there was agroup of people saying, well, you know Paul the Apostle,there must be sin in his life.

That's why he's in jail.

Because God wouldbe more faithful and not allow him to bein prison unless something is wrong with him.

Or maybe they weresaying, well, Paul hasn't tapped into thevictorious Holy Spirit-filled life.

If he did, if he had, thenhe wouldn't be in prison.

He'd be free like we have-- like we are.

But we do know theywere jealous and we do know they were contentious.

Something else theywere, they were selfish.

If you go down to verse 16,he amplifies it further.

He says, the former-- that is the first group, theguys against him, the former-- preach Christ fromselfish ambition.

Very interesting term.

It is a political term thatspeaks about a politician canvassing for office.

Using negative campaigns,putting other people down to make himself lookbetter, to promote himself.

So here's a group of peopleputting Paul down to puff themselves up, like a politicianmight do in a negative campaign ad.

They got some pervertedpleasure by slamming Paul so that they couldmake other people think they are much better.

This is not new inthe New Testament.

We know that Johnthe Apostle spoke about a guy named Diotrephes.

If you know yourBible, 3 John verse 9, that little letter towardthe end of the New Testament.

He says, Diotrephes lovesto have the preeminence.

He loves to havethe preeminence.

In other words, he wantsto dominate people.

He's a control freak.

Diotrephes loves to havethe preeminence among them.

Keep this in mind.

Next time you hear gossip-- and there are, unfortunately,too many people even in the church wholove to spread gossip-- when you hear gossip,somebody's ego is being exalted.

It's usually sharedbecause I know this and you don't andI am concerned.

And ego is being exalted as thatinformation is being divulged.

A man wrapped up in himselfmakes a very small package.

And selfish ambitionwas part and parcel of what was wrongwith these people.

They were selfish.

So they're jealous, they'recontentious, they're selfish.

Paul mentions them.

Not by name, he doesn't wantto make too much out of it.

He just doesn't wantto be self-serving.

But he mentions what they did.

But there's a fourth thing.

They were malicious.

Notice in verse 16,the former preacher Christ from selfishambition, not sincerely.

Now, watch this.

Supposing or hoping to addaffliction to my chains.

Now, Paul is revealingtheir motivation.

They're doing all this.

They are this way.

They're pushing me downto pull themselves up.

And here's why.

They want to addaffliction to my bonds.

What does that mean? The word affliction is acommon New Testament word.

Thlipsis.

Thlipsis is a word thatmeans pressure or trial, but it literallymeans an irritation.

It means friction.

It is the irritation causedby the rubbing of an object over another object.

Now, notice it says-- Paul says, they want to addaffliction or irritation to my chains.

For two years,Paul was in chains.

I know you've heard that.

I know we've read that.

We've discussed that.

But I just want you tothink of what that means.

That means for two years, Paulcouldn't take a potty break alone.

He had no freedom.

He had no isolation.

He had no privacy.

He couldn't eat a meal alone.

He couldn't have aconversation in that rented house in Rome for two years.

He was chained to a guard.

That means there was ashackle around his wrist, with a chain attached to theshackle of another soldier who only occupied that placefor a few hours at a time.

But Paul-- 24 hours a day,seven days a week, two years-- he had a chain.

That means that shacklewould irritate his skin and his bones andscabs would develop.

And it would bleed.

And it would thicken, et cetera.

You get the picture.

So he says, the reason thesepeople are this way toward me is they want to addto the irritation that I alreadyhave in my chains.

That is their motivation.

They don't want toevangelize the lost.

They don't wantto feed the flock.

They're not reallyconcerned for the church, even though they'resaying, well, I'm saying this about Paulbecause I'm really concerned for the church.

Paul said, that's not the truth.

The truth is theyhave one motivation.

They want to add irritation tomy already irritable situation of being in chains.

Now, please understandagain, these are preachers.

Paul says, they preach Christ.

They are Christians.

They are Christian preachers.

They are not anti-Christ,but they are anti-Paul.

And they are anti-Paulwith a vengeance.

And I can't thinkof a worse reason to preach a message than that.

I can't think of a worsemotivation to write a book or have a blog site than that.

Let's just make life hardfor Paul the Apostle.

Sort of like scorpions.

You know that if you leavescorpions together alone, they'll kill themselvesand eat themselves? A guy did an experiment with 100scorpions in a huge glass jar.

In a few days, only 14 survived.

They had killed the othersand were eating them.

There was even apregnant scorpion in that jar that killed andstarted eating her young as soon as they were born.

One of those babies escapedon the mother's back and eventually killed her.

Any leader whohas led anything-- even Christian leadersin Christian churches-- know that everychurch, every group has the Tate family among them.

Every church has the Tates.

There's old man Dick Tate,who wants to run everything.

While Uncle Ro Tate triesto change everything.

Their sister, AgiTate, stirs up plenty of trouble with help fromher husband, Irri Tate.

And whenever newprojects are suggested, Hesi Tate and his wife Vege Tatewant to wait till next year.

Then there's Aunt ImiTate, who wants our church to be like all the others.

Devas Tate providesthe voice of doom, while Poten Tate wantsto be a big shot.

And, of course,there's the black sheep of the family, Ampu Tate, whohas completely cut himself off from every church.

Anybody who's a leaderknows those people exist.

So what do you do? I suggest you do what Paul does.

You don't spend all yourtime worried about them.

You pivot.

Yes, you identifythe troublemakers, but then you ratifythe truth makers.

And notice what Paulsays in verse 15.

Some indeed preach Christfrom envy and strife.

And some-- I want to go,ah, it feels better already.

He's pivoting here.

And some also from goodwill.

Verse 17 further describes them.

But the latter, outof love, knowing that I am appointed forthe defense of the gospel.

This is the silver lining inthe dark cloud of contention and Paul has found it.

Yes, in any group, thereis going to Irri Tate and Agi Tate and Vege Tate.

But there is also going tobe advocate and celebrate.

And you want tofind those people.

And here's what Paul does.

He says, yeah, thereare some like this.

But then there aresome like that.

You see, rather than justfocusing on the smudge that is on the white linengarment, Paul says, yeah, but there's a lot of white linengarment around that smudge.

It's not all a smudge.

There is a smudge,I grant you that.

I can identifythe troublemakers, but there's a lot of otherswho are not like that.

That's part of the strategy.

Starve the problemand feed the solution.

Find those who love you, wholove the work of God in you, and run with them.

Ratify them, encourage them,empower them, build with them.

And just keep runningahead of the Irri Tates and the Agi Tatesand the Ampu Tates.

Their voice will diminishas you go further ahead.

Now, I'm going to sharesomething with you that will probably be shocking to you.

Did you know that Paulthe Apostle probably lost his life as a resultof troublemaking Christians in Rome? I want that to settleon your hearts.

Paul probably losthis life because of the trouble caused bytroublemaking Christians in Rome.

You're saying,oh, wait a minute.

I always heard that it wasCaesar Nero that killed Paul the Apostle, beheaded him.

Well, that's true.

Here's the problem.

We have very little informationabout the death of Paul from early church records.

They're very silent on it.

We just have asnippet here or there.

But it would seem like the envy,the jealousy of many Christians in Rome denounced Paulbefore Caesar Nero, which added the weightto the death sentence.

You say, well, howdo you know that? Well, there are severalsources I've discovered.

But I'm going toshare two with you.

One comes from 2Timothy chapter 1, a guy by the name of Onesiphorus-- how's that for a name? Don't name your Onesiphorus,though he was a good guy.

It'll be hard in school.

Onesiphorus came to visit Paulwhile he was in Rome in prison.

The problem is oncehe gets to Rome, it seems like nobody will tellhim where Paul the Apostle is.

They don't want to tell him.

Maybe they don't know or maybethey don't want to tell him.

But listen to what itsays, 2 Timothy chapter 1.

Paul writes, may the Lord showspecial kindness to Onesiphorus and all his family,because he often visited and encouraged me.

He was never ashamed of mebecause I was in prison.

When he came to Rome,he searched everywhere until he found me.

So he came to Rome.

Nobody told him wherePaul was, even though he kept open house for two years.

People came and visited him andhe influenced church leaders, were told.

But he had to search forhim until he could find him.

And Paul made aspecial note, he wasn't ashamed of me being in prison.

Which indicates some were.

They saw this as adefeat, an embarrassment.

But then a second sourcecomes from a letter that was foundfrom 90 AD, written by a man named Clement ofRome to the Church of Corinth.

And in the book, in theletter from Clement, Clement addresses jealousyand envy among God's people that have led to thedestruction, death, or trouble caused byother of God's people.

And he gives seven examplesof that through history.

And one of the examples is Paul.

Clement writesthis, and I quote, "by reason of jealousy andstrife, Paul, by his example, pointed out the prizeof patient endurance.

And when he had borne histestimony before the rulers, he departed from thisworld and went to heaven.

" The point Clement makes isthat envy among Christians somehow helped bringthe execution brought on by Caesar Nero.

If you still havefurther doubts, you have only to read2 Timothy chapter 4.

It's the end of Paul's life.

It's right before he died.

Paul says this, listen to Paul.

At my first defense,no one stood with me.

But all forsook me.

That breaks my heartto just read that.

This is Paul thestinking Apostle.

At my first offense,nobody stood with me.

Everybody forsook me.

But then he quickly adds,but the Lord stood with me.

He was utterly alone, interms of human fellowship at that point.

So Paul identifiesthe troublemakers, tells us that they arejealous, contentious, selfish, malicious.

But then he pivots andratifies the truth-makers.

But here's the thirdpart of this strategy and the best of all.

Magnify the true message.

Look at verse 18.

Look at how Paul answers this.

He says, what then? You know what that means? That little question, what then? You know how wewould translate that? So what? So what? What does it matter? What then? Only that in every way,whether in pretense-- they're pretending to be pure intheir motives, but they're not.

In pretense or in truth,Christ is preached.

And in this, I rejoice,yes, and will rejoice.

Man, you cannot stop this dude.

He is in jail.

He has been in jail.

He will be in jail fora total of two years.

He will be released,brought back into prison.

He will be executed.

He is in jail.

He is persecuted by unbelievers.

He is picked on by believers.

And he goes, so what? And then he says, I rejoice.

You know, I don't know how manyof us would have the courage to say, you know, there is a lotof people that are against me.

And then say, so what? Most of us wouldwrite, shame on them.

Don't they know that I amthe great Paul the Apostle, who had a vision ofthe living Christ? Who will write 13New Testament books? Don't they know who I am? He goes, so what? I rejoice and will rejoice.

Almost like thisdefiant, I'm not going to let anybodysteal my joy.

An amazing reaction.

An amazing reaction.

Now, I don't want you tothink, in looking at this-- because a lot ofpeople do think this-- that Paul came to apoint where he was just this stone statue of a man,impervious to the criticisms of others.

It just rolled off his back.

I don't believe that.

He was a person with emotionsand heart and feelings.

And he was wounded verydeeply by these people.

But what he issaying is, I'm not going to let meanpeople rob me of joy.

In fact, I have found causeand reason to rejoice, and that is this-- themessage of the gospel.

Even when preachedwith bad motives, they're preachingthe right message.

Right message, wrong motives.

I'm not going to worryabout the motives.

That's between them and God.

I'm going to worryabout the message, and that is the gospel.

Now, here's the great truth.

The great truthin all of this can be boiled down to theirreducible minimum, which is this.

The power is in the message,not in the messenger.

The power is in the message,not in the messenger.

If somebody tampers withthe message, go at them.

If people tamper with themessenger, ignore them.

Now, let's just talkabout that for a moment.

If people mess and tamperwith the message, go at them.

Paul did.

Paul wrote to the Galatians.

And he says, I'm noticingthat people among you are preaching adifferent gospel, a different gospel than onethat is the true gospel.

And he goes, I want you to knowif we or an angel from heaven preach to you any other gospelthan the one you have received, let him be cursedbelow the lowest hell.

How's that for confrontation? So you mess with the message,I'm going to come at you.

You mess with the messenger,I'm going to ignore you.

What then? So what? What does it matter? I rejoice that themessage is being preached.

So Paul has his comrades.

Those are partnersin the gospel.

He rejoices because of them.

But Paul has his critics,detractors of Paul.

He rejoices in spite of them.

Why? Because they'rebrothers, that's why.

Simple as that.

They're brothers.

Yes, they're ornery.

Yes, they're stupid.

Yes, they're irritating.

But they're brothers.

They're brothers in Christ.

So Paul is saying, I'm notcalled to defend myself.

I'm called to defend the gospel.

I'm not called toprotect myself, I'm called toproclaim the gospel.

Now, I want to close ona couple of thoughts.

We often make too muchover what divides us and not enough overwhat unites us.

I know.

I know, we have touse discernment.

I know we have to becareful about what the truth is, the true gospel,like Galatians chapter 1.

But sometimes I fearthat we are known more for what we're againstthan what we're for.

And some people actuallylike being that way.

They like being knownfor what they're against.

And they are known forwhat they're against.

But sometimes, I thinkwe make too much of it.

Here's the truth.

God reserves the right to usepeople who disagree with you.

Newsflash! God reserves the right to usepeople who disagree with you.

There's people who disagreewith you on the rapture.

There's people whodisagree with me on the rapture orspiritual gifts or a number of thingsthat aren't the real crux, crucial matters of the gospel.

Death, burial, Resurrection,vicarious atonement, all that central stuff.

So what? I began with talkingabout denominations and changing light bulbs.

Let me tell you a truestory about denominations.

In the late 1700s, John Wesley-- you know John Wesley, one ofthe great leaders in England at the time.

Wesley was concernedbecause there were so many denominationsspringing up.

And this always bothers peoplewho study church history, because the church historyis a history of people not getting along and dividing.

So somebody in the groupdoesn't like the group and leaves the group andstarts their own group.

And as their group grows,somebody in that group doesn't like that group andthey start another group.

And that group grows andsomebody in that group may get together with the firstgroup and start another group.

Those are denominations.

Well, this bothered him.

So one night, John Wesleygoes to bed, has a dream.

And in his dream, he isushered to the gates of hell.

And in his dream, heasked the question, are there anyPresbyterians here? And the answer comes back.

Yes, there are.

He's shocked.

He goes, are thereany Baptists here? He goes, yes, there are.

Are there any Methodists? Are there any Episcopalians? Yes, yes, yes.

Well, he's troubled by this.

And immediatelyin his dream, he's now ushered to thegates of heaven.

And he asks the sameset of questions.

Are there anyPresbyterians here? No was the answer.

Are there any Baptists? No.

Or any Methodists? No.

Any Episcopalians? No.

And he said, no? Who then is inside? And this answer came back,there are only Christians here.

There are only Christians here.

You don't get to heaven bybeing a Presbyterian, a Baptist, a Methodist, anEpiscopalian, a Calvaryite.

But by trust inJesus' death, burial, and Resurrection, period.

And you are a Christian if youbelieve that and that message has changed your life.

As we close today, couldI have you stand, please? And we're going to pray.

And we're going tothank God in our prayer for all the other great churchesthat are in our community.

Father, we do thank youfor pastors and leaders who labor hard in thefield, that are scattered throughout this community.

Yes, we know thatthere are some who do not proclaim thetrue gospel, some who deny the deity of Christ,the Atonement of Christ, the Trinity and all that.

But we're not thinking of them.

We're thinking ofthose who do believe in those essential truths.

And in their differentstyles or different nuances, they love you.

They love your work.

They love the message.

And even if theywould say something disparaging about anybodyelse, that isn't the issue.

We want to just say we rejoicethat Christ is preached.

And help us to makemuch of Jesus Christ.

It's in his name we pray.

Amen.

It's important toknow how to deal with people who claim Christbut still act like pests.

Did this message impact you? We want to know.

Email us atmystory@calvaryabq.

Org.

And just a reminder, you cangive financially to this work at calvaryabq.

Org/give.

Thank you for joining usfor this teaching from Skip Heitzig of Calvary Albuquerque.

Buttonwillow

Terminix


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Maricopa Local Pest Control

Pest control in Maricopa for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Household Pests

Maricopa Pest Control For Rodents

This category has the following 5 subcategories, out of 5 total.

The following 33 pages are in this category, out of 33 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).

This category contains only the following file.

Getting Rid Of Wasps

Electronic pest control

Read over the following to learn how to deal with a pest control problem on your own. Many people would look at squirrels and observe that they were cute and unobjectionable besides occasionally chewing up a plant here and there. So long as they stay outside these animals are generally harmless, but once they take up residence inside, then you have a serious problem. Did you know that these types of rodents could chew through electrical wiring in your attic and cause a house fire? An infestation of this type is not a joke and needs to be dealt with.

There are methods available for purchase to eradicate squirrels, so the only way to surmount the problem is by using humane traps. These are very effective when used properly, and should relieve you of your problem in no time.

Once the creatures have been dealt with, immediately go back and seal the holes they used to get in. No use in trapping them, only to allow other ones to move in and take their place. At the very minimum, you can use wire meshing to seal the breach.

This is a problem that is common enough for homeowners in heavily populated squirrel areas. It is also a very simple to combat without having to hire any professionals. If you are dealing with any other types of infestations, be sure and call a pest control specialist to assist you in ridding your home of unwanted creatures.

Maricopa

Pest Control - Philippians 1:15-18


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Taft Cockroach Pest Control

Pest control in Taft for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Rat Problem

Taft Pest Control For Rodents

Hello and welcometo this teaching from Skip Heitzig ofCalvary Albuquerque.

We pray this messagestrengthens your relationship with the Lord.

And if it does, we'dlove to hear about it.

Email us atmystory@calvaryabq.

Org.

And if you'd like to supportthis ministry financially, you can give online securelycalvaryabq.

Org/give.

Every group has its share ofproblem people and detractors.

Their words may hurt us andtheir actions may confuse us.

But as we continue ourseries, Technicolor Joy, Pastor Skip teaches us howto handle these pesky folks.

Now, please open your Bibleto Philippians chapter 1 as he begins the message,Pest Control.

Would you turn in your Biblesto Philippians chapter 1 this morning.

Philippians chapter 1.

That's what we're doing.

We're going through the bookof Philippians, verse by verse, on the weekends.

We call it TechnicolorJoy, because we've discovered thisbook is a book that has as its central theme joy.

And yet, Paul was writingfrom a Roman prison.

It's amazing.

Philippians chapter 1.

So there was a man, he wasstranded on a desert island all alone for years.

Finally, he was found.

And a rescue team was sentto pull him off the island and bring him backto civilization.

Well, they get to the islandand before they take him off, he goes well, let meshow you around first.

So you can see what I'vedone with the place.

So he brought them toa hut that he lived in.

He goes, this is the home thatI built with my own two hands.

They were impressed.

And then, he showedthem a second building.

And he said, thisis the church that I built with my own two hands.

Now, he was alone on the island.

But he said, this is the churchI built with my own two hands.

And then, somebodyfrom the rescue party noticed a third building.

And he said, whatabout that building? He said, oh, that's thechurch I used to go to.

If you've gone tochurch for very long, you know that thatsentiment is not far off.

That the longeryou go to church, you discover that church historyis filled with contention sometimes.

And discord over years.

And it's one of the thingsthat unbelievers have noticed.

People who do not believein the Jesus we follow will sometimes-- in fact, oftentimes-- say,well, you know, there's a lot of denominationsin the Christian world.

And it just seems like you guyscan't get your act together.

You don't all agreeon all the points.

You know, it'slike the old joke.

How many Christians does ittake to change a light bulb? And it's not an easy answer.

Presbyterians, none.

Lights will go on andoff at predestined times.

Catholics, none.

Candles only.

Baptist, at least 15.

One to change the lightbulb and three committees to approve the change and decidewho brings the potato salad.

Episcopalians, three.

One to call the electrician,one to mix the drinks, and one to talk about how muchbetter the old light bulb was.

Charismatics, only one.

Hands are already in the air.

Pentecostals, 10.

One to change thebulb and nine to pray against the spirit of darkness.

Unitarians, we choosenot to make a statement either in favor of or againstthe need for light bulbs.

However if you are--in your own journey you found that light bulbswork for you, that's fine.

You're invited towrite a poem or compose a modern dance aboutyour light bulb for next Sunday's service,in which we will explore a number of lightbulb traditions, including incandescent,fluorescent, three-way long life, and tinted.

All of which are equallyvalid paths to luminescence.

Methodists, undetermined.

Whether your light is brightor dull or completely out, you are loved.

You can be a light bulb, aturnip bulb, or a tulip bulb.

Christian, our church-widelighting service is planned for next Sunday.

Bring the bulb of yourchoice and a covered dish.

Nazarenes, six.

One woman to replace thebulb while five men review the church lighting policy.

Lutherans, none.

Lutherans don'tbelieve in change.

Amish, what's a light bulb? Well, now that Ihave effectively ditched all denominationsand offended everyone, I want to go to the text itself,in Philippians chapter 1.

We're going to be lookingat verses 15 through 18.

And here's where we are.

Last time we weretogether, we noted that Paul was dealing withproblem circumstances.

He had been on trial.

It was a mistrial.

It was a miscarriage of justice.

It landed him inprison in Caesarea, than in prison in Rome.

Now, Paul writes aboutnot problem circumstances but problem people.

But get this-- there areChristian people that are the problem.

Christian people thatare opposed to Paul.

This disillusionslots of people who-- after they come to Christ-- say something like,well, I thought it would be much differentamong Christians.

I thought Christians wouldbe so wonderful all the time.

It's a good thought, but thereality is we're all fallen.

We're all sinful.

We're all imperfect.

And yet, we all get together.

Remember, Jesus said,when he gave his sermon to that synagogue in Nazareth,he said that he had come-- his words-- to preachthe gospel to the poor, to heal the broken-hearted,to proclaim liberty to the captives, togive sight to the blind, to set at liberty thosewho are oppressed.

Did you hear the description ofthe audience he speaks about? Poor, broken-hearted,captive, blind, oppressed.

Sounds like a messy bunch to me.

And that is who we areas we are all together.

Now, the critical questionis, how do you handle pests? How do you deal with peoplewho claim to be Christians, yet at the same time, they're weird,irritable, sometimes wrong, or just plain goofy? How do you handle them? What do you do? Well, we are given athree-fold strategy in these four verses ofPhilippians chapter 1.

Whether you are a church leader,whether you are a group leader, whether you gather asmall group in your home or you go on a missionstrip-- or you just hang around Christians--these are valuable principles to know.

Let's begin andby-- just looking at our texts in verse 15.

Paul says these words.

Some indeed preach Christeven from envy and strife, and some also from goodwill.

The former preach Christfrom selfish ambition, not sincerely, supposing toadd affliction to my chains.

But the latter outof love, knowing that I am appointed forthe defense of the gospel.

What then? Only that in every way, whetherin pretense or in truth, Christ is preached.

And in this I rejoice,yes, and will rejoice.

The first thing we must do isidentify the troublemakers.

Now, this will not be difficult.

Troublemakers show themselves.

They emerge on their own.

You don't have to look for them.

You'll find them pretty easily.

Paul did, in hisexperience in Rome.

Now, as we examine these wordsin this text more carefully, we discover who heis speaking about.

First of all, wewant to make a note that these people Paul iswriting about are believers.

They are believers.

Notice in verse 15, he says,some indeed preach Christ.

Some of what? Some of whom? The answer is given in theprevious verse, verse 14.

Most of the brethrenin the Lord.

Please notice that,that's part of the group.

Most of the brethren in theLord have become confident by my chains and aremuch more bold to speak the word without fear.

Some-- that issome of them, some of those brethren in theLord-- indeed preach Christ.

So Paul is not dealing withheretics here or Gnostics or Judaizers or unbelievingidol worshippers.

He's talking about Christianbrothers and sisters who preach Christ.

Evidently leaders inthe church in Rome.

Why is this importantto make a note of? Well, I've noticedthat some of us like to idealizethe early church.

We think that the earlychurch must have just been perfect all the time.

And I've heardsentiments such as, boy, I wish our church could belike the early centuries.

Those were the good old days.

I've discovered thegood old days is just a combination of a goodimagination and a bad memory.

Because if you think aboutit, the New Testament is filled withearly church issues.

Example? The church at Corinthwas an early church.

Ever spend much timein 1 and 2 Corinthians? If you have, you understand thatwhen Paul wrote that letter, he was speaking toa divided church who were arguing over leadership.

There was rampant divorce.

There was lack of love.

There was immorality.

There was the discussionover spiritual gifts that nobody agreed on.

It sounds verycontemporary to me.

If you're wanting to belike the early church, I think we've hit that mark.

They were not a perfectgroup of people.

I guess the most disturbingissue is why does that happen in the church? Why among redeemed,saved people can there get to be so many problems? The Puritan John Trapp answeredthat question the best.

He said, the devil lovesto fish in troubled waters.

That's good, isn't it? The devil loves to fishin troubled waters.

Satan loves toexploit and amplify any conflict or disagreementor issue that may be among us.

If you have never read the bookThe Screwtape Letters by C.

S.

Lewis, I recommend you read it.

C.

S.

Lewis decidedto write a book from the vantage point of thedevil trying to undo people.

The devil in this book,Screwtape-- the senior demon-- is training ayounger protege demon named Wormwood on how tomess people's lives up.

And in one section of the book,he writes a letter to Wormwood.

My dear Wormwood, saysScrewtape, the senior demon, the church is afertile field if you keep them bickering overdetails, structure, money, property, personal hurts,and misunderstandings.

One thing you mustprevent, don't ever let Christians look up and seethe banner of victory flying, because you will lose them.

Never let them seethe glory of God.

Now, that's exactlywhat Paul does.

Paul lets us seethe glory of God.

That's how he will answerthis whole contention issue, you'll notice in a minute.

He flies the bannerof victory and he shows them the glory of God.

But let's look atthese troublemakers.

Let's identify them.

One thing I want you tonotice is they were jealous.

Look in verse 15at the word envy.

Some indeed preachedChrist even from envy.

Now, we have anotherword for envy in our language-- jealousy.

They were jealous over Paul.

Why were they jealous over Paul? Well, Paul was an easy target.

He was quite successful.

Paul was highly intelligent.

He was very gifted,extraordinarily successful inspreading the gospel.

He had seen with his own eyesa vision of the resurrected Christ.

And, at the timethis was written, Christians were alreadyregarding his letters as holy scripture.

So he's an easy target.

And people, in seeing Paul,decided, let's shoot him down.

Now this is human nature.

I notice this on everylevel, whether it's people mad at Wall Streetor the one percenters or the big corporations.

Always the big, successfulguys that are the easy targets.

So they were jealous.

He uses the word,they preach from envy.

Not only were they jealous,they were a contentious group.

Look at the next word.

Some indeed preach Christfrom envy-- that's jealousy-- and strife.

Now, that describes somebodywho is an argumentative person.

That's what strifemeans, somebody who stirs up a conflict.

Argumentative.

Do you know anypeople like that? They're just-- you'rearound, they're always stirring up a conflict,always argumentative.

Some people thrive onbeing argumentative.

In fact, some peopleare known more for what they are againstrather than what they are for.

You never quite knowwhat they're for, you just know they'reagainst a lot.

That's strife.

They exist to slamothers and they were slamming Paul the Apostle.

I have a colleague inthe ministry who I've known for years, I respect.

And he was speaking about--and answering questions-- that young ministers wereasking him about the ministry.

And they said, what is themost difficult experience you've ever had in ministry? And he said, well,there are two.

Number one is when people whoknow truth walk away from it.

When somebody who shouldknow better-- there are Christians whohave been exposed to truth, beenexposed to the word, bring their Bibles, read-along.

Suddenly, one day, they--for whatever reason-- walk away completelyfrom living for Christ.

He said, but the second-- and he was speakingabout ministers who were comingagainst him-- he said those who live to attackothers in the ministry.

It's like they falsely accuse.

And they live justto stir up trouble.

So, envy and strife.

And we do not know howthis strife was expressed.

We can only suppose.

Maybe there was agroup of people saying, well, you know Paul the Apostle,there must be sin in his life.

That's why he's in jail.

Because God wouldbe more faithful and not allow him to bein prison unless something is wrong with him.

Or maybe they weresaying, well, Paul hasn't tapped into thevictorious Holy Spirit-filled life.

If he did, if he had, thenhe wouldn't be in prison.

He'd be free like we have-- like we are.

But we do know theywere jealous and we do know they were contentious.

Something else theywere, they were selfish.

If you go down to verse 16,he amplifies it further.

He says, the former-- that is the first group, theguys against him, the former-- preach Christ fromselfish ambition.

Very interesting term.

It is a political term thatspeaks about a politician canvassing for office.

Using negative campaigns,putting other people down to make himself lookbetter, to promote himself.

So here's a group of peopleputting Paul down to puff themselves up, like a politicianmight do in a negative campaign ad.

They got some pervertedpleasure by slamming Paul so that they couldmake other people think they are much better.

This is not new inthe New Testament.

We know that Johnthe Apostle spoke about a guy named Diotrephes.

If you know yourBible, 3 John verse 9, that little letter towardthe end of the New Testament.

He says, Diotrephes lovesto have the preeminence.

He loves to havethe preeminence.

In other words, he wantsto dominate people.

He's a control freak.

Diotrephes loves to havethe preeminence among them.

Keep this in mind.

Next time you hear gossip-- and there are, unfortunately,too many people even in the church wholove to spread gossip-- when you hear gossip,somebody's ego is being exalted.

It's usually sharedbecause I know this and you don't andI am concerned.

And ego is being exalted as thatinformation is being divulged.

A man wrapped up in himselfmakes a very small package.

And selfish ambitionwas part and parcel of what was wrongwith these people.

They were selfish.

So they're jealous, they'recontentious, they're selfish.

Paul mentions them.

Not by name, he doesn't wantto make too much out of it.

He just doesn't wantto be self-serving.

But he mentions what they did.

But there's a fourth thing.

They were malicious.

Notice in verse 16,the former preacher Christ from selfishambition, not sincerely.

Now, watch this.

Supposing or hoping to addaffliction to my chains.

Now, Paul is revealingtheir motivation.

They're doing all this.

They are this way.

They're pushing me downto pull themselves up.

And here's why.

They want to addaffliction to my bonds.

What does that mean? The word affliction is acommon New Testament word.

Thlipsis.

Thlipsis is a word thatmeans pressure or trial, but it literallymeans an irritation.

It means friction.

It is the irritation causedby the rubbing of an object over another object.

Now, notice it says-- Paul says, they want to addaffliction or irritation to my chains.

For two years,Paul was in chains.

I know you've heard that.

I know we've read that.

We've discussed that.

But I just want you tothink of what that means.

That means for two years, Paulcouldn't take a potty break alone.

He had no freedom.

He had no isolation.

He had no privacy.

He couldn't eat a meal alone.

He couldn't have aconversation in that rented house in Rome for two years.

He was chained to a guard.

That means there was ashackle around his wrist, with a chain attached to theshackle of another soldier who only occupied that placefor a few hours at a time.

But Paul-- 24 hours a day,seven days a week, two years-- he had a chain.

That means that shacklewould irritate his skin and his bones andscabs would develop.

And it would bleed.

And it would thicken, et cetera.

You get the picture.

So he says, the reason thesepeople are this way toward me is they want to addto the irritation that I alreadyhave in my chains.

That is their motivation.

They don't want toevangelize the lost.

They don't wantto feed the flock.

They're not reallyconcerned for the church, even though they'resaying, well, I'm saying this about Paulbecause I'm really concerned for the church.

Paul said, that's not the truth.

The truth is theyhave one motivation.

They want to add irritation tomy already irritable situation of being in chains.

Now, please understandagain, these are preachers.

Paul says, they preach Christ.

They are Christians.

They are Christian preachers.

They are not anti-Christ,but they are anti-Paul.

And they are anti-Paulwith a vengeance.

And I can't thinkof a worse reason to preach a message than that.

I can't think of a worsemotivation to write a book or have a blog site than that.

Let's just make life hardfor Paul the Apostle.

Sort of like scorpions.

You know that if you leavescorpions together alone, they'll kill themselvesand eat themselves? A guy did an experiment with 100scorpions in a huge glass jar.

In a few days, only 14 survived.

They had killed the othersand were eating them.

There was even apregnant scorpion in that jar that killed andstarted eating her young as soon as they were born.

One of those babies escapedon the mother's back and eventually killed her.

Any leader whohas led anything-- even Christian leadersin Christian churches-- know that everychurch, every group has the Tate family among them.

Every church has the Tates.

There's old man Dick Tate,who wants to run everything.

While Uncle Ro Tate triesto change everything.

Their sister, AgiTate, stirs up plenty of trouble with help fromher husband, Irri Tate.

And whenever newprojects are suggested, Hesi Tate and his wife Vege Tatewant to wait till next year.

Then there's Aunt ImiTate, who wants our church to be like all the others.

Devas Tate providesthe voice of doom, while Poten Tate wantsto be a big shot.

And, of course,there's the black sheep of the family, Ampu Tate, whohas completely cut himself off from every church.

Anybody who's a leaderknows those people exist.

So what do you do? I suggest you do what Paul does.

You don't spend all yourtime worried about them.

You pivot.

Yes, you identifythe troublemakers, but then you ratifythe truth makers.

And notice what Paulsays in verse 15.

Some indeed preach Christfrom envy and strife.

And some-- I want to go,ah, it feels better already.

He's pivoting here.

And some also from goodwill.

Verse 17 further describes them.

But the latter, outof love, knowing that I am appointed forthe defense of the gospel.

This is the silver lining inthe dark cloud of contention and Paul has found it.

Yes, in any group, thereis going to Irri Tate and Agi Tate and Vege Tate.

But there is also going tobe advocate and celebrate.

And you want tofind those people.

And here's what Paul does.

He says, yeah, thereare some like this.

But then there aresome like that.

You see, rather than justfocusing on the smudge that is on the white linengarment, Paul says, yeah, but there's a lot of white linengarment around that smudge.

It's not all a smudge.

There is a smudge,I grant you that.

I can identifythe troublemakers, but there's a lot of otherswho are not like that.

That's part of the strategy.

Starve the problemand feed the solution.

Find those who love you, wholove the work of God in you, and run with them.

Ratify them, encourage them,empower them, build with them.

And just keep runningahead of the Irri Tates and the Agi Tatesand the Ampu Tates.

Their voice will diminishas you go further ahead.

Now, I'm going to sharesomething with you that will probably be shocking to you.

Did you know that Paulthe Apostle probably lost his life as a resultof troublemaking Christians in Rome? I want that to settleon your hearts.

Paul probably losthis life because of the trouble caused bytroublemaking Christians in Rome.

You're saying,oh, wait a minute.

I always heard that it wasCaesar Nero that killed Paul the Apostle, beheaded him.

Well, that's true.

Here's the problem.

We have very little informationabout the death of Paul from early church records.

They're very silent on it.

We just have asnippet here or there.

But it would seem like the envy,the jealousy of many Christians in Rome denounced Paulbefore Caesar Nero, which added the weightto the death sentence.

You say, well, howdo you know that? Well, there are severalsources I've discovered.

But I'm going toshare two with you.

One comes from 2Timothy chapter 1, a guy by the name of Onesiphorus-- how's that for a name? Don't name your Onesiphorus,though he was a good guy.

It'll be hard in school.

Onesiphorus came to visit Paulwhile he was in Rome in prison.

The problem is oncehe gets to Rome, it seems like nobody will tellhim where Paul the Apostle is.

They don't want to tell him.

Maybe they don't know or maybethey don't want to tell him.

But listen to what itsays, 2 Timothy chapter 1.

Paul writes, may the Lord showspecial kindness to Onesiphorus and all his family,because he often visited and encouraged me.

He was never ashamed of mebecause I was in prison.

When he came to Rome,he searched everywhere until he found me.

So he came to Rome.

Nobody told him wherePaul was, even though he kept open house for two years.

People came and visited him andhe influenced church leaders, were told.

But he had to search forhim until he could find him.

And Paul made aspecial note, he wasn't ashamed of me being in prison.

Which indicates some were.

They saw this as adefeat, an embarrassment.

But then a second sourcecomes from a letter that was foundfrom 90 AD, written by a man named Clement ofRome to the Church of Corinth.

And in the book, in theletter from Clement, Clement addresses jealousyand envy among God's people that have led to thedestruction, death, or trouble caused byother of God's people.

And he gives seven examplesof that through history.

And one of the examples is Paul.

Clement writesthis, and I quote, "by reason of jealousy andstrife, Paul, by his example, pointed out the prizeof patient endurance.

And when he had borne histestimony before the rulers, he departed from thisworld and went to heaven.

" The point Clement makes isthat envy among Christians somehow helped bringthe execution brought on by Caesar Nero.

If you still havefurther doubts, you have only to read2 Timothy chapter 4.

It's the end of Paul's life.

It's right before he died.

Paul says this, listen to Paul.

At my first defense,no one stood with me.

But all forsook me.

That breaks my heartto just read that.

This is Paul thestinking Apostle.

At my first offense,nobody stood with me.

Everybody forsook me.

But then he quickly adds,but the Lord stood with me.

He was utterly alone, interms of human fellowship at that point.

So Paul identifiesthe troublemakers, tells us that they arejealous, contentious, selfish, malicious.

But then he pivots andratifies the truth-makers.

But here's the thirdpart of this strategy and the best of all.

Magnify the true message.

Look at verse 18.

Look at how Paul answers this.

He says, what then? You know what that means? That little question, what then? You know how wewould translate that? So what? So what? What does it matter? What then? Only that in every way,whether in pretense-- they're pretending to be pure intheir motives, but they're not.

In pretense or in truth,Christ is preached.

And in this, I rejoice,yes, and will rejoice.

Man, you cannot stop this dude.

He is in jail.

He has been in jail.

He will be in jail fora total of two years.

He will be released,brought back into prison.

He will be executed.

He is in jail.

He is persecuted by unbelievers.

He is picked on by believers.

And he goes, so what? And then he says, I rejoice.

You know, I don't know how manyof us would have the courage to say, you know, there is a lotof people that are against me.

And then say, so what? Most of us wouldwrite, shame on them.

Don't they know that I amthe great Paul the Apostle, who had a vision ofthe living Christ? Who will write 13New Testament books? Don't they know who I am? He goes, so what? I rejoice and will rejoice.

Almost like thisdefiant, I'm not going to let anybodysteal my joy.

An amazing reaction.

An amazing reaction.

Now, I don't want you tothink, in looking at this-- because a lot ofpeople do think this-- that Paul came to apoint where he was just this stone statue of a man,impervious to the criticisms of others.

It just rolled off his back.

I don't believe that.

He was a person with emotionsand heart and feelings.

And he was wounded verydeeply by these people.

But what he issaying is, I'm not going to let meanpeople rob me of joy.

In fact, I have found causeand reason to rejoice, and that is this-- themessage of the gospel.

Even when preachedwith bad motives, they're preachingthe right message.

Right message, wrong motives.

I'm not going to worryabout the motives.

That's between them and God.

I'm going to worryabout the message, and that is the gospel.

Now, here's the great truth.

The great truthin all of this can be boiled down to theirreducible minimum, which is this.

The power is in the message,not in the messenger.

The power is in the message,not in the messenger.

If somebody tampers withthe message, go at them.

If people tamper with themessenger, ignore them.

Now, let's just talkabout that for a moment.

If people mess and tamperwith the message, go at them.

Paul did.

Paul wrote to the Galatians.

And he says, I'm noticingthat people among you are preaching adifferent gospel, a different gospel than onethat is the true gospel.

And he goes, I want you to knowif we or an angel from heaven preach to you any other gospelthan the one you have received, let him be cursedbelow the lowest hell.

How's that for confrontation? So you mess with the message,I'm going to come at you.

You mess with the messenger,I'm going to ignore you.

What then? So what? What does it matter? I rejoice that themessage is being preached.

So Paul has his comrades.

Those are partnersin the gospel.

He rejoices because of them.

But Paul has his critics,detractors of Paul.

He rejoices in spite of them.

Why? Because they'rebrothers, that's why.

Simple as that.

They're brothers.

Yes, they're ornery.

Yes, they're stupid.

Yes, they're irritating.

But they're brothers.

They're brothers in Christ.

So Paul is saying, I'm notcalled to defend myself.

I'm called to defend the gospel.

I'm not called toprotect myself, I'm called toproclaim the gospel.

Now, I want to close ona couple of thoughts.

We often make too muchover what divides us and not enough overwhat unites us.

I know.

I know, we have touse discernment.

I know we have to becareful about what the truth is, the true gospel,like Galatians chapter 1.

But sometimes I fearthat we are known more for what we're againstthan what we're for.

And some people actuallylike being that way.

They like being knownfor what they're against.

And they are known forwhat they're against.

But sometimes, I thinkwe make too much of it.

Here's the truth.

God reserves the right to usepeople who disagree with you.

Newsflash! God reserves the right to usepeople who disagree with you.

There's people who disagreewith you on the rapture.

There's people whodisagree with me on the rapture orspiritual gifts or a number of thingsthat aren't the real crux, crucial matters of the gospel.

Death, burial, Resurrection,vicarious atonement, all that central stuff.

So what? I began with talkingabout denominations and changing light bulbs.

Let me tell you a truestory about denominations.

In the late 1700s, John Wesley-- you know John Wesley, one ofthe great leaders in England at the time.

Wesley was concernedbecause there were so many denominationsspringing up.

And this always bothers peoplewho study church history, because the church historyis a history of people not getting along and dividing.

So somebody in the groupdoesn't like the group and leaves the group andstarts their own group.

And as their group grows,somebody in that group doesn't like that group andthey start another group.

And that group grows andsomebody in that group may get together with the firstgroup and start another group.

Those are denominations.

Well, this bothered him.

So one night, John Wesleygoes to bed, has a dream.

And in his dream, he isushered to the gates of hell.

And in his dream, heasked the question, are there anyPresbyterians here? And the answer comes back.

Yes, there are.

He's shocked.

He goes, are thereany Baptists here? He goes, yes, there are.

Are there any Methodists? Are there any Episcopalians? Yes, yes, yes.

Well, he's troubled by this.

And immediatelyin his dream, he's now ushered to thegates of heaven.

And he asks the sameset of questions.

Are there anyPresbyterians here? No was the answer.

Are there any Baptists? No.

Or any Methodists? No.

Any Episcopalians? No.

And he said, no? Who then is inside? And this answer came back,there are only Christians here.

There are only Christians here.

You don't get to heaven bybeing a Presbyterian, a Baptist, a Methodist, anEpiscopalian, a Calvaryite.

But by trust inJesus' death, burial, and Resurrection, period.

And you are a Christian if youbelieve that and that message has changed your life.

As we close today, couldI have you stand, please? And we're going to pray.

And we're going tothank God in our prayer for all the other great churchesthat are in our community.

Father, we do thank youfor pastors and leaders who labor hard in thefield, that are scattered throughout this community.

Yes, we know thatthere are some who do not proclaim thetrue gospel, some who deny the deity of Christ,the Atonement of Christ, the Trinity and all that.

But we're not thinking of them.

We're thinking ofthose who do believe in those essential truths.

And in their differentstyles or different nuances, they love you.

They love your work.

They love the message.

And even if theywould say something disparaging about anybodyelse, that isn't the issue.

We want to just say we rejoicethat Christ is preached.

And help us to makemuch of Jesus Christ.

It's in his name we pray.

Amen.

It's important toknow how to deal with people who claim Christbut still act like pests.

Did this message impact you? We want to know.

Email us atmystory@calvaryabq.

Org.

And just a reminder, you cangive financially to this work at calvaryabq.

Org/give.

Thank you for joining usfor this teaching from Skip Heitzig of Calvary Albuquerque.

Insecticide

Pest Control Services and Technology

When it comes to pest control, you can spend all sorts of money hiring exterminators or buying smelly (and often toxic) sprays and chemicals for your home, but in some cases, you may not need to go to such extremes. There are a lot of completely natural insect and pest control remedies out there, many of which our ancestors have been using with great success for countless generations. You'll be pleased to know that many of these useful items can be found in the average household.

Though pest control can refer to dealing with pest birds, bugs, and rodents, this article will focus on getting rid of insects.

Insect Control in the Garden

Believe it or not, aluminum foil can successfully keep hungry insects and slugs away from your vegetable garden. Simply mix strips of aluminum foil in with your garden mulch to deter bugs and slugs. In addition, since foil is reflective, it will shine light back up onto your plants, giving them a solar boost.

Another household item good at getting rid of insects is vinegar. For example, if your latest trip to the farmers' market brought back fruit flies as well as healthy victuals, then you can make traps for the flies by filling an old jar about halfway full with apple cider vinegar. Punch a few holes in the top, screw it back on, and the fruit flies will be attracted and trapped.

These are just a few of the easy ways to use simple household items to get rid of insects. So when you're having a problem, don't be so eager to pick up a can of chemical-filled bug spray. Look for natural solutions, and you will very likely find them!

Taft

Biological pest control


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Bodfish Pest Control Cost

Pest control in Bodfish for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Mice Infestation

Bodfish Pest Control For Rodents

The German cockroach (Blattella germanica) is a small species of cockroach, typically about 1.1 to 1.6 cm (0.43 to 0.63 in)[1][2] long. In colour it varies from tan to almost black, and it has two dark, roughly parallel, streaks on the pronotum running anteroposteriorly from behind the head to the base of the wings. Although Blattella germanica has wings, it can barely fly, although it may glide when disturbed.[3] Of the few species of cockroach that are domestic pests, it probably is the most widely troublesome example.[4] It is very closely related to the Asian cockroach, and to the casual observer the two appear nearly identical and may be mistaken for each other. However, the Asian cockroach is attracted to light and can fly rather like a moth, while the German cockroach cannot.

Blattella germanica occurs widely in human buildings, but is particularly associated with restaurants, food processing facilities, hotels, and institutional establishments such as nursing homes. In cold climates, they occur only near human dwellings, because they cannot survive severe cold. However, even though they would soon die in the outdoors on their own, German cockroaches have been found as inquilines ("tenants") of human buildings as far north as Alert, Nunavut.[5] Similarly, they have been found as far south as Southern Patagonia.[6]

Previously thought to be a native of Europe, the German cockroach later was considered to have emerged from the region of Ethiopia in Northeast Africa,[7][8] but more recent evidence suggests that it actually originated in Southeast Asia.[4][9] Whatever the truth of the matter, the cockroach's sensitivity to cold might reflect its origin from such warm climates, and its spread as a domiciliary pest since ancient times has resulted from incidental human transport and shelter. The species now is cosmopolitan in distribution, occurring as a household pest on all continents except Antarctica, and on many major islands as well. It accordingly has been given various names in the cultures of many regions. For example, although it is widely known as the "German cockroach" in English-speaking countries, in Germany in turn, it is known as the Russian roach.[10]

Though nocturnal, the German cockroach occasionally appears by day, especially if the population is crowded or has been disturbed. However, sightings are most frequent of an evening, when someone suddenly brings a light into a room deserted after dark, such as a kitchen where they have been scavenging.[11] When excited or frightened, the species emits an unpleasant odor.

German cockroaches are omnivorous scavengers. They are attracted particularly to meats, starches, sugars, and fatty foods. Where a shortage of foodstuffs exists, they may eat household items such as soap, glue, and toothpaste. In famine conditions, they turn cannibalistic, chewing at each other's wings and legs.[12]

The German cockroach reproduces faster than any other residential cockroach,[13] growing from egg to reproductive adult in approximately 50 – 60 days.[14] Once fertilized, a female German cockroach develops an ootheca in her abdomen. The abdomen swells as her eggs develop, until the translucent tip of the ootheca begins to protrude from the end of her abdomen, and by that time the eggs inside are fully sized. The ootheca, at first translucent, soon turns white and then within a few hours it turns pink, progressively darkening until, some 48 hours later, it attains the dark red-brown of the shell of a chestnut. The ootheca has a keel-like ridge along the line where the young emerge, and curls slightly towards that edge as it completes its maturation. A small percentage of the nymphs may hatch while the ootheca is still attached to the female, but the majority emerge some 24 hours after it has detached from the female's body. The newly hatched 3mm-long black nymphs then progress through six or seven instars before becoming sexually mature, but ecdysis is such a hazardous process that nearly half the nymphs die of natural causes before reaching adulthood. Molted skins and dead nymphs are soon eaten by living nymphs present at the time of molting.[13]

The German cockroach is very successful at establishing an ecological niche in buildings, and is resilient in the face of many pest control measures. Reasons include:

German cockroaches are thigmotactic, meaning they prefer confined spaces, and they are small compared to other pest species, so they can hide within small cracks and crevices that are easy to overlook, thereby evading humans and their eradication efforts. Conversely, the seasoned pest controller is alert for cracks and crevices where it is likely to be profitable to place baits or spray surfaces.

To be effective, control measures must be comprehensive, sustained, and systematic; survival of just a few eggs is quite enough to regenerate a nearly exterminated pest population within a few generations, and recolonisation from surrounding populations often is very rapid, too.[12]

Another problem in controlling German cockroaches is the nature of their population behaviour. Though they are not social and practise no organised maternal care, females carry oothecae of 18-50 eggs (average about 32) during incubation until just before hatching, instead of dropping them as most other species of cockroaches do. This protects the eggs from certain classes of predation. Then, after hatching, nymphs largely survive by consuming excretions and moults from adults, thereby establishing their own internal microbial populations and avoiding contact with most insecticidal surface treatments and baits. One effective control is insect growth regulators (IGRs, hydroprene, methoprene, etc.), which act by preventing molting, thus prevent maturation of the various instars. Caulking baseboards and around pipes may prevent the travel of adults from one apartment to another within a building.

Female German cockroach with ootheca

As an adaptive consequence of pest control by poisoned sugar baits, a strain of German cockroaches has emerged that reacts to glucose as distastefully bitter. They refuse to eat sweetened baits, which presents an obstacle to their control, given that baits are an economical and effective means of control. It also is a dramatic illustration of adaptive selection; in the absence of poisoned sweet baits, attraction to sugars strongly promotes growth, energy, and reproduction; cockroaches that are not attracted to sugars take longer to grow and reproduce, whereas in the presence of poisoned sugared baits, sugar avoidance promotes reproduction.[15]


  1. ^ Alan Weaving; Mike Picker; Griffiths, Charles Llewellyn (2003). Field Guide to Insects of South Africa. New Holland Publishers, Ltd. ISBN 1-86872-713-0. 
  2. ^ John A. Jackman; Bastiaan M. Drees (1 March 1998). A Field Guide to Common Texas Insects. Taylor Trade Publishing. pp. 28–. ISBN 978-1-4616-2291-8. 
  3. ^ William J. Bell; Louis M. Roth; Christine A. Nalepa (26 June 2007). Cockroaches: Ecology, Behavior, and Natural History. JHU Press. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-0-8018-8616-4. 
  4. ^ a b Xavier Bonnefoy; Helge Kampen; Kevin Sweeney (2008). Public Health Significance of Urban Pests. World Health Organization. pp. 35–. ISBN 978-92-890-7188-8. 
  5. ^ The insects and arachnids of Canada, part 14, The Grasshoppers, Crickets, and related insects of Canada and adjacent region
  6. ^ Faúndez, E. I. & M. A. Carvajal. 2011. Blattella germanica (Linnaeus, 1767) (Insecta: Blattaria) en la Región de Magallanes. Boletín de Biodiversidad de Chile, 5: 50-55.
  7. ^ Cory, EN; McConnell, HS (1917). Bulletin No. 8: Insects and Rodents Injurious to Stored Products. College Park, Maryland: Maryland State College of Agriculture Extension Service. p. 135. 
  8. ^ Hill, Dennis S. (30 September 2002). Pests of Stored Foodstuffs and their Control. Springer. pp. 145–146. ISBN 978-1-4020-0735-4. 
  9. ^ Eaton, Eric R.; Kaufman, Kenn (2007). Kaufman Field Guide to Insects of North America. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 62. ISBN 0-618-15310-1. 
  10. ^ Berenbaum, May (1989). Ninety-nine Gnats, Nits, and Nibblers. University of Illinois Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-252-06027-4. 
  11. ^ Gary R. Mullen; Lance A. Durden (27 September 2002). Medical and Veterinary Entomology. Academic Press. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-0-08-053607-1. 
  12. ^ a b Rust, Michael K.; Owens, John M.; Reierson, Donald A. (30 November 1994). Understanding and Controlling the German Cockroach. Oxford University Press. pp. 388–. ISBN 978-0-19-534508-7. 
  13. ^ a b Ebeling, Walter. "Urban entomology". Archived from the original on 17 July 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013. 
  14. ^ http://museumpests.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/03/German-Cockroach.pdf Museumpests.net Accessed July 15, 2015
  15. ^ Wada-Katsumata, A.; Silverman, J.; Schal, C. (2013). "Changes in Taste Neurons Support the Emergence of an Adaptive Behavior in Cockroaches". Science. 340 (6135): 972–5. PMID 23704571. doi:10.1126/science.1234854.  (summary at BBC News)
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Robinson, William H. (14 April 2005). Urban Insects and Arachnids: A Handbook of Urban Entomology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 45–46, 51–54. ISBN 978-0-521-81253-5. 
  17. ^ a b Bassett, W.H. (12 October 2012). Clay's Handbook of Environmental Health. Routledge. p. 317. ISBN 978-1-135-81033-7. 
Pest Control Services

Bird control

Read over the following to learn how to deal with a pest control problem on your own. Many people would look at squirrels and observe that they were cute and unobjectionable besides occasionally chewing up a plant here and there. So long as they stay outside these animals are generally harmless, but once they take up residence inside, then you have a serious problem. Did you know that these types of rodents could chew through electrical wiring in your attic and cause a house fire? An infestation of this type is not a joke and needs to be dealt with.

There are methods available for purchase to eradicate squirrels, so the only way to surmount the problem is by using humane traps. These are very effective when used properly, and should relieve you of your problem in no time.

Once the creatures have been dealt with, immediately go back and seal the holes they used to get in. No use in trapping them, only to allow other ones to move in and take their place. At the very minimum, you can use wire meshing to seal the breach.

This is a problem that is common enough for homeowners in heavily populated squirrel areas. It is also a very simple to combat without having to hire any professionals. If you are dealing with any other types of infestations, be sure and call a pest control specialist to assist you in ridding your home of unwanted creatures.

Bodfish

Natural Home Remedies For Controlling Pest Insects & Bugs


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Lake Isabella Bed Bug Pesticide

Pest control in Lake Isabella for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Bug Service

Lake Isabella Pest Control For Rodents

Any homeowner would love a home void of bugs or other creepy little pests. And while all of these are simply a fact of life, there are approaches that can dramatically reduce any unwanted creatures in your home. There are many methods of pest control: prevention, reduction, and complete dismissal. There are several things that can get into a home; termites, insects, cockroaches, rats and mice, the list is virtually endless. Unfortunately, there isn't one method that will rid a home of all of these.

Prevention isn't a fool proof plan, sometimes critters are inevitable, but this can reduce the problem and help keep it under control. The most important step is to keep your home clean. As for rodent control, rats and mice like dark, cluttered hiding places, making messy closets and under the bed prime living quarters. For bugs as well, a clean home can really make a difference. Keeping up on vacuuming and dusting can keep rid of bugs that will live in the carpet or on curtains. Then there is also bug spray. Regularly spraying your house to block out insects will reduce the appearance of spiders and other tiny insects.

It can be difficult to stay rid of insects and rodents; however, there are several methods of pest control for various types of pests. Knowing what is living in your home is the key to getting rid of them.

Kill Ants

Pest Control for Mice - Getting Rid Of Mice

A crop duster applies low-insecticide bait that is targeted against western corn rootworms.

Pest control refers to the regulation or management of a species defined as a pest, and can be perceived to be detrimental to a person's health, the ecology or the economy. A practitioner of pest control is called an exterminator.

Pest control is at least as old as agriculture, as there has always been a need to keep crops free from pests. In order to maximize food production, it is advantageous to protect crops from competing species of plants, as well as from herbivores competing with humans.

The conventional approach was probably the first to be employed, since it is comparatively easy to destroy weeds by burning them or plowing them under, and to kill larger competing herbivores, such as crows and other birds eating seeds. Techniques such as crop rotation, companion planting (also known as intercropping or mixed cropping), and the selective breeding of pest-resistant cultivars have a long history.

In the UK, following concern about animal welfare, humane pest control and deterrence is gaining ground through the use of animal psychology rather than destruction. For instance, with the urban red fox which territorial behaviour is used against the animal, usually in conjunction with non-injurious chemical repellents. In rural areas of Britain, the use of firearms for pest control is quite common. Airguns are particularly popular for control of small pests such as rats, rabbits and grey squirrels, because of their lower power they can be used in more restrictive spaces such as gardens, where using a firearm would be unsafe.

Chemical pesticides date back 4,500 years, when the Sumerians used sulfur compounds as insecticides. The Rig Veda, which is about 4,000 years old, also mentions the use of poisonous plants for pest control. It was only with the industrialization and mechanization of agriculture in the 18th and 19th century, and the introduction of the insecticides pyrethrum and derris that chemical pest control became widespread. In the 20th century, the discovery of several synthetic insecticides, such as DDT, and herbicides boosted this development. Chemical pest control is still the predominant type of pest control today, although its long-term effects led to a renewed interest in traditional and biological pest control towards the end of the 20th century.

Sign in Ilfracombe, England designed to help control seagull presence

Many pests have only become a problem as a result of the direct actions by humans. Modifying these actions can often substantially reduce the pest problem. In the United States, raccoons caused a nuisance by tearing open refuse sacks. Many householders introduced bins with locking lids, which deterred the raccoons from visiting. House flies tend to accumulate wherever there is human activity and live in close association with people all over the world[1][2] especially where food or food waste is exposed. Similarly, seagulls have become pests at many seaside resorts. Tourists would often feed the birds with scraps of fish and chips, and before long, the birds would rely on this food source and act aggressively towards humans.

Living organisms evolve and increase their resistance to biological, chemical, physical or any other form of control. Unless the target population is completely exterminated or is rendered incapable of reproduction, the surviving population will inevitably acquire a tolerance of whatever pressures are brought to bear - this results in an evolutionary arms race.

Perhaps as far ago as 3000BC in Egypt, cats were being used to control pests of grain stores such as rodents. In 1939/40 a survey discovered that cats could keep a farm's population of rats down to a low level, but could not eliminate them completely. However, if the rats were cleared by trapping or poisoning, farm cats could stop them returning - at least from an area of 50 yards around a barn.[3][4]

Ferrets were domesticated at least by 500 AD in Europe, being used as mousers. Mongooses have been introduced into homes to control rodents and snakes, probably at first by the ancient Egyptians.[5]

Main article: Biological pest control

Biological pest control is the control of one through the control and management of natural predators and parasites. For example: mosquitoes are often controlled by putting Bt Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis, a bacterium that infects and kills mosquito larvae, in local water sources. The treatment has no known negative consequences on the remaining ecology and is safe for humans to drink. The point of biological pest control, or any natural pest control, is to eliminate a pest with minimal harm to the ecological balance of the environment in its present form.[6]

Main article: Mechanical pest control

Mechanical pest control is the use of hands-on techniques as well as simple equipment and devices, that provides a protective barrier between plants and insects. For example: weeds can be controlled by being physically removed from the ground. This is referred to as tillage and is one of the oldest methods of weed control.

Main article: Physical pest control Dog control van, Rekong Peo, Himachal Pradesh, India

Physical pest control is a method of getting rid of insects and small rodents by removing, attacking, setting up barriers that will prevent further destruction of one's plants, or forcing insect infestations to become visual.

Proper waste management and drainage of still water, eliminates the breeding ground of many pests.

Garbage provides food and shelter for many unwanted organisms, as well as an area where still water might collect and be used as a breeding ground by mosquitoes. Communities that have proper garbage collection and disposal, have far less of a problem with rats, cockroaches, mosquitoes, flies and other pests than those that don't.

Open air sewers are ample breeding ground for various pests as well. By building and maintaining a proper sewer system, this problem is eliminated.

Certain spectrums of LED light can "disrupt insects’ breeding".[7]

Poisoned bait is a common method for controlling rat populations, however is not as effective when there are other food sources around, such as garbage. Poisoned meats have been used for centuries for killing off wolves, birds that were seen to threaten crops, and against other creatures. This can be a problem, since a carcass which has been poisoned will kill not only the targeted animal, but also every other animal which feeds on the carcass. Humans have also been killed by coming in contact with poisoned meat, or by eating an animal which had fed on a poisoned carcass. This tool is also used to manage several caterpillars e.g. Spodoptera litura, fruit flies, snails and slugs, crabs etc.

Traditionally, after a sugar cane harvest, the fields are all burned, to kill off any rodents, insects or eggs that might be in the fields.[8]

Historically, in some European countries, when stray dogs and cats became too numerous, local populations gathered together to round up all animals that did not appear to have an owner and kill them.[9] In some nations, teams of rat-catchers work at chasing rats from the field, and killing them with dogs and simple hand tools. Some communities have in the past employed a bounty system, where a town clerk will pay a set fee for every rat head brought in as proof of a rat killing.

In Texas, the Wild Hog population has grown out of control and hunting is the most commonly used way to remove them.

A trap crop is a plant that attracts pests, diverting them from other crops in an agricultural field.[10] This leads to pest aggregation on the trap crop, where they can be more easily and cost effectively controlled using pesticides or control methods.[11] However, trap-cropping, on its own, has often failed to cost effectively reduce pest densities on large commercial scales, without the use of pesticides, possibly due to the pests ability to disperse back into the main field.[11]

Unlike trap crops, most traps used to control pests are man made, and used by rat catchers. A variety of mouse traps and rat traps are available for mice and rats, including snap traps, glue traps and live catch traps. Sticky traps, which often include pheromones to attract the pest, are also a common way of controlling many moth pests, such as Indian mealmoths.

Rodent bait station, Chennai, India

Spraying pesticides by planes, trucks or by hand is a common method of pest control. Crop dusters commonly fly over farmland and spray pesticides to kill off pests that would threaten the crops. However, some pesticides may cause cancer and other health problems, as well as harming wildlife.[12]

A project that involves a structure be covered or sealed airtight followed by the introduction of a penetrating, deadly gas at a killing concentration a long period of time (24-72hrs.). Although expensive, space fumigation targets all life stages of pests.[13]

Residential & commercial building pest control service vehicle, Ypsilanti Township, Michigan

A long term project involving fogging or misting type applicators. Liquid insecticide is dispersed in the atmosphere within a structure. Treatments do not require the evacuation or airtight sealing of a building, allowing most work within the building to continue but at the cost of the penetrating effects. Contact insecticides are generally used, minimizing the long lasting residual effects. On August 10, 1973, the Federal Register printed the definition of Space treatment as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):[13]

Laboratory studies conducted with U-5897 (3-chloro-1,2-propanediol) were attempted in the early 1970s although these proved unsuccessful.[14] Research into sterilization bait is ongoing.

In 2013, New York City tested sterilization traps in a $1.1 million study.[15] The result was a 43% reduction in rat populations.[15] The Chicago Transit Authority plans to test sterilization control in spring 2015.[15] The sterilization method doesn't poison the rats or humans.[15] The product ContraPest was approved for the sterilization of rodents by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in August 2016.[16]

Forest services sometimes destroy all the trees in an area where some are infected with insects, if seen as necessary to prevent the insect species from spreading. Farms infested with certain insects, have been burned entirely, to prevent the pest from spreading elsewhere.

Example of Brown rat infestation

Several wildlife rehabilitation organizations encourage natural form of rodent control through exclusion and predator support and preventing secondary poisoning altogether.[17]

The United States Environmental Protection Agency agrees, noting in its Proposed Risk Mitigation Decision for Nine Rodenticides that “without habitat modification to make areas less attractive to commensal rodents, even eradication will not prevent new populations from recolonizing the habitat.”[18]

The United States Environmental Protection Agency has also prescribed guidelines for natural rodent control[19] as well as for safely trapping them in residential areas and releasing them in the wild[20].

Lake Isabella

Pesticide


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Arvin Ant Exterminator

Pest control in Arvin for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Kill Ants

Arvin Pest Control For Rodents

Exterminator may refer to:

Bed Bug Infestation

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Nobody likes uninvited guests in their home and as the weather warms up you’ll be seeing more of them Ants, roaches, spiders, stinkbugs, in-laws Alright, you might be on your own for that last one but for the pests in your life with more than four legs try using Ortho Home Defense Ortho home defense can be used against a variety of insects, both indoors and outdoors Spray home defense around door and windows, along baseboards and behind appliances It also works great in garages and basements basically any major entry point, even your dryer exhaust Spray around the windows and siding on the southern and western sides of your home This is where stinkbugs generally enter, since it’s the warmest Home Defense doesn’t stain or smell, and will control insects for a period of up to 12 months Just spray until wet, it doesn’t need to bead or puddle up Keep pets & children out of the treated area until it’s dry, about 1-2 hours If you have any more questions about pest control stop in to your local Valu Home Centers, and talk to one of our knowledgeable associates You're not bugging em, trust me And if you need any tools, supplies, or more, we’ve got you covered.

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5 Pest Control Myths


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Tehachapi Rat Infestation

Pest control in Tehachapi for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Bed Bug Infestation

Tehachapi Pest Control For Rodents

When it comes to pest control, you can spend all sorts of money hiring exterminators or buying smelly (and often toxic) sprays and chemicals for your home, but in some cases, you may not need to go to such extremes. There are a lot of completely natural insect and pest control remedies out there, many of which our ancestors have been using with great success for countless generations. You'll be pleased to know that many of these useful items can be found in the average household.

Though pest control can refer to dealing with pest birds, bugs, and rodents, this article will focus on getting rid of insects.

Insect Control in the Garden

Believe it or not, aluminum foil can successfully keep hungry insects and slugs away from your vegetable garden. Simply mix strips of aluminum foil in with your garden mulch to deter bugs and slugs. In addition, since foil is reflective, it will shine light back up onto your plants, giving them a solar boost.

Another household item good at getting rid of insects is vinegar. For example, if your latest trip to the farmers' market brought back fruit flies as well as healthy victuals, then you can make traps for the flies by filling an old jar about halfway full with apple cider vinegar. Punch a few holes in the top, screw it back on, and the fruit flies will be attracted and trapped.

These are just a few of the easy ways to use simple household items to get rid of insects. So when you're having a problem, don't be so eager to pick up a can of chemical-filled bug spray. Look for natural solutions, and you will very likely find them!

Rat Infestation

Integrated pest management

The application of pest control ranges from do-it-yourself arrangements to
scientific and very precise deployment of chemicals and predatory insects by
highly skilled practitioners. Despite the fact that pest control is a world-wide
industry it is still dominated by family or 1-person businesses. Those that need
to control pests range from householders to
large scale agri-conglomerates who need to maximise their yield. In between
these two are restaurants, bars, food production facilities, farmers - in fact,
anybody that routinely deals with food. Pest control can make us more
comfortable - but can also save lives.

The word pest is subjective as one man's pest may be another man's
helper. For instance, pest A may be a threat to crop A, and pest B a threat to
crop B. However, if pest B is a natural predator to pest A, then the farmer who
wishes to protect crop A may cultivate and release pest B amongst his crops.
There is a theory that without man's intervention in the food chain through
agriculture, hunting and long distance travel there would be no pests. The
theory continues that man's intervention (for instance, in cultivating and
releasing pest B, or in carrying creatures long distances) has upset the balance
of the food chain, producing instability in insect and other animal numbers and
distorting their evolution. This instability has led to over-population of a
given
species with the result that they have become pests. Having said this, if we assume that the very first fly swat was the first
instance of pest control - and we know that large animals swat flies - it could be
argued that pest control dates back way before humans came on the scene.

At this point pest control was carried out by farmers and some householders
as an everyday activity. By the early nineteenth century however, this changed
as studies and writings started to appear that treated pest control as a
separate discipline. Increasing use of intensive and large scale farming brought
matching increases in the intensity and scale of pest scares such as the
disastrous potato famine in Ireland in 1840. Pest control management was scaled
up to meet these demands, to the point that dedicated pest controllers began to
emerge throughout the 20th century.

In 1921 the first crop-spraying aeroplane was employed and in 1962 flying insect control was revolutionized when Insect-o-cutor started selling fly killer
machines using ultra violet lamps.

Pest control is still carried out by farmers and householders to this day.
There are also pest control specialists (sometimes called pesties); many
are one-person businesses and others work for large companies. In most countries
the pest control industry has been dogged by a few bad practitioners who have
tarnished the reputation for the highly professional and responsible majority.

One thing is for certain, from way before the Sumerians of 2500BC to us in modern times, there have always been - and probably always will be - pests (including some human ones!). Thank goodness, therefore, that we have pest controllers.

Tehachapi

Bird control


California Treatment For Bed Bugs

Oildale Getting Rid Of Rats

Pest control in Oildale for rodents can be very hard to treat when dealing with an infestation that has been left to feast for many weeks or even months.

Most of the infestations I have attended over the years are normally at the later stages, and this normally means applying a baiting regimen. Baiting regimen consist of visiting the infestation in question and placing a bait in the rodent active areas. The bait itself kills the rodents and allows the engineer to monitor the activity which in turns helps the engineer to find the size of the infestations and most of all how the rats, mice or squirrels have entered your property in the first place.

Bug Service

Oildale Pest Control For Rodents

Pest Control Marketing Video.

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Pesticides

How Rodents Can Make Your Home An Unhealthy Place

  (Redirected from Pesticide control) A crop-duster spraying pesticide on a field A Lite-Trac four-wheeled self-propelled crop sprayer spraying pesticide on a field

Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests or weeds.[1] The term pesticide includes all of the following: herbicide, insecticide, insect growth regulator, nematicide, termiticide, molluscicide, piscicide, avicide, rodenticide, predacide, bactericide, insect repellent, animal repellent, antimicrobial, fungicide, disinfectant (antimicrobial), and sanitizer.[2] The most common of these are herbicides which account for approximately 80% of all pesticide use.[3] Most pesticides are intended to serve as plant protection products (also known as crop protection products), which in general, protect plants from weeds, fungi, or insects.

In general, a pesticide is a chemical or biological agent (such as a virus, bacterium, antimicrobial, or disinfectant) that deters, incapacitates, kills, or otherwise discourages pests. Target pests can include insects, plant pathogens, weeds, molluscs, birds, mammals, fish, nematodes (roundworms), and microbes that destroy property, cause nuisance, or spread disease, or are disease vectors. Although pesticides have benefits, some also have drawbacks, such as potential toxicity to humans and other species. According to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, 9 of the 12 most dangerous and persistent organic chemicals are organochlorine pesticides.[4][5]

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has defined pesticide as:

any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or controlling any pest, including vectors of human or animal disease, unwanted species of plants or animals, causing harm during or otherwise interfering with the production, processing, storage, transport, or marketing of food, agricultural commodities, wood and wood products or animal feedstuffs, or substances that may be administered to animals for the control of insects, arachnids, or other pests in or on their bodies. The term includes substances intended for use as a plant growth regulator, defoliant, desiccant, or agent for thinning fruit or preventing the premature fall of fruit. Also used as substances applied to crops either before or after harvest to protect the commodity from deterioration during storage and transport.[6]

Pesticides can be classified by target organism (e.g., herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, rodenticides, and pediculicides[5][7] - see table), chemical structure (e.g., organic, inorganic, synthetic, or biological (biopesticide),[8] although the distinction can sometimes blur), and physical state (e.g. gaseous (fumigant)).[8]Biopesticides include microbial pesticides and biochemical pesticides.[9] Plant-derived pesticides, or "botanicals", have been developing quickly. These include the pyrethroids, rotenoids, nicotinoids, and a fourth group that includes strychnine and scilliroside.[10]:15

Many pesticides can be grouped into chemical families. Prominent insecticide families include organochlorines, organophosphates, and carbamates. Organochlorine hydrocarbons (e.g., DDT) could be separated into dichlorodiphenylethanes, cyclodiene compounds, and other related compounds. They operate by disrupting the sodium/potassium balance of the nerve fiber, forcing the nerve to transmit continuously. Their toxicities vary greatly, but they have been phased out because of their persistence and potential to bioaccumulate.[10]:239–240Organophosphate and carbamates largely replaced organochlorines. Both operate through inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, allowing acetylcholine to transfer nerve impulses indefinitely and causing a variety of symptoms such as weakness or paralysis. Organophosphates are quite toxic to vertebrates, and have in some cases been replaced by less toxic carbamates.[10]:136–137 Thiocarbamate and dithiocarbamates are subclasses of carbamates. Prominent families of herbicides include phenoxy and benzoic acid herbicides (e.g. 2,4-D), triazines (e.g., atrazine), ureas (e.g., diuron), and Chloroacetanilides (e.g., alachlor). Phenoxy compounds tend to selectively kill broad-leaf weeds rather than grasses. The phenoxy and benzoic acid herbicides function similar to plant growth hormones, and grow cells without normal cell division, crushing the plant's nutrient transport system.[10]:300 Triazines interfere with photosynthesis.[10]:335 Many commonly used pesticides are not included in these families, including glyphosate.

Pesticides can be classified based upon their biological mechanism function or application method. Most pesticides work by poisoning pests.[11] A systemic pesticide moves inside a plant following absorption by the plant. With insecticides and most fungicides, this movement is usually upward (through the xylem) and outward. Increased efficiency may be a result. Systemic insecticides, which poison pollen and nectar in the flowers, may kill bees and other needed pollinators[citation needed].

In 2009, the development of a new class of fungicides called paldoxins was announced. These work by taking advantage of natural defense chemicals released by plants called phytoalexins, which fungi then detoxify using enzymes. The paldoxins inhibit the fungi's detoxification enzymes. They are believed to be safer and greener.[12]

Pesticides are used to control organisms that are considered to be harmful.[13] For example, they are used to kill mosquitoes that can transmit potentially deadly diseases like West Nile virus, yellow fever, and malaria. They can also kill bees, wasps or ants that can cause allergic reactions. Insecticides can protect animals from illnesses that can be caused by parasites such as fleas.[13] Pesticides can prevent sickness in humans that could be caused by moldy food or diseased produce. Herbicides can be used to clear roadside weeds, trees and brush. They can also kill invasive weeds that may cause environmental damage. Herbicides are commonly applied in ponds and lakes to control algae and plants such as water grasses that can interfere with activities like swimming and fishing and cause the water to look or smell unpleasant.[14] Uncontrolled pests such as termites and mold can damage structures such as houses.[13] Pesticides are used in grocery stores and food storage facilities to manage rodents and insects that infest food such as grain. Each use of a pesticide carries some associated risk. Proper pesticide use decreases these associated risks to a level deemed acceptable by pesticide regulatory agencies such as the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) of Canada.

DDT, sprayed on the walls of houses, is an organochlorine that has been used to fight malaria since the 1950s. Recent policy statements by the World Health Organization have given stronger support to this approach.[15] However, DDT and other organochlorine pesticides have been banned in most countries worldwide because of their persistence in the environment and human toxicity. DDT use is not always effective, as resistance to DDT was identified in Africa as early as 1955, and by 1972 nineteen species of mosquito worldwide were resistant to DDT.[16][17]

In 2006 and 2007, the world used approximately 2.4 megatonnes (5.3×109 lb) of pesticides, with herbicides constituting the biggest part of the world pesticide use at 40%, followed by insecticides (17%) and fungicides (10%). In 2006 and 2007 the U.S. used approximately 0.5 megatonnes (1.1×109 lb) of pesticides, accounting for 22% of the world total, including 857 million pounds (389 kt) of conventional pesticides, which are used in the agricultural sector (80% of conventional pesticide use) as well as the industrial, commercial, governmental and home & garden sectors.Pesticides are also found in majority of U.S. households with 78 million out of the 105.5 million households indicating that they use some form of pesticide.[18] As of 2007, there were more than 1,055 active ingredients registered as pesticides,[19] which yield over 20,000 pesticide products that are marketed in the United States.[20]

The US used some 1 kg (2.2 pounds) per hectare of arable land compared with: 4.7 kg in China, 1.3 kg in the UK, 0.1 kg in Cameroon, 5.9 kg in Japan and 2.5 kg in Italy. Insecticide use in the US has declined by more than half since 1980, (.6%/yr) mostly due to the near phase-out of organophosphates. In corn fields, the decline was even steeper, due to the switchover to transgenic Bt corn.[21]

For the global market of crop protection products, market analysts forecast revenues of over 52 billion US$ in 2019.[22]

Pesticides can save farmers' money by preventing crop losses to insects and other pests; in the U.S., farmers get an estimated fourfold return on money they spend on pesticides.[23] One study found that not using pesticides reduced crop yields by about 10%.[24] Another study, conducted in 1999, found that a ban on pesticides in the United States may result in a rise of food prices, loss of jobs, and an increase in world hunger.[25]

There are two levels of benefits for pesticide use, primary and secondary. Primary benefits are direct gains from the use of pesticides and secondary benefits are effects that are more long-term.[26]

  1. Controlling pests and plant disease vectors
  2. Controlling human/livestock disease vectors and nuisance organisms
  3. Controlling organisms that harm other human activities and structures

Every dollar ($1) that is spent on pesticides for crops yields four dollars ($4) in crops saved.[27] This means based that, on the amount of money spent per year on pesticides, $10 billion, there is an additional $40 billion savings in crop that would be lost due to damage by insects and weeds. In general, farmers benefit from having an increase in crop yield and from being able to grow a variety of crops throughout the year. Consumers of agricultural products also benefit from being able to afford the vast quantities of produce available year-round.[26] The general public also benefits from the use of pesticides for the control of insect-borne diseases and illnesses, such as malaria.[26] The use of pesticides creates a large job market within the agrichemical sector.

On the cost side of pesticide use there can be costs to the environment, costs to human health,[28] as well as costs of the development and research of new pesticides.

A sign warning about potential pesticide exposure.

Pesticides may cause acute and delayed health effects in people who are exposed.[29] Pesticide exposure can cause a variety of adverse health effects, ranging from simple irritation of the skin and eyes to more severe effects such as affecting the nervous system, mimicking hormones causing reproductive problems, and also causing cancer.[30] A 2007 systematic review found that "most studies on non-Hodgkin lymphoma and leukemia showed positive associations with pesticide exposure" and thus concluded that cosmetic use of pesticides should be decreased.[31] There is substantial evidence of associations between organophosphate insecticide exposures and neurobehavioral alterations.[32][33][34][35] Limited evidence also exists for other negative outcomes from pesticide exposure including neurological, birth defects, and fetal death.[36]

The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends limiting exposure of children to pesticides and using safer alternatives:[37]

The World Health Organization and the UN Environment Programme estimate that each year, 3 million workers in agriculture in the developing world experience severe poisoning from pesticides, about 18,000 of whom die.[38] Owing to inadequate regulation and safety precautions, 99% of pesticide related deaths occur in developing countries that account for only 25% of pesticide usage.[39] According to one study, as many as 25 million workers in developing countries may suffer mild pesticide poisoning yearly.[40] There are several careers aside from agriculture that may also put individuals at risk of health effects from pesticide exposure including pet groomers, groundskeepers, and fumigators.[41]

One study found pesticide self-poisoning the method of choice in one third of suicides worldwide, and recommended, among other things, more restrictions on the types of pesticides that are most harmful to humans.[42]

A 2014 epidemiological review found associations between autism and exposure to certain pesticides, but noted that the available evidence was insufficient to conclude that the relationship was causal.[43]

Main article: Environmental effects of pesticides

Pesticide use raises a number of environmental concerns. Over 98% of sprayed insecticides and 95% of herbicides reach a destination other than their target species, including non-target species, air, water and soil.[38]Pesticide drift occurs when pesticides suspended in the air as particles are carried by wind to other areas, potentially contaminating them. Pesticides are one of the causes of water pollution, and some pesticides are persistent organic pollutants and contribute to soil contamination.

In addition, pesticide use reduces biodiversity, contributes to pollinator decline,[44] destroys habitat (especially for birds),[45] and threatens endangered species.[38]
Pests can develop a resistance to the pesticide (pesticide resistance), necessitating a new pesticide. Alternatively a greater dose of the pesticide can be used to counteract the resistance, although this will cause a worsening of the ambient pollution problem.

Since chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides dissolve in fats and are not excreted, organisms tend to retain them almost indefinitely. Biological magnification is the process whereby these chlorinated hydrocarbons (pesticides) are more concentrated at each level of the food chain. Among marine animals, pesticide concentrations are higher in carnivorous fishes, and even more so in the fish-eating birds and mammals at the top of the ecological pyramid.[46]Global distillation is the process whereby pesticides are transported from warmer to colder regions of the Earth, in particular the Poles and mountain tops. Pesticides that evaporate into the atmosphere at relatively high temperature can be carried considerable distances (thousands of kilometers) by the wind to an area of lower temperature, where they condense and are carried back to the ground in rain or snow.[47]

In order to reduce negative impacts, it is desirable that pesticides be degradable or at least quickly deactivated in the environment. Such loss of activity or toxicity of pesticides is due to both innate chemical properties of the compounds and environmental processes or conditions.[48] For example, the presence of halogens within a chemical structure often slows down degradation in an aerobic environment.[49]Adsorption to soil may retard pesticide movement, but also may reduce bioavailability to microbial degraders.[50]

Human health and environmental cost from pesticides in the United States is estimated at $9.6 billion offset by about $40 billion in increased agricultural production:[51]

Additional costs include the registration process and the cost of purchasing pesticides. The registration process can take several years to complete (there are 70 different types of field test) and can cost $50–70 million for a single pesticide.[51] Annually the United States spends $10 billion on pesticides.[51]

Alternatives to pesticides are available and include methods of cultivation, use of biological pest controls (such as pheromones and microbial pesticides), genetic engineering, and methods of interfering with insect breeding.[38] Application of composted yard waste has also been used as a way of controlling pests.[52] These methods are becoming increasingly popular and often are safer than traditional chemical pesticides. In addition, EPA is registering reduced-risk conventional pesticides in increasing numbers.

Cultivation practices include polyculture (growing multiple types of plants), crop rotation, planting crops in areas where the pests that damage them do not live, timing planting according to when pests will be least problematic, and use of trap crops that attract pests away from the real crop.[38] Trap crops have successfully controlled pests in some commercial agricultural systems while reducing pesticide usage;[53] however, in many other systems, trap crops can fail to reduce pest densities at a commercial scale, even when the trap crop works in controlled experiments.[54] In the U.S., farmers have had success controlling insects by spraying with hot water at a cost that is about the same as pesticide spraying.[38][unreliable source?]

Release of other organisms that fight the pest is another example of an alternative to pesticide use. These organisms can include natural predators or parasites of the pests.[38]Biological pesticides based on entomopathogenic fungi, bacteria and viruses cause disease in the pest species can also be used.[38]

Interfering with insects' reproduction can be accomplished by sterilizing males of the target species and releasing them, so that they mate with females but do not produce offspring.[38] This technique was first used on the screwworm fly in 1958 and has since been used with the medfly, the tsetse fly,[55] and the gypsy moth.[56] However, this can be a costly, time consuming approach that only works on some types of insects.[38]

Agroecology emphasize nutrient recycling, use of locally available and renewable resources, adaptation to local conditions, utilization of microenvironments, reliance on indigenous knowledge and yield maximization while maintaining soil productivity.[57] Agroecology also emphasizes empowering people and local communities to contribute to development, and encouraging “multi-directional” communications rather than the conventional “top-down” method.

Main article: Push–pull technology

The term "push-pull" was established in 1987 as an approach for integrated pest management (IPM). This strategy uses a mixture of behavior-modifying stimuli to manipulate the distribution and abundance of insects. "Push" means the insects are repelled or deterred away from whatever resource that is being protected. "Pull" means that certain stimuli (semiochemical stimuli, pheromones, food additives, visual stimuli, genetically altered plants, etc.) are used to attract pests to trap crops where they will be killed.[58] There are numerous different components involved in order to implement a Push-Pull Strategy in IPM.

Many case studies testing the effectiveness of the push-pull approach have been done across the world. The most successful push-pull strategy was developed in Africa for subsistence farming. Another successful case study was performed on the control of Helicoverpa in cotton crops in Australia. In Europe, the Middle East, and the United States, push-pull strategies were successfully used in the controlling of Sitona lineatus in bean fields.[58]

Some advantages of using the push-pull method are less use of chemical or biological materials and better protection against insect habituation to this control method. Some disadvantages of the push-pull strategy is that if there is a lack of appropriate knowledge of behavioral and chemical ecology of the host-pest interactions then this method becomes unreliable. Furthermore, because the push-pull method is not a very popular method of IPM operational and registration costs are higher.

Some evidence shows that alternatives to pesticides can be equally effective as the use of chemicals. For example, Sweden has halved its use of pesticides with hardly any reduction in crops.[38][unreliable source?] In Indonesia, farmers have reduced pesticide use on rice fields by 65% and experienced a 15% crop increase.[38][unreliable source?] A study of Maize fields in northern Florida found that the application of composted yard waste with high carbon to nitrogen ratio to agricultural fields was highly effective at reducing the population of plant-parasitic nematodes and increasing crop yield, with yield increases ranging from 10% to 212%; the observed effects were long-term, often not appearing until the third season of the study.[52]

However, pesticide resistance is increasing. In the 1940s, U.S. farmers lost only 7% of their crops to pests. Since the 1980s, loss has increased to 13%, even though more pesticides are being used.[dubious – discuss] Between 500 and 1,000 insect and weed species have developed pesticide resistance since 1945.[59][unreliable source?]

Pesticides are often referred to according to the type of pest they control. Pesticides can also be considered as either biodegradable pesticides, which will be broken down by microbes and other living beings into harmless compounds, or persistent pesticides, which may take months or years before they are broken down: it was the persistence of DDT, for example, which led to its accumulation in the food chain and its killing of birds of prey at the top of the food chain. Another way to think about pesticides is to consider those that are chemical pesticides or are derived from a common source or production method.[60]

Some examples of chemically-related pesticides are:

Neonicotinoids are a class of neuro-active insecticides chemically similar to nicotine. Imidacloprid, of the neonicotanoid family, is the most widely used insecticide in the world.[61] In the late 1990s neonicotinoids came under increasing scrutiny over their environmental impact and were linked in a range of studies to adverse ecological effects, including honey-bee colony collapse disorder (CCD) and loss of birds due to a reduction in insect populations. In 2013, the European Union and a few non EU countries restricted the use of certain neonicotinoids.[62][63]

Organophosphates affect the nervous system by disrupting acetylcholinesterase activity, the enzyme that regulates acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter. Most organophosphates are insecticides. They were developed during the early 19th century, but their effects on insects, which are similar to their effects on humans, were discovered in 1932.[citation needed] Some are very poisonous. However, they usually are not persistent in the environment.

Carbamate pesticides affect the nervous system by disrupting an enzyme that regulates acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter. The enzyme effects are usually reversible. There are several subgroups within the carbamates.[citation needed]

They were commonly used in the past, but many have been removed from the market due to their health and environmental effects and their persistence (e.g., DDT, chlordane, and toxaphene).[citation needed]

They were developed as a synthetic version of the naturally occurring pesticide pyrethrin, which is found in chrysanthemums. They have been modified to increase their stability in the environment. Some synthetic pyrethroids are toxic to the nervous system.[citation needed]

The following sulfonylureas have been commercialized for weed control: amidosulfuron, azimsulfuron, bensulfuron-methyl, chlorimuron-ethyl, ethoxysulfuron, flazasulfuron, flupyrsulfuron-methyl-sodium, halosulfuron-methyl, imazosulfuron, nicosulfuron, oxasulfuron, primisulfuron-methyl, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, rimsulfuron, sulfometuron-methyl Sulfosulfuron, terbacil, bispyribac-sodium, cyclosulfamuron, and pyrithiobac-sodium.[64] Nicosulfuron,[65] triflusulfuron methyl,[66] and chlorsulfuron are broad-spectrum herbicides that kill plants weeds or pests by inhibiting the enzyme acetolactate synthase. In the 1960s, more than 1 kg/ha (0.89 lb/acre) crop protection chemical was typically applied, while sulfonylureates allow as little as 1% as much material to achieve the same effect.[67]

Main article: Biopesticide

Biopesticides are certain types of pesticides derived from such natural materials as animals, plants, bacteria, and certain minerals. For example, canola oil and baking soda have pesticidal applications and are considered biopesticides. Biopesticides fall into three major classes:

Pesticides that are related to the type of pests are:

The term pesticide also include these substances:

Defoliants : Cause leaves or other foliage to drop from a plant, usually to facilitate harvest.
Desiccants : Promote drying of living tissues, such as unwanted plant tops.
Insect growth regulators : Disrupt the molting, maturity from pupal stage to adult, or other life processes of insects.
Plant growth regulators : Substances (excluding fertilizers or other plant nutrients) that alter the expected growth, flowering, or reproduction rate of plants.

In most countries,[which?] pesticides must be approved for sale and use by a government agency.[72]

In Europe, recent[when?] EU legislation has been approved banning the use of highly toxic pesticides including those that are carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction, those that are endocrine-disrupting, and those that are persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) or very persistent and very bioaccumulative (vPvB).[citation needed] Measures were approved to improve the general safety of pesticides across all EU member states.[73]

Though pesticide regulations differ from country to country, pesticides, and products on which they were used are traded across international borders. To deal with inconsistencies in regulations among countries, delegates to a conference of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization adopted an International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides in 1985 to create voluntary standards of pesticide regulation for different countries.[72] The Code was updated in 1998 and 2002.[74] The FAO claims that the code has raised awareness about pesticide hazards and decreased the number of countries without restrictions on pesticide use.[6]

Three other efforts to improve regulation of international pesticide trade are the United Nations London Guidelines for the Exchange of Information on Chemicals in International Trade and the United Nations Codex Alimentarius Commission.[citation needed] The former seeks to implement procedures for ensuring that prior informed consent exists between countries buying and selling pesticides, while the latter seeks to create uniform standards for maximum levels of pesticide residues among participating countries.[75] Both initiatives operate on a voluntary basis.[75]

Pesticides safety education and pesticide applicator regulation are designed to protect the public from pesticide misuse, but do not eliminate all misuse. Reducing the use of pesticides and choosing less toxic pesticides may reduce risks placed on society and the environment from pesticide use.[14]Integrated pest management, the use of multiple approaches to control pests, is becoming widespread and has been used with success in countries such as Indonesia, China, Bangladesh, the U.S., Australia, and Mexico.[38] IPM attempts to recognize the more widespread impacts of an action on an ecosystem, so that natural balances are not upset.[76] New pesticides are being developed, including biological and botanical derivatives and alternatives that are thought to reduce health and environmental risks. In addition, applicators are being encouraged to consider alternative controls and adopt methods that reduce the use of chemical pesticides.

Pesticides can be created that are targeted to a specific pest's lifecycle, which can be environmentally more friendly.[77] For example, potato cyst nematodes emerge from their protective cysts in response to a chemical excreted by potatoes; they feed on the potatoes and damage the crop.[77] A similar chemical can be applied to fields early, before the potatoes are planted, causing the nematodes to emerge early and starve in the absence of potatoes.[77]

Main article: Pesticide regulation in the United States Preparation for an application of hazardous herbicide in USA.

In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for regulating pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA).[78] Studies must be conducted to establish the conditions in which the material is safe to use and the effectiveness against the intended pest(s).[79] The EPA regulates pesticides to ensure that these products do not pose adverse effects to humans or the environment. Pesticides produced before November 1984 continue to be reassessed in order to meet the current scientific and regulatory standards. All registered pesticides are reviewed every 15 years to ensure they meet the proper standards.[78] During the registration process, a label is created. The label contains directions for proper use of the material in addition to safety restrictions. Based on acute toxicity, pesticides are assigned to a Toxicity Class.

Some pesticides are considered too hazardous for sale to the general public and are designated restricted use pesticides. Only certified applicators, who have passed an exam, may purchase or supervise the application of restricted use pesticides.[72] Records of sales and use are required to be maintained and may be audited by government agencies charged with the enforcement of pesticide regulations.[80][81] These records must be made available to employees and state or territorial environmental regulatory agencies.[82][83]

The EPA regulates pesticides under two main acts, both of which amended by the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. In addition to the EPA, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) set standards for the level of pesticide residue that is allowed on or in crops.[84] The EPA looks at what the potential human health and environmental effects might be associated with the use of the pesticide.[85]

In addition, the U.S. EPA uses the National Research Council's four-step process for human health risk assessment: (1) Hazard Identification, (2) Dose-Response Assessment, (3) Exposure Assessment, and (4) Risk Characterization.[86]

Recently Kaua'i County (Hawai'i) passed Bill No. 2491 to add an article to Chapter 22 of the county's code relating to pesticides and GMOs. The bill strengthens protections of local communities in Kaua'i where many large pesticide companies test their products.[87]

Since before 2000 BC, humans have utilized pesticides to protect their crops. The first known pesticide was elemental sulfur dusting used in ancient Sumer about 4,500 years ago in ancient Mesopotamia. The Rig Veda, which is about 4,000 years old, mentions the use of poisonous plants for pest control.[88] By the 15th century, toxic chemicals such as arsenic, mercury, and lead were being applied to crops to kill pests. In the 17th century, nicotine sulfate was extracted from tobacco leaves for use as an insecticide. The 19th century saw the introduction of two more natural pesticides, pyrethrum, which is derived from chrysanthemums, and rotenone, which is derived from the roots of tropical vegetables.[89] Until the 1950s, arsenic-based pesticides were dominant.[90]Paul Müller discovered that DDT was a very effective insecticide. Organochlorines such as DDT were dominant, but they were replaced in the U.S. by organophosphates and carbamates by 1975. Since then, pyrethrin compounds have become the dominant insecticide.[90] Herbicides became common in the 1960s, led by "triazine and other nitrogen-based compounds, carboxylic acids such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and glyphosate".[90]

The first legislation providing federal authority for regulating pesticides was enacted in 1910;[91] however, decades later during the 1940s manufacturers began to produce large amounts of synthetic pesticides and their use became widespread.[76] Some sources consider the 1940s and 1950s to have been the start of the "pesticide era."[92] Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was established in 1970 and amendments to the pesticide law in 1972,[91] pesticide use has increased 50-fold since 1950 and 2.3 million tonnes (2.5 million short tons) of industrial pesticides are now[when?] used each year.[89] Seventy-five percent of all pesticides in the world are used in developed countries, but use in developing countries is increasing.[38] A study of USA pesticide use trends through 1997 was published in 2003 by the National Science Foundation's Center for Integrated Pest Management.[90][93]

In the 1960s, it was discovered that DDT was preventing many fish-eating birds from reproducing, which was a serious threat to biodiversity. Rachel Carson wrote the best-selling book Silent Spring about biological magnification. The agricultural use of DDT is now banned under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, but it is still used in some developing nations to prevent malaria and other tropical diseases by spraying on interior walls to kill or repel mosquitoes.[94]

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